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Depictions on Wood: Acceptation and Internalization of Wood, which is an intercultural interaction tool, as “A Valuable Object” (WoodLover Approach)
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40720
The charm, beauty, aesthetic value, easily processable structure of wood, which is a natural and organic material obtained from trees, possibility to be designed and constructed in desired form and style make it a material widely used for many purposes in our daily life as an indispensable part of our lives from past to present and make it a valuable object as it is an intercultural interaction tool between past and future. Through the human history, people in every culture ever have always considered the wood, which takes an important place in human life in the context of meeting most of needs in daily life, as an important material for themselves. Being a valuable asset from time immemorial to posteternity time in human life, wood is an exclusive material derived from trees by the grace of God and as an important means of cultural interaction, it became the companion and only friend of humanity during development of civilization by the realization of interaction following the commencement of communication between people. Being a reflection of nature, the wood, which is a derivative of tree, has specific characteristics thanks to its anatomical structure and chemical composition as well as physical properties and mechanical properties that make it a preferable and used valuable material and gives meaning to our lives. Thus, wood has been a passion for many people. This article aims to present the woodlover approach, which is not discussed in detail so far, a subjective matter almost never voiced and wood love phenomenon of which most of us are not even aware. The main focus of this article is the theme of “I am very proud of being a woodlover”.
I Usta

A review of the configuration of bordered pits to stimulate the fluid flow
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40315
As the bordered pits have generally been thought to have an influence on the refractory nature of softwoods, structural behaviour of this conducting pathways is discussed according to the published literature. Various theories on the role of bordered pits to axial flow are expounded in respect to preservative treatment. Pit aspiration is also reviewed.
I Usta

Investigation into the heterogeneous nature of the impregnability of some poplar hybrids
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40052
Retention figures of some poplar hybrids are very heterogeneous when pressure impregnated. This makes it hard to prescribe impregnation processes for fast grown poplars that make it suitable for higher hazard uses. In order to gain fundamental knowledge in their variability in impregnation properties two trees were selected for a detailed investigation. Both trees originate from the same plantation and represent the genetically very similar clones Populus trichocarpa x deltoides 'Beaupre' and 'Boelare'. From the lower part of each stem a log was cut into over 80 samples measuring 5 x 5 x 100 cm³. After air-drying and conditioning they were CCA impregnated using a Lowry cycle. The mean retention levels for both trees are identical but their distribution in uptake figures is totally different. In the inner heart part of the 'Beaupre' tree the preservative liquid uptake of some samples was even lower than 90 kg/m³ while 'Boelare' samples at the corresponding location showed retentions of over 450 kg/m³. The differences in impregnation pattern are not related to the in-tree distribution of moisture content, density, radial/tangential sawing nor to the presence of tension wood. The hypothesis that parameters at the anatomical level affect the impregnability is examined and related to the specific type of heartwood present in poplar.
J Van Acker, M Stevens

The chemical nature of bis(tributyltin) oxide in Pinus sylvestris sapwood
1989 - IRG/WP 3508
Tributyltin compounds have been used for many years as wood preservatives. This study has provided, for the first time, an explanation for the previously reported dealkylation and/or volatilisation of the tributyltin species in, and from, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood. Thus, 119 Sn nuclear magnetic resonance studies have shown that, on impregnation into this timber, bis(tributyltin) oxide is rapidly converted to other tributyltin species, Bu3SnOX, and that these subsequently undergo disproportionation to Bu4Sn and Bu2Sn(OX)2 compounds. We have additionally demonstrated that Bu4Sn, so produced, is not substantive in Pinus sylvestris and is lost by volatilisation. Since the rate of disproportionation of the Bu3SnOX species should be dependent upon the nature of the X group, it should be possible to significantly affect, if not stop, this process by the use of alternative tributyltin fungicides, e.g. tris(tributyltin) phosphate or tributyltin methanesulphonate. However, tributyltin fungicides have been used successfully in wood preservation for at least 25 years. Therefore, it must be concluded that, even after disproportionation in timber, in service, sufficient preservative action is retained to prevent decay of wood under the conditions of natural exposure. Nevertheless, it is becoming evident from this work and from previous studies of the compatibility of tributyltin fungicides with synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, that, on chemical grounds, (Bu3Sn)2O should not be the preferred tributyltin preservative.
S J Blunden, R Hill

The dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) in nature and its history of introduction into buildings
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10300
For many years the True dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans (Wulf.: Fr.)Schroet.) has exclusively been found in buildings. That is why it is called the True dry rot fungus. The origin of the fungus has always been a mystery, but a wild ancestor must have occured. In the literature there is some information about finds of Serpula lacrymans in nature, however it is difficult to distinguish it from the closely related Serpula himantioides, so the identity of these finds are somewhat dubious. For example a specimen from 1896 kept in alcohol at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in Copenhagen and identified as Serpula lacrymans by the famous Danish mycologist Emil Rostrup proved to be Serpula himantioides on closer examination. A paper by Bagchee from 1954 reported finds of Serpula lacrymans in nature from the Himalayas in Northern India, and Cooke (1955) showed its occurrence on Mount Shasta in California, USA. Later Kotlaba (1992) revised 12 finds from nature of Serpula lacrymans from Bohemia and Moravia in the Czech Republic. We have visited all of these areas and either found Serpula lacrymans ourselves in nature or examined and confirmed dried herbarium specimens. During the last fifty years less than 20 collections have been made from these areas. The natural occurrence is believed to be limited by competeting species of fungi. Soil samples from the investigated areas have been analysed for their mineral content. Calcium was found in varying amounts but much less than in mortar infected by dry rot mycelium. Our theory concerning introduction of Serpula lacrymans into houses is that it did not occur until the 16th century. The explanation for this is that Danish and European houses prior to that period had been built entirely of wood, the so-called 'stavhus' and 'bulhus' (engl. transl. 'stave house' and 'bole house') and on stone foundations without mortar. Due to lack of timber a royal order prohibited the building of wooden houses. Instead studwork, bricks and mortar were introduced. About this time reports of severe dry rot attacks in houses began to occur in literature. So this is expected to be the period when the dry rot fungus first invaded the houses. It soon propagated strongly in the houses and spread from one house to another. Since then it has caused problems in houses whenever wood, mortar and moisture were combined.
J Bech-Andersen, S A Elborne

The nature of osmiophilic particles and their distribution during different stages of brown and white rot decay
1983 - IRG/WP 1213
The distribution of osmiophilic particles during the course of brown and white rot decay was investigated by applying transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods. It was found that it correlates with the brown and white rot pattern.The osmiophilic particles are produced by the fungus and are supposed to be wood rotting enzymes.
K Messner, H Stachelberger

On the nature of the tertiary wall in wood cells. Summary of lecture given at 9th Annual Meeting, Noordwijk-aan-Zee, Holland
1977 - IRG/WP 169
During recent discussions on the possible causes of failure of treated hardwood species by soft rot fungi, the uneven micro distribution of toxic components was found to be of importance; this might be attributed to a restricted diffusion of the preservative from the cell lumina into the cell wall.·In this context, the nature of the tertiary wall as the inner lining of wood cells merits special attention. In the following, the present knowledge concerning the wall layer is summarized.
W Liese

The antigenic nature of Serpula lacrymans
1991 - IRG/WP 1492
The molecular nature of Serpula lacrymans has been extensively analysed by SDS-PAGE and distinctive banding patterns have been demonstrated. To develop simpler methods for identification of the organism an immunological analysis of a variety of isolates of both Serpula lacrymans and a number of other wood decay basidiomycetes has been undertaken. Results indicate unique antigenic profiles for Serpula lacrymans isolates and indicate that identification by immunological methods is feasible though antisera produced using mycelial extracts as immunogens are highly cross reactive. The antigenic profile for the closely related organism, Serpula himantioides, was very similar to that of Serpula lacrymans. Further antigenic analysis of 1) the organism grown in a variety of media and 2) different morphological forms of the organism have indicated variability in the molecular nature of the major antigens expressed by Serpula lacrymans.
A Vigrow, H Glancy, J W Palfreyman, B King

Influence of the nature of the substrate and the method of inoculation on the degradative activity of soft rot fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20133
The European Standard (ENV-807) determines the threshold of effectiveness of wood preservatives against the action of soft rot Ascomycetes fungi. Its application in the treatment of wood used in the hazard class 4 does not always offer repeatable results, which could be expected in an experimental norm. For this reason, in this paper, we have evaluated the diverse variables that might influence the development of such a Standard. These variables are: substrate used (sterilized soil, unsterilized soil, or vermiculite), fungi (Chaetomium globosum) , inoculated independently, or sprayed suspension of Chaetomium globosum spores, along with Glenospora graphii, Humicola grisea, Petriella setifera, Phyalophora mutabilis and Trichurus spiralis), techniques of inoculation (watering with or without inmersion), incubation time (six and twelve weeks). The degradation was evaluated by the percentages of weight loss suffered by Fagus sylvatica wood block tests. The results were analyzed by four way ANOVA). The susbstrate that showed the greatest weight losses was sterilized soil, with no difference in the method of inoculation or in the fungi employed. An incubation time of six weeks was sufficient to contrast the differences. According to these results, revision of the test described in the European Standard would be advisable.
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete, F Rubio, J Jiménez, D Muñoz-Mingarro, C Rodríguez-Borrajo, F Llinares, M Yuste

Effect of the nature of the inert atmosphere used during thermal treatment on chemical composition, decay durability and mechanical properties of wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40625
Wood heat treatment is an attractive alternative to improve decay resistance of low natural durability wood species. Nowadays, several types of thermal treatments of wood exist. These treatments differ mainly by the nature of the inert atmosphere used to avoid wood combustion which may correspond to: nitrogen, vacuum, steam or oil. Decay resistances as well as mechanical properties are strongly correlated to thermal degradation of wood cells wall components and consequently of treatment conditions from which depend chemical modifications. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a new generation of treatment performed under vacuum on the chemical modifications occurring during treatment. For this purpose, beech wood has been treated under different inert conditions: vacuum and nitrogen. All treatments were performed at 220 °C for mass losses resulting from wood thermodegradation of approximately 12%. For each treatment condition concerning treated and untreated beech wood, extractives, Klason lignin, hemicelluloses and -celluloses content were determined as well as monosaccharide composition. Results show that extracts content were lower in the case of wood samples treated under vacuum, while lignin, hemicelluloses and a-celluloses contents were higher in the case of samples treated under steam and nitrogen, indicating lower wood degradation under vacuum treatment. Finally, effect of inert atmosphere on wood mechanical properties was evaluated. Results show that even if mechanical properties decreased after thermal treatment MOE, MOR and Brinell hardness were less affected under vacuum treatment comparatively to treatment performed under nitrogen.
K Candelier, S Dumarçay, A Pétrissans, M Pétrissans, P Gérardin

Depictions on Wood: Acceptation and Internalization of Wood, which is an intercultural interaction tool, as “A Valuable Object” (Wood is a Symbol of Civilization)
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40776
Wood is one of the most important tools and materials which is particularly used and preferred for the applications in the integration process which causes the communicating people act or behave similar by affecting each other. Such as, wood; is an important tool for supporting the development and proliferation of the civilization in the context of science and technology, education and culture and art and literature. Therefore it is one of the symbols of the civilization. Throughout the history of mankind, every civilization in the world has used wood to produce goods and services to have a more comfortable life. The usage of other technological materials, which occurred depending on the developing technology, instead of wood and being lost from view because of the fallacious constructional applications, grieves and disturbs wood lovers who keep and protect it with an essential passion for its natural properties and contributions for the development of civilization. In this concept, informing and publicity activities for increasing the awareness of the public and increasing the daily usage of wood must be done properly and effectively. According to this, in this article which is prepared with the purpose of expressing the reality of being a very important material in “Wood is a Symbol of Civilization” ground, there have been several descriptions with many different original compositions about wood which is accepted as a “Valuable Object” which provides the intercultural interaction, and has an important role in developing the civilization.
I Usta