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Characterizing long term leaching behaviour of copper from preservative treated wood in a practical exposure scenario
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50278
To investigate the prediction of the long term emission of copper from preservative treated wood in a Use Class Class 3 scenario, treated boards were exposed vertically above ground to natural weather conditions. The study included two products; an amine copper ACQ-type formulation, air-dried after treatment to a 22 kg/m3 retention, and the same formulation which was hot oil vacuum dried after tre...
T Mark Venås, M Klamer


Properties of hot oil treated wood and the possible chemical reactions between wood and soybean oil during heat treatment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40304
Thermal treatment with hot oil as the heating media based on the original idea from oil-heat treatment in Germany was investigated. The treatment was mainly carried out at 200ºC and 220ºC for 2 hours and 4 hours, and the wood species were mainly spruce and fir. This paper focuses on the difference between soybean oil and palm oil and the possible chemical reactions between wood and soybean oil. ...
Jieying Wang, P A Cooper


Biological resistance of wood treated with waterbased resins and drying oils in a mini-block test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40107
In recent years it was found that the resistance of wood against fungal degradation could be increased by impregnation with an etherificated melamine formaldehyde resin. Using this resin as a reference, a waterbased fatty acid modificated alkyd-resin and two drying-oils were assessed for their biological performance in a mini-block laboratory test. Although drying-oils, like linseed-oil, are often...
M Sailer, A O Rapp, R-D Peek


Screening of modified linseed oils on their applicability in wood protection
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30346
In this study modified linseed oils, rape oil and three waxes were screened on their efficacy as wood protecting agents. By testing all products when impregnated with high retentions in Scots Pine sapwood on water repellence qualities, additionally an accelerated weathering test, drying quality, accelerated brown rot and blue stain test, an indication is formed of the capability of these products ...
A Treu, J Lückers, H Militz


Assessment of the Envelope Effect of Three Hot Oil Treatments: Resistance to Decay by Coniophora puteana and Postia placenta
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40344
Timber of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) was treated in hot linseed oil, rapeseed oil and a proprietary resin derived from linseed oil. The samples were immersed in oil or resin under reduced pressure at temperatures of 180°C and 200°C. Very high uptakes of the oils or resin were recorded for pine, while spruce showed lower weight percent gains, below...
M J Spear, C A S Hill, S F Curling, D Jones, M D C Hale


Multilayer hot-press drying and chemical modifying of poplar wood with urea-formaldehyde prepolymer
2011 - IRG/WP 10-40539
The objective of this study was to determine the technology of chemical modifying and multilayer hot-press drying on poplar wood. The chemicals were impregnated into cell lumen space by pulse-dipping machine to improve the dimension stability and mechanical property of timber. The timbers were compressed and dried by the multilayer hot-press drying to increase the density of timber. Results indica...
Guofeng Wu, Yifei Jiang, Sheng Yao, Junwen


Tar-oil uptake vs time in immersion treatment of short pine posts: A simple technique applicable to rural communities of Papua New Guinea
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40608
Pinus caribaea and Araucaria cunninghamii logs ca. 100 mm in diameter were shortened to lengths 25-30 cm, conditioned to at/below fibre saturation point (FSP) for immersion/dip treatment using a hot- and- cold bath open- tank process. Before oven-drying and subsequent treatment, individual test specimens were numbered, their green weights and volumes, and dry weights recorded for basic density, vo...
B K Gusamo, R Tulo


Development of Wood Modification – High melting point wax and hot oil treatments
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40768
This study covers an introduction to the projects where new facilities were created for developing wood modification. In this new research environment it is possible to treat wood with versatile equipment. First modifications with this equipment are going to be done in high temperature and pressure using high melting point waxes and hot oils. Earlier studies, tests and commercial products show...
H Turunen, L Linkosalmi, J Peura, O Paajanen


Solvent drying and preservation of timber
1977 - IRG/WP 381
Processes which combine drying and preservation are first reviewed. Some preliminary experiments are then described in which blocks of green Sitka spruce sapwood were immersed, in a solution of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in methanol at 60°C. Satisfactory penetration of the preservative and exchange of methanol and water occurred in a few hours. The methanol was removed rapidly from the wood by evap...
J A Petty


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test....
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


Dimensional stability and decay resistance of hot-melt self-bonded particleboard by surface benzylated pine chips
1991 - IRG/WP 3652
Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc: Japanese red pine) particles were pretreated with 40% NaOH solution and benzylated with benzyl chloride, and the surface of particle was converted into meltable materials. Hot-melt self bonded particleboard having smooth and high glossiness surface was prepared by hot pressing at 150°C and 1.96 MPa without using any conventional adhesives. Dimensional sta...
M Kiguchi, K Yamamoto


Fire resistance of preservative treated fence posts
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30033
Pine fence posts were pressure treated separately with CCA-C, CCA-wax, CCA-oil and creosote. Treated posts and untreated controls were planted in the ground in a randomised block design, weathered for six months and then subjected to a controlled burning test using two fuel loads. Creosote treatment increased the time that posts were alight whereas CCA treatment had no such effect. However, CCA tr...
P D Evans, P J Beutel, C F Donnelly, R B Cunningham


Low temperature drying conditions of Pinus radiata wood for avoiding internal stain
1989 - IRG/WP 3507
It has been observed that, if in little sawmills, timber is dried with a low temperature schedule, it arrives at destination with internal sapstain besides of superficial mould. In this study, the lowest drying temperature at which wood should be exposed for sterilization, which results to be 52°C, is searched. It is not possible to avoid entrainment of pentachlorophenol, even though a waiting pe...
M C Rose


Pinus and Eucalyptus fenceposts treated with creosote and solvex tar by hot and cold open-tank process
1987 - IRG/WP 3455
A comparative study of the behaviour of two different wood preservatives, creosote and solvex-tar, was made, using two wood species, Pinus pinaster Ait and Eucalyptus globulus Labill, by the hot and cold open-tank process. Results showed that the creosote behaved better in relation with the uniformity of its distribution in wood. On the other hand, better results were obtained on Pinus for both pr...
M V Baonza Merino


Strength loss associated with steam conditioning and boron treatment of radiata pine framing
1987 - IRG/WP 3438
The combined effect of included defects and wood moisture content on the strength loss of second rotation radiata pine framing following conventional steam conditioning is investigated. The green Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) is reduced by approximately 13% after steaming. When dried after steaming, however, neither the MOE nor MOR is significantly different from unsteamed dried controls....
M J Collins, P Vinden


The use of pressure cycling to improve heartwood penetration in Pinus radiata (D. Don)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40050
This study investigates the effect of cycling pressure on the treatability of radiata pine heartwood. The results indicate that liquid penetration into the heartwood is affected by the preconditioning method used and pressure treatment time. There is no significant improvement in the penetration of Pinus radiata (D. Don) heartwood when a cycling or pulsation process is used....
P R S Cobham, P Vinden


The decay resistance of chemically modified aspen composites to the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quelet
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40122
Chemical modification of Aspen wood (Populus tremula L.) in the form of solid wood, veneers and sawdust was undertaken by a two step procedure consisting of esterification with maleic anhydride (MA) and subsequent oligoesterification with MA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) or allyl glycidyl ether (AGE). Modified wood was thermoplastic and was thermally formed by hot-pressing to produce veneer or s...
M C Timar, A J Pitman, M D Mihai


Problem of the treatment of dried sawn spruce building timbers with water-borne preservatives. Interim reports for discussion at the 4th Annual Meeting in West Berlin on 27 October 1972
1972 - IRG/WP 311
One of the most difficult technical problems facing the preservation industry is how to improve the treatment of refractory species of timber such as spruce. Its resistance to penetration, even under pressure' precludes its use for more hazardous service situations, and even in less severe conditions a higher level of treatment would be desirable. The importance of this subject led us to ...
W Liese, J W W Morgan, T Hof, R O Ullevålseter


Principles and procedure of the planeing test
1981 - IRG/WP 2162
Small end-sealed samples of pine-sapwood (1.5 x 2.5 x 5 cm³) are treated by brushing and afterwards different parts of the treated surface are removed. The remaining part of the sample is tested against either insects or fungi. If no attack occurs sufficient amounts of biocides have been penetrated at least beyond the zone which has been removed. In spite of some problems the test seems the only ...
H Willeitner, M Gersonde


Inspection results of preservative treated stakes, maximum 33 years in field
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3690
Since in 1958, we have undertaken field experiments in Japan. For these field experiments, we used sapwoods of Japanese cedar called Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) because of majority of plantation forest soft wood species in Japan. For some preservatives, we added sapwood of Japanese beech called Buna (Fagus crenata), a main Japanese hard wood species. Dimensions of these specimens were 30 x 30 x 60...
K Suzuki, K Yamamoto, M Inoue, S Matsuoka


An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative....
C R Coggins


Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results....
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada


Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slice...
A K Lahiry


A new ground-contact wide-spectrum organic wood preservative: DNBP
1986 - IRG/WP 3358
A new organic wood preservative, which 25 years field tests have proved to be of efficiency and effectiveness comparable to CCA wood preservatives for ground-contact applications, is presented. Physical and chemical tests, supporting the long term field test results as well as indicating the characteristics of this preservative, are also presented....
W E Conradie, A Pizzi


Spruce lumber treatments with ammoniacal solutions of inorganic preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 391
As a part of our work in the Wood Preservation group at the Eastern Forest Products Laboratory in Ottawa to facilitate exploitation of spruce, which is a large timber resource in Canada, we have been studying the treatability of spruce roundwood. A report on this subject was presented to this group last year. More recently, another commodity - spruce timber - has been rapidly gaining the interest ...
R Rak


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