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Improving our understanding of moisture and other durability-related properties of wood in building envelope performance prediction
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20468
Building science has become an increasingly important field in recent years with rapid changes in construction methods, building materials and consumer expectations. The field has also been brought to prominence by a few large-scale premature building envelope failures in a few regions across the world. Considerable effort has been put into developing hygrothermal models to simulate heat, air, vap...
Jieying Wang, P Morris

Decay initiation in plywood, OSB and solid wood under marginal moisture conditions
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20469
Hygrothermal models are increasingly used as research tools by building scientists and and design tools by designers to simulate heat, air, vapour, and water movements within and through building envelope and even to predict the consequences in terms of mould/decay growth and metal corrosion. This work was designed to generate data on decay initiation under marginal moisture conditions to support...
Jieying Wang, P Morris

Modelling of PCP migration in the environment: Feeding the models with laboratory data
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-08
In 1989, Hydro-Québec began a study program on pentachlorophenol (PCP) to ensure safe use of the product at all stages. One of the aspects of the study is the creation of a predictive system for evaluating the behavior of PCP and oil migration from wood poles to the environment. This system comprises four mathematical models for predicting PCP and oil migration in and on the surface of the pole, ...
A Besner, P Tétreault, R Gilbert

Statistically stable models for determination of PEC
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50135
In June 1998 the European Wood Preservative Manufacturer's Group prepared a document to support the Technical Guidance concerning the placing of products on the market with respect to the Directive 98/08/EC (BPD). The essentials of this document were presented at the COST E2 meeting in Cannes last year and at the following IRG conference (Baines and Davis, 1998; IRG/WP/98-50101/20). The d...
W J Homan, A L Van Oosten Van

Current models used by the European Health Authorities to evaluate the volatilization of active ingredients from treated wood used inside dwellings. A case study: Volatilization of azaconazole and propiconazole from treated wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3565
The use of wood preservatives inside houses may result in measurable aerial concentrations of active ingredients. These airborne contaminants may be inhaled by the inhabitants over periods lasting from a couple of days to several months. To assess the potential health hazard of preservative residues in the air, various risk-assessment models have been worked out. Three schemes, currently used by t...
A R Valcke, L Van Leemput

Modelling the control of decay in freshly felled pine poles
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10206
In a recent study investigating control of decay in freshly felled pine utility poles, it became apparent that the efficacy of different treatment methods was strongly related to the size of the material being treated. A topical application of 5% w/v disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), brush applied to the cut surfaces of logs with otherwise intact bark was just as effective at excluding white...
M W Schoeman, W Van der Werf, J F Webber, D J Dickinson

Models of the critical time of humidity and temperature conditions for the development of mould fungi in pine and spruce sapwood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20066
Regression models of the time factor for the growth of mould fungi in pine and spruce sapwood are studied. The first group of models are based on the results of exposures of mould fungi in static humidity and temperature conditions indicating the time for the start of mould growth in wood. The second group of models are based on the exposures of mould fungi in fluctuating or alternating humidity a...
H Viitanen

Quantification des émanations de substances dans l'air ambiant a partir des bois traités
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-27
Pesticides on wood for the purpose of its protection may evaporate. Eventual toxicity of such emanations justifies risk assessment procedures for indoor air in building. This document describes bench scale tests based on the technique of chambers developped by CTBA/BIOTEC to determine the amount of pesticides and associated substances released to the ambient air. Results obtained with various pest...
H Sageot, M Lamour

Wood preservation by a mixed anhydride treatment: Using simple models of polymeric wood compounds
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30457
Treatment of wood by a mixed aceto/oleic (or other fatty acid residue) anhydride promoted as a safe and environment friendly wood preservation system has been examined quantitatively by liquid phase 13C NMR and solid phase MAS-DEC (proton decoupling) 13C NMR through all its different stages to determine which reactions occur with simple model compounds of the polymeric constituents of wood. The p...
F Lyon, M-F Thevenon, A Pizzi, G Tondi, A Despres, J Gril, S Rigolet

Comparative Study of Heat Treatment of Beech Wood in Hot Water and Steam Medium
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40536
Heat treatment of wood is an effective method to improve the dimensional stability and durability against biodegradation. Heat treatments of beech wood in 2 different mediums (hot water and steam) in 180ºC were compared in physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. Mass loss in hydrothermally treated wood was higher than hygrothermally treated samples. Mechanical properties (MOR, MOE and CS)...
A Talaei, K Yaghoobi, A N Karimi

Effects of Heat-Treatment in Hot Water and Steam Mediums on Gas Permeability of Beech Wood
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40557
Heat-treatment, as a major method of wood modification, improving dimensional stability, and natural durability, has been studied greatly from different aspects. The effect of heat-treatment on gas permeability, as an important physical property of wood, in two different mediums of hot water and steam, as well as in two buffers of 7 and 8, is the main topic of the present study. Hydrothermal treat...
H Reza Taghiyari, A Talaei, A Karimi

Study on the Effect of Combined Nanosilver-Hygrothermal Treatment on Wood Properties
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40581
In this study, the impregnation process with nanosilver solution, before hygrothermal treatment was carried out to investigate its effect on some physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Russian imported spruce (Picea abies). Wood specimens were impregnated with nanosilver solution (400ppm) in an impregnation tank under pressure of 0.25 Mpa, for 20 minutes....
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, A Karimi, B Jamnani, M Ebrahimi

Study on the Effect of Combined Nanosilver-Hygrothermal Treatment on Wood Properties
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40581
In this study, the impregnation process with nanosilver solution, before hygrothermal treatment was carried out to investigate its effect on some physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and imported Russian spruce (Picea abies). Wood specimens were impregnated with nanosilver solution (400ppm) in an impregnation tank under pressure of 0.25 Mpa, for 20 minutes....
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, A Karimi, B Jamnani, M Ebrahimi

Investigation of Nanocopper-Hygrothermally Treated Wood Properties
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40644
Nanometals with high thermal conductivity can be considered as modifiers, especially in thermal modification of wood. This study was aimed to investigate some physical and mechanical properties of nanocopper impregnated Iranian beach (Fagus orientalis Lipsky), which was hygrothermally treated. For this purpose, nanocopper solution (400 ppm) was used for impregnation process. Hygrothermal treatment...
G Rassam, B Jamnani, A Faraji Heris

Weather degradation of thin wood samples
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20578
Untreated wooden surfaces degrade when exposed to varying doses of natural weathering. In this study, thin wood samples were studied for weathering effects with the aim of modeling the degradation utilizing Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Several sets of samples were exposed outdoors for time intervals from 0 to 21 days, and one set of samples was exposed to UV-radiation in a laboratory chamb...
I Burud, K A Smeland, K Hovde Liland, T K Thiis, J Sandak, A Sandak, L Ross Gobakken

Development of decay hazard maps based on decay prediction models
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20588
Durability plays a very central role in timber engineering, especially when working with wood in use class 3 and above where the risk of decay is high. As one of the primary decay influencing factors, the external condition, i.e. the local climate, is often graded by some type of climate index value. Predominately, climate indices are based on a direct relationship between weather data and decay. ...
J Niklewski, E Frühwald Hansson, C Brischke, D Kavurmaci

Hygrothermal performance of ventilated wooden cladding
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40733
The risk for an attack of wooden claddings by decay and discolouring fungi strongly depends on the moisture and temperature conditions in the building envelope. The design of the cladding has a major influence on its hygrothermal performance. In the present study, different wooden ventilated cladding designs were investigated at a test house in Mid-Norway for four years. The objective was to incre...
K Nore, U Hundhausen

An experimental study of mould growth and wood decay in timber frame walls
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20623
This paper deals with parameters related to the occurrence of mould growth and wood decay in timber frame walls. In a first part, the hygrothermal conditions inside a timber frame wall finished with brick veneer cladding are analysed to get an idea of possible moisture related problems. It is shown that, based on the VTT mould prediction model, there is a mould risk on the interface between the in...
M Vanpachtenbeke, J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, J Langmans, S Roels, J Van Acker

Natural durability, ethanol-toluene extractives and phenol content prediction of eight wood species from Madagascar using NIRS multispecific models
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10926
Madagascar has nearly 4000 species of trees and shrubs, but wood properties of only 200 species have been studied. Some properties, such as the natural durability or chemical composition are of importance for adequate and optimal use of these timber species. Since durability tests take long time and chemical analyzes can be very expensive, alternative methods such as near infrared spectroscopy (NI...
A R Razafimahatratra, H Rakotovololonalimanana, M-F Thévenon, C Belloncle, G Chaix, T Ramananantoandro

Comparative performance of wood/wood-based claddings predicted by four hygrothermal simulation tools
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20646
A number of hygrothermal numerical simulation packages are available, either wholly or partially dedicated to heat, air and moisture transfer simulations of building materials and wall assemblies. The objective of this work was to compare the hygrothermal responses and the moisture performance of western red cedar and composite wood claddings of a wood frame wall as predicted by four hygrothermal ...
M Defo, M Lacasse, A Laouadi

Service life planning of wooden structures: Mathematical prediction models versus professional experience
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20663
During the last 15 years, enormous efforts have been made in developing models for predicting the service life of wooden structures and components. Currently, a framework of how exposure, dimension, design details and the material-intrinsic and the ability to take up and release water can be linked to model the moisture risk in wood products is in principle available. The aim of this study was to...
C Brischke, J Niklewski, M Humar, G Alfredsen

Lab-scale termite damage synthesis using least squares generative adversarial networks
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20674
This manuscript investigated the feasibility of least squares generative adversarial networks (LSGAN) to generate synthetic images of lab-scale termite damage based on AWPA E1 standard, to push machine-learning forward into wood science field and to ameliorate the lack of a termite damage dataset. We leveraged LSGAN to learn the distribution of 203 uniquely termite damaged samples from previous ex...
D J V Lopes

The influence of chemical compounds on wood cell wall to surface cracks
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40908
Degradation due to cracking and dimensional changes caused by drying, have a significantly negative impact on the preservation and durability of wood. Therefore, the prevention of surface cracking, which tends to occur during the drying process, is vital. High temperature set drying is one of the most effective methods for preventing wood surface cracking. It begins with softening the wood at a hi...
R Suzuki, Y Mori, K Yoshihiro, K Yamashita, M Kiguchi