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Isolation and evaluation of Lactobacillus brevis from chilli waste for potential use as a wood preservative
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10749
Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from chilli waste and evaluated for their ability to arrest wood rotting basidiomycetes. In previous work a quick screening method using 96 well plates and measuring absorbance to determine fungal growth was developed specifically to investigate the efficacy of isolated bacteria against wood decay fungi. Using this method, one bacterium (isolate C11) was identif...
D O’Callahan, T Singh, I R McDonald


16S rRNA Analysis of the Bacteria Associated with Biocide Degradation
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10543
The bacterially mediated degradation of the new anti-fungal biocide, bethoxazin, was studied in vitro, by means of 16S rRNA PCR-amplification and cloning techniques. Woodblocks impregnated with a subtoxic concentration of bethoxazin were incubated in compost, and the micro-organisms associated with the wood after 6 and 12 weeks was studied. It was found that after 6 weeks the wood contained a la...
D F Wallace, D J Dickinson


Wood Decay Research Using Molecular Procedures, What Can It Tell Us?
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10678
There are many unanswered questions in wood decay and protection research, and no single research technique will ever answer all of these questions. The process of wood decay is a very complex series of biochemical and chemical reactions that are heavily influenced by the hundreds of bacterial and fungal species found on environmental samples of wood. There are a variety of molecular techniques b...
S V Diehl, M. L Prewitt, Young-Min Kang, L Mangum, J D Tang


Towards Understanding the Biology of Wood Decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10739
Our previous research has focused primarily on ways to identify the wood decay fungi and microbial community. We continue to explore this complex and dynamic community and its interactions through microbial community ecology studies, gene expression interactions and proteomics. However, in order to better understand the mechanisms of fungal decay, we have sequenced the genome of a copper tolerant...
J Tang, K Jenkins, L Parker, S V Diehl


Role of microbiota in wood degradation by Reticulitermes grassei and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
2022 - IRG/WP 22-20684
Xylophagous organisms can cause damage both in forests and in felled wood. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which causes "Sudden Pine Wilting" in coniferous forest masses, and is currently considered a quarantine organism in the European Union. On the other hand, structural and carpentry wood is affected by subterranean termites (Reticulitermes spp.), that cause serious damage, both in buildings and fu...
L Robertson, S Rames, M Uriel, J M González, F Llinares, S M Santos, M T Troya


Identification of brown rot fungi on wood in above ground conditions by PCR, T-RFLP and sequencing
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10512
Fungi selected in test fields in Germany and Estonia and fungi (Coniophora puteana) cultivated on medium have been identified by the molecular methods PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), T-RFLP (Terminal Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequenced to species level. The samples from the German field test showed that the fruit body sample was a different fungus than from the mycelium sample....
U Råberg, N Högberg, C J Land


Isolation of a gene from the melanin pathway of the sapstaining fungi Ophiostoma piceae using PCR
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10219
To prevent sapstaining fungi from discoloring wood, it is necessary to determine what factors affect the biosynthesis and characteristics of the pigment(s) and to identify the genes involved in the pathway. Using inhibitors and heterologous DNA probes from Alternaria alternata, we suggest that melanin, the pigment of Ophiostoma piceae, is produced by the dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) pathway. Recentl...
R Eagen, J Kronstad, C Breuil


Characterization of wood decay enzymes by MALDI-MS for post-translational modification and gene identification
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10442
The recent sequencing of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium genome presents many opportunities, including the possibility of rapidly correlating specific wood decay proteins of the fungus with the corresponding gene sequences. Here we compare mass fragments of trypsin digests, determined by MALDI-MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry), with predicted mass fragments derive...
T H de Koker, P J Kersten


Identification of fungi colonising coated and modified wood exposed outdoors using sequencing and T-RFLP profiling
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20326
Wood decay and staining fungi are known to colonize coated and modified wood. Rapid and reliable ways of identifying fungi on coated and modified wood may improve diagnostics and product development. In this work nine fungi growing in painted wood panels exposed outdoors at a test field in Uppsala, Sweden, were identified using sequencing and T-RFLP (Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphi...
U Råberg, J Bijelovic, C J Land, S Bardage, N Terziev


Amine Oxides for Use in Wood Protection: II: Water Repellent Agents for Wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30426
Wood treated with cetyl and stearyl amine oxides was evaluated to determine its long term water repellency. Comparative water uptake data, generated during two years of outdoor exposure, illustrated that Lonza’s products, Barlox® 18S (N-octadecyl-N, N-dimethylamine oxide) and Barlox® 16S (N-hexadecyl-N, N-dimethylamine oxide), were effective water repellent agents, imparting lasting water res...
Xiao Jiang, L Walker


Construction of an ITS sequence database for the identification and classification of wood rot fungi
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10626
Developing a database that contains information about wood rot fungi is important in improving technologies about wood preservation as well as advances in understanding wood decay. On the other hand, with rapid spread of the Internet, establishment of a system for the swift precise access to information are required for the computerization of the research information. In the present study, genetic...
S Horisawa, Y Honda, S Itakura, S Doi


Postia placenta gene expression of oxidative and carbohydrate metabolism related genes during growth in furfurylated wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10701
A range of studies the last decade have shown that modified wood can provide excellent protection against a range of wood deteriorating organisms, including decay fungi. However, we still lack information about why the modified wood is protected from microbial attack. Several hypotheses have been put forward e.g. inhibition of action of specific enzymes, but they still need testing. An understandi...
G Alfredsen, C G Fossdal


Gene expression of selected decay enzymes produced during biodeterioration of three wood types
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10702
Comparative studies were conducted on the expression of several decay enzyme genes during the decay of pine, cedar, and ACQ treated pine over 10 months. Measurements of MOE, decay rating, and moisture control were monitored for physical properties. Identification of decay fungi and the detection of decay enzymes were carried out before gene expression levels were measured. The MOE of wood stakes d...
Young-Min Kang, L Prewitt, S Diehl


A genomic sequencing approach to study wood decay and copper tolerance in the brown rot fungus, Antrodia radiculosa
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10720
We used Illumina paired-end short read sequencing (76 nt, 300 bp insert size) to produce a de novo assembly of the genome of Antrodia radiculosa, a copper-tolerant brown rot fungus that is capable of aggressive wood decay. Quality analysis of the base calls in the dataset (8.95 Gb) showed that the majority of the nucleotide sequence was of the highest quality with 5% in the lowest quality group. ...
J D Tang, T Sonstegard, S Burgess, S V Diehl


Postia placenta gene expression during growth in furfurylated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10734
Modified wood can provide protection against a range of wood deteriorating organisms. But we still lack information about why the modified wood is protected from microbial attack. Several hypotheses have been put forward for the mode of action against wood decaying fungi, including inhibition of action of specific enzymes, but they still need further testing. In this study gene expression of the b...
G Alfredsen, C G Fossdal


DNA-based tools for rapidly detecting, quantifying and monitoring ophiostomatoid fungi on beetles, in trees and wood products
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20450
Approximately half of the trees harvested for commercial purposes are lost because of native or introduced insects or insect-vectored microorganisms. Ophiostomatoid fungi, which are well adapted to dissemination by insects, include ~140 species of saprobes and pathogens. They are present worldwide, have high economical impact and many are subject to quarantine regulation. Thus, it is necessary to ...
L Khadempour, Young Woon Lim, S Massoumi Alamouti, C Breuil


Gene expression analysis of a copper-tolerant brown rot fungus on MCQ-treated wood
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10748
Most brown rot fungi are copper-tolerant, which makes them difficult to control with copper-based wood preservatives like MCQ. To better understand what biological processes are regulated, we used our model species, Antrodia radiculosa, to examine expression of genes on MCQ-treated wood. Our hypothesis was genes that decreased copper bioavailability would be up-regulated early, when wood showed ...
J D Tang, A Perkins, S V Diehl


The effects of acetylation level on the growth of Postia placenta
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10751
To understand the defence mechanisms utilized by decay fungi when exposed to different wood protection systems the study of gene expression can give us some answers. When the DNA sequences are known, primers can be designed to detect transcripts of genes with gene products related to basic cellular processes and hyphal growth. The characteristic gene products induced in different fungi by differen...
A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, C G Fossdal, C J Long II


Molecular investigation of Postia placenta growing in modified wood
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10756
Brown rot is the most common and destructive type of fungal decay for wood in service. These fungi depolymerize preferentially the structural carbohydrates, cellulose and hemicellulose in the cell wall leaving oxidized lignin behind. Modified wood can provide protection against a variety of wood deteriorating organisms, including decay fungi. However, there is still little known about the mode of ...
B Schmöllerl, G Alfredsen, C G Fossdal, M Westin, A Steitz


Variation in two Postia placenta strains, MAD-698-R and FPRL 280 – mass loss, DNA content and gene
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10781
Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and brown rot fungi are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. The aim of this study was to compare two commonly used strains of Postia placenta – MAD-698-R and FPRL 280. Scots pine sapwood samples were exposed for two and eight weeks to both fungal strains. The following was inv...
N Thaler, G Alfredsen, C G Fossdal


The effects of acetylation level on the growth of Postia placenta over 36 weeks
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40589
Genomic sequencing gives us a tool to systematically and rapidly discover novel genes, how their products function in the cell, and explore their interactions. When the DNA sequences are known, primers can be designed to detect transcripts of genes with gene products related to basic cellular processes and hyphal growth. The characteristic gene products induced in different fungi by different wood...
A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, C G Fossdal, C J Long II


Biodegration of treated wood waste by native fungal communities of tropical soil in French Guiana
2012 - IRG/WP 12-50285
Woods have been protected with fungicides for a long time, and the effects of these fungicides on soil after being leached into the ground have turned out to be a true environmental issue. It is in this perspective that we are proposing to study fungal communities of these contaminated woods in a purpose of bioremediation. Most of precedent studies have focused on ability of some Basidiomycetes an...
A Zaremski, L Gastonguay, C Zaremski, F Chaffannel, J Beauchêne, G LeFloch


High-throughput sequencing highlighted contrasted pioneer fungal communities associated to coniferous and deciduous wood preservation assays
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10800
Studying the fungal communities in the wood, in particular during the first events of the colonization, and the factors that underlie the dynamics of fungal species assemblages remain a challenge in ecology, because of the absence of fructification during the pioneer steps of wood degradation. The use of Next-generation DNA sequencing methods, which produce massive volumes of data, provided new pe...
Y Mathieu, A Dassé, I Le Bayon, M Kutnik, L Harvengt, E Gelhaye, M Buée


A case study of investigating fungi that affect traditional Japanese shake roof with/without copper plates
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10810
A Japanese traditional shake roof is made from split logs. To keep the roof long, copper (Cu) plates are often inserted between the shakes. It has been thought that Cu elements from copper plates would flow out when a shake roof is exposed to rain and inhibit growth of wood rotting fungi. Actually there are some examples where the Cu plates seem to be effective in preventing fungal damage, but on ...
T Wada, Y Fujiwara, Y Fujii, R Kigawa


Characterization of test fields
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20508
Test field characteristics and impact of test fields on wood degradation is important when testing wood protection. The current EN 252 standard has no requirement for knowledge of decay hazards, but most commonly a test field is known as a “brown”,- “white”,- or “soft rot” field. To understand which decay hazard wood preservatives are tested against, each test field should be character...
U Råberg, N Terziev, G Daniel


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