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The kinetics of catalytic acetylation of Pinus radiata (D. Don) using conventional and microwave heating
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40485
This study outlines the effect of catalyst and microwave heating on the degree of acetylation in radiata pine. Samples of radiata pine sapwood were impregnated with potassium acetate (KAc) dissolved in two different solvents (water and methanol). Impregnated samples were dried and subjected to acetic anhydride loading followed by conventional and microwave heating. The degree of acetylation was ev...
A Kumar Sethy, P Vinden, G Torgovnikov, S Przewloka


Report an some aspects of forest and the timber preservation in Fiji 1999
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40189
This report is divided in two sections. One is the general description of some aspects of the Forest indicating timber availability in Fiji. The other Section is an "Status of Timber Preservation in Fiji in 1999"....
S D Kumar


Effect of fatty acid removal on treatability of Douglas-fir
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40008
Treatment of Douglas-fir with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a major challenge. Several hypotheses based on the anatomical aspects as well as chemical reactivity of the preservative formulations with cell wall constituents and deposits have been proposed. Techniques to prevent pit aspiration or slow fixation reactions have, however, not significantly improved treatment. The presence of high...
S Kumar, J J Morrell


Bending properties of TCMTB-treated Southern pine sapwood using supercritical carbon dioxide impregnation process
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40080
The effects of elevated pressure and treatment with thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB) on the bending properties of Southern pine sapwood were evaluated at pressures ranging from 1,800 to 3,600 psi. All bending properties were affected to some extent by supercritical fluid treatment. Modulus of elasticity and work to maximum load were not significantly affected by pressure levels. Modulus of...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, S Kumar, E S Demessie, K L Levien, J J Morrell


Non Toxic Remedial Treatment of Bamboo Structures/Furniture
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40516
Molds and beetles often attack bamboo furniture and structures when used in untreated or inadequate preservative treatment. Remediation or eradication of infestation often involves expensive chemicals (fumigants) and specialized methods, which are not available in villages. Novel inexpensive methods using easily available chemicals were developed for controlling such infestations. Whereas applicat...
S Kumar


Wood Preservation India; Current Scenario
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40630
This short note describes the present status of wood preservation research and its industrial application. Although good performing formulations have been developed by Indian research laboratories, industry has not tried to derive benefits from this development. Many unknown products are flooding the market for brush on applications with little benefit as the products have not been standardized....
S Kumar


Timber deterioration and its prevention in marine environment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10559
Wood-borer activity is an established fact in Mumbai harbour that leads to severe deterioration of timber. In order to prevent the deterioration caused by wood borers three resin preservatives containing Zinc borate, Organo-copper polymer (4 wt% Cu) and Organo-Tin polymer Copoly(TBTM-MMA) were used for timber treatment. Test panels were treated using standard method and the...
B S Swami, M Udhayakumar, P Kumar, A B Samui


Treatment of refractory timbers
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40001
Worldover crisis of wood is being felt due to the global environmental problems. Wood preservation technology plays a good role in curtailing the demands of wood for replacement by prolonging the service life of the timber and thus indirectly helps in saving the environment. Some species of timbers which could not be treated to the desired level by virtue of their refractory nature by any of the c...
I Dev, S Kumar


Status of wood preservation industry in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30388
The paper traces the history of wood preservation industry in India, listing various mile stones for creation of treating capacity. The preservation industry developed with the development of rail road system on the line of most other developed countries. The most popular wood preservatives are CCA, CCB, ACC, Creosote and recently LOSP have also appeared in the market. The major users of CCA is th...
S Kumar


Need to develop processing technologies (for value addition) of the species evaluated for their properties and uses
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40307
The demand of timber in India for different industrial as well as domestic applications is ever increasing mostly due to urbanization and industrialization. This demand can only be met either from the imported timber or from the plantation resources outside the reserved and natural forests. There are a number of timber species grown under plantation forestry have their heartwood refractory to any ...
S R Shukla, S K Sharma, Y M Dubey, P Kumar, R V Rao, K S Shashidhar


Effect of post-treatment processing on leachability of ACZA-treated douglas-fir lumber
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50109
The effect of post-treatment procedures that more rapidly precipitate copper, zinc, and arsenic in douglas-fir treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) on subsequent leaching resistance were investigated at two retentions (6.4 and 40 kg/m3). Total leaching was greater from boards treated to the higher retention. At both levels, copper was lost at the highest rate. Post-treatment process...
J J Morrell, C S Love, S Kumar, C M Freitag


Fungal decay resistance of Rubber wood treated with heartwood extract of Rosewood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30367
Alcoholic extract of Dalbergia latifolia heartwood was studied for its toxicity towards wood decaying fungi. Rubber wood blocks were treated with this extract to three different retention levels (0.1%, 0.2% & 0.5%) and the treated wood blocks were assessed for their resistance towards two white rot and two brown rot fungi. Treated blocks showed improved resistance over the control blocks. At 0...
A K Sethy, H C Nagaveni, S Mohan, K T Chandrashekar


Protection and efficient utilization of plantation grown lesser-known timbers of arid region in India - Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis cineraria
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40321
The plantation-grown timbers are highly susceptible to insects/pests, borers and wood rot fungus. Wood preservatives copper chrome arsenic (CCA) 2% and chloropyriphos 2% solution treated under pressure on three plantation grown timber species viz. Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis cineraria have shown encouraging results in enhancement of shelf life by protection of wood against woo...
S H Jain, H Kumar, R Arya, R L Srivastava


Biological degradation resistance of wood acetylated with thioacetic acid
1983 - IRG/WP 3223
Chemically, modification of wood is being considered as an alternative to conventional preservation by toxic chemicals. Acetylated wood has been reported to be quite resistant to most biodegrading organisms at weight percent gains (WPG) around 15-19. The conventional acetylation techniques with acethic anhyrdride result in generation of acetic acid. However, acetylation with thioacetic acid overco...
S Kumar, S C Agarwal


Penetration and absorption of water-borne preservatives in conifers from the Western United States: A preliminary report
1988 - IRG/WP 3475
The treatment of most softwoods from the western United States with waterborne chemicals poses a major challenge. Although many of these species are commercially treated with waterbornes, there is considerable debate about their treatability. At present, there is little or no information on the treatability of western wood species with waterborne chemicals. The lack of accurate treatability inform...
S Kumar, J J Morrell


Bamboo: A Material Rediscovered
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10577
Bamboo has resurfaced as a valuable raw material as an inexpensive substitute for wood and a variety of value added products for engineered composites. Being a fast growing material available in the tropics, its real value was not realized until recently. Property evaluation studies and efforts to develop processing methods were initiated in the bamboo growing countries in the nineteenth century....
S Kumar


Bamboo Protection Research: Contributions from India
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40355
Bamboo preservation has become more important in India because of Government’s directions to develop bamboo resources and adopt their rational utilization to conserve natural forests. This paper traces the development of various processes for treatment of bamboo and their effectiveness. Results obtained by various workers since 1947 when systematic work on bamboo protection was first published. ...
S Kumar


Bamboo: A poor man’s timber
2015 - IRG/WP 15-10852
Bamboo, known as poor man’s timber in the past gained some importance in the last decade when TIFAC under Department of Science & Technology and Ministry of Agriculture awoke to find a better future for this unique gift of nature. Until then it was considered a good for nothing grass suitable only for making paper and building effigies of Ravan, Kumbhkaran and Meghnath year after year at Dussehr...
S Kumar


Superhydrophobic treatment of Norway spruce wood for improvement of its resistance against brown rot and moulds
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40734
Water repellence of wood can be increased and its some other properties influenced by introduction of hydrophobic chemicals into and on cell walls without affecting the wood’s bulk density due to lumen filling. Herein, a simple dipping method to insert octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) into cell walls and to deposit the self-assembled hydrophobic monolayers (SAMs) of OTS is reported. It was found o...
A Kumar, P Ryparová, P Hajek, B Kričej, M Pavlič, A S Škapin, M Šernek, J Tywoniak, J Žigon, M Petrič


Liquefaction of woody waste: A novel approach in wood protection from CNSL based liquefied wood polyols
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30711
Liquefaction of lingo-cellulosic biomass is one of the thermo-chemical conversion processes for developing new materials, adhesives, preservatives and energy systems. The process also provides an opportunity to utilize waste wood such as saw-dust, woody wastes, branches and twigs for the development of value added products. Thus, this research paper deals with an investigation of antifungal and a...
A Kumar, G B.Nagarajappa, S Singh Chauhan


Liquefied wood polyols: Ecofriendly bio-based preservative for sustainable protection of wood from Termite attack
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10916
The major problems encountered in both indoor and outdoor utilization of wood are biological decay due to termite. The modification of wood with liquefied wood polyols has been found to be effective against termite attack. The liquefaction of wood aims to utilize woody wastes which are being generated during primary and secondary processing of wood in wood based industry. One of promising approach...
A Kumar, A John, T S Mehra, A K Pandey, S Singh Chauhan


Liquefied wood polyols: a bio-based preservative for protection of wood from fungal decay
2018 - IRG/WP 18-30725
The liquefaction of wood is one of promising approaches in utilization of woody waste which is generated during primary and secondary processing of wood and liquefied wood having various application including bio-based preservatives. The biological degradation of wood due to fungi is the major problem encountered in indoor and outdoor utilization of wood. In this study, woody waste recovered from ...
A Kumar, G Vijaylakshmi, S Singh Chauhan


CCA wood preservative: Trust with destiny
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30731
This paper traces the history of Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and its current status in India and worldwide. CCA was invented as ASCU at the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun in 1933 by Dr. Sonti Kamesam. Although its efficacy was doubted by the British colonial rulers resulting in several hiccups at home, the patent rights were purchased by US Bell Telephone Co. and it was adopted by the US woo...
S Kumar


Novel approaches for improvement of dimensional, photo- and thermal stability of wood through liquefied wood polyols impregnation
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40884
The major problems encountered in both indoor and outdoor utilization of wood are due photo instability and dimensional instability. The modification of Melia dubia wood for ultraviolet resistance and dimensional stability with liquefied wood has been carried out through impregnation method under solvent free conditions. The level of impregnation in modified wood was estimated by weight perc...
A Kumar, A John, T S Mehra


Application of suberin fatty acids extracted from birch bark for wood coating
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40914
It is well known that chemical modifications to improve decay resistance also reduce the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood. The mechanism of this action, however, has been the subject of much debate. Several groups have suggested that decay resistance is a result of lower diffusion rates of fungal degradation agents through the wood cell wall. A recent paper explained the fundamental prin...
A Kumar, Risto Korpinen, Veikko Möttönen


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