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Standardisation of sapstain tests - A challenge
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2403
In the last decade many new anti-sapstain products have been tested world-wide under laboratory and field conditions. Several extensive test programmes have been executed with different non-standardized test methods and procedures, with the result that the biological findings cannot be compared with each other. In this paper, gathered recommendations will be given in order to standardize test methods. These recommendations are based on questionnaires which have been sent to institutes throughout the world. For the realization of such a (standarized) test methodology, co-operation between test institutes, industry and working groups is necessary. This co-operation might also be useful for improving the treatment and application methods in the field. Standardization of sapstain methods is a challenge for Working Group II.
G Rustenburg, C J Klaver


Preventing the introduction of Xylosandrus crassiusculus by dipping green lumber in insecticides prior to shipment
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40370
Xylosandrus crassiusculus, an ambrosia beetle native to Asia and Africa, was introduced into the southeastern United States in 1974. Since that time, this species has substantially expanded its range, causing damage to native ecosystems and healthy nursery stock. This species was found in The Dalles, Oregon in 2004, indicating that it is not limited to sub-tropical environments. This introduction has resulted in a ban on the importation of green wood products from the southeastern United States into Oregon, especially hardwood railroad ties. This research investigated the ability of water and alcohol based dip treatments to penetrate existing galleries and to prevent the infestation of green hardwood products. The results indicated that even a 9 minute dip failed to penetrate the galleries. Dipping samples for 30 seconds in creosote prevented the establishment of new galleries. In addition, cinnamon leaf oil and diesel fuel reduced the degree of insect attack and merit further study. Preventing X. crassiusculus infestation has proven difficult and further studies are planned.
C F Schauwecker, R F Mizell III, J J Morrell


Trend in entomology of wood in use and in storage in Nigeria
1978 - IRG/WP 180
The current and potential impact of biotic agents of wood deterioration in Nigeria is reviewed, with emphasis on the insects and marine borers, their recognition and mode of damage. Some essential areas have no doubt been neglected and these are highlighted, while future lines of approach are outlined.
M O Akanbi


Über den Nagekäfer Oligomerus ptilinoides (Wollaston), Col., Anobiidae: Verbreitung und Einschleppung, Bestimmung, Lebens- beziehungen und Befallsmerkmale mit Vergleichen zu Nicobium
1980 - IRG/WP 1102
Oligomerus ptilinoides occurs in the Mediterranian and Black-sea area, in North-Africa and Asia minor as an important pest causing severe damage to dry wood. By travelling, by the immigration of people from south to north, and by accidental introductions the species tends to establish itself north of the Alps. Severe damage has recently been observed in two museums. An account is given of aspects of taxonomy, the pattern of attack compared with that of Nicobium hirtum and Nicobium castaneum, of the anatomy of the larvae, on symbiosis, and on behavioural features of the beetles.
S Cymorek


Screening-method for the examination of the resistance against contact-insecticides of Lyctus brunneus Steph. beetles
1981 - IRG/WP 2148
A serie of filter-paper rondelles is treated with different concentrations of an organic insecticide dissolved in aceton. Beetles of Lyctus brunneus are put onto the dry surfaces. During the impact of the poison the knock-down is observed and after a following poisonfree holding, the knock-down and mortality are registred.
E Graf, B Lanz


Wood-attacking organisms in Brazil
1982 - IRG/WP 1168
Lists of the main wood-attacking beetles, termites, fungi and marine borers in Brazil are presented with the respective wood species from which they were collected.
M S Cavalcante


Feasibility of AE (Acoustic Emission) monitoring for the detection of the activities of wood-destroying insects
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2416
The feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) as a nondestructive testing method for the detection of the wood destroying insects was investigated. AEs were detected from the wood specimens under feeding attack of sugi bark borers or powder-post beetles. However, the feasible monitoring area of an AE sensor is influenced by the attenuation of AE amplitude, so that this could be a problem in the practical AE measurements, especially with wood specimens of higher moisture content.
Y Fujii, Y Imamura, E Shibata, M Noguchi


Susceptibility testing protocol for powderpost beetles in Australia
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20242
Several species of lyctine (powderpost) beetle are able to attack a range of hardwood timbers in Australia. Powderpost beetles infest only the starch-containing sapwood of certain hardwoods and do not infest softwoods. Attack by powderpost beetles on susceptible timber in Australia is almost inevitable and may continue until the food resource is completely utilised. Prevention of powderpost beetle attack is preferable to curative measures. The Australian hardwood resource is increasingly being obtained from younger regrowth and planted forests rather than mature forests. The resource is also beginning to include other species not previously utilised. There is no information on lyctine susceptibility of these species of eucalypts, hybrid eucalypts and some acacias. Some of these timbers are not widely utilised, yet may have unique properties on the world market for high-value niche applications. Consumer legislation places constraints on the sale and use of susceptible timber in the States of New South Wales and Queensland. Currently, the majority of these timbers are regarded as provisionally susceptible in both States due to the lack of testing and historical record. For the first time in Australia, a sampling and testing protocol to establish lyctine susceptibility of timber species is detailed. The usefulness and limitations of the protocol are discussed.
B C Peters, J W Creffield, R H Eldridge


Bibliography on the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (De Geer) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae)
1980 - IRG/WP 1104
M-M Serment, H Becker


Non Toxic Remedial Treatment of Bamboo Structures/Furniture
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40516
Molds and beetles often attack bamboo furniture and structures when used in untreated or inadequate preservative treatment. Remediation or eradication of infestation often involves expensive chemicals (fumigants) and specialized methods, which are not available in villages. Novel inexpensive methods using easily available chemicals were developed for controlling such infestations. Whereas application of common baking soda can be used to prevent molds, fumigation with ammonia or localized heat treatment can get rid of beetles in fixed structures.
S Kumar


Timber infesting species of Col. Lyctidae and Bostrichidae imported into Germany since ca. 1985
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10385
This contribution to the knowledge of passively and unintendedly dispersed species of Col. Bostrichoidea has been derived from the author's private investigation in cooperation with German quarantaine institutions from 1996 to 1999. It is a brief summing-up of the importations of timber infesting "Powder-post Beetles" (Col. Lyctidae) and "Borer Beetles" (Bostrichoidae) into a European industrial country at the end of the century. Altogether 26 (Lyctidae: 9; Bostrichoidae: 17) species of Col. Bostrichoidae are recorded as imported into Germany during the last one and a half decade of the century. The foreign species of several samplings sent for identification are compiled in an annotated list of species together with the imported species published in miscellaneous articles of various journals since ca. 1985. All the species of the living samples and most of the finds published by other authors are determined or prooved by the author of this paper. The article is dedicated to the memory of Dr. h.c. Siegfried Cymorek, the outstandingly initiative German specialist of timber insects, particularly of Col. Bostrichoidae, and the leading member of DESOWAG, Krefeld, who in 1987 passed away in the zenith of his creative work.
K U Geis


Susceptibility of Sarawak timber to attack by powder post beetles
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10413
Degradation of timber by powder post beetles results in some economic loss to the timber merchants and end-users alike. The infestation is normally confined to the sapwood of some hardwoods due to the presence of starch that serves as food for the powder post beetles. This study was conducted to assess the susceptibility of commercial timber species of Sarawak, Malaysia to attack by powder post beetles with a view to compile a "Check List". Timber samples measuring 25mm x 150mm x 150mm3 each were neatly stacked and exposed to attack by powder post beetles for a period of at least 5 years inside a building. Additional information on susceptibility was also collected through casual observations at several locations. General observations were also made on the types of beetles as well as starch content of some randomly selected timber species used in the experiment. The severity of attack on susceptible species was rated visually and graded as "Highly susceptible", "Moderately susceptible" and "Rarely susceptible". To date, approximately 100 commercial timber species of Sarawak were confirmed to be susceptible to attack by powder post beetles. Minthea rugicollis was frequently encountered infesting timber samples compared to Bostrychids. In all cases starch was present in the infested timber samples randomly tested for the presence of starch.
K Jenang, Wang Choon Ling


Proposing innovative technologies in the control of dry-wood insects
1985 - IRG/WP 1262
This paper discusses the social-economic problems involved in the biological evaluation of dry-wood insects with particular reference to Nigeria. It also discusses prospects of applying non-conventional methods of control against such insects, integrating these with the conventional preservatives as a control strategy. This discussion follows attempts made to identify the major dry-wood insects in Nigeria as a base for raising cultures required in screening wood preservative materials. Hitherto, this allimportant aspect of wood science suffered underserved relegation in Nigeria. The commonest dry-wood insects identified so far include two species of dry-wood termites (Kalotermidae) Cryptotermes havilandi (Sjostedt) and Cryptotermes brevis (Walker); and beetles Lyctus africanus Lesne (Lyctidae), Minthea rugicollis (Walker), Bostrychoplies cornutus Olivier, Xyloperthella picea Olivier, Heterobostrychus brunneus Murray, Xyloperthodea nitidipennis Murray, and Apate spp. (Bostrychidae).
M O Akanbi


Comparison between two laboratory test methods for determining the effectiveness on wood preservatives against blue stain in fresh wood
1987 - IRG/WP 2289
Most of the work done on determination of the effectiveness of new formulae for treating fresh wood against blue stain have been focussed on their use in the manufacture of saw timber. This work explains two laboratory methods, one which simulates the working and climatological conditions of factories making packages for fruit and vegetables in the Spanish Levante, showing that contamination of wood is caused naturally, and another method causing blue stain by innoculation with pure cultures. Both methods were applied to eight preservatives, and the results were compared.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya


Preliminary testing of an improvised wood preservative mixture applied against dry wood beetles
1986 - IRG/WP 1308
An improvised wood preservative mixture was preliminarily tested in situ against some dry wood beetles which had infested structural timbers in a semi-finished building. The results obtained should encourage further research towards mobilizing/improvising locally available resources in the face of scarce standard wood preservatives, against the background of a dilemma in wood utilization in the developing countries.
M O Akanbi, E M Bayode, A A Alabi, J Gbadebo


The relationship between blue-stain and bark beetles
1971 - IRG/WP 19
The attack of bark beetles on standing or in newly-felled stems provides special growth conditions to wood-inhabiting fungi. In the wood attacked by bark beetles, a specific and rich fungus flora is found, and from these fungi the economically important group of blueing fungi has been more thoroughly investigated. These fungi live on nutritive substances present in the cells, especially in the medullary rays and other parenchymatous cells. They attack lignified cell walls only to a limited extent but in the ray cells they may cause considerable destruction. Some of these fungi may attack the secondary cell walls where they develop cavities. The blueing fungi attack standing trees when their moisture content is low as well as timber at different stages of storage before it is completely seasoned. They spread very quickly both radially and longitudinally and thus they may cause rapid discolouration and considerable financial losses. The greatest losses are caused by blueing fungi which attack newly felled timber in the forest simultaneously with the infestation of bark beetles. Von Schrenk (1903) has already pointed out the relationship between the attack of the bark beetles and the blueing of the wood which at this time was thought to be caused by one fungus Ceratocystis pilifera. Later.the number of known Ceratocystis species which are, over the whole world, the most common fungi associated with the attack of bark beetles, have amounted to 80-90 at the present time, and they have been studied most thoroughly by R W Davidson (numerous papers between 1935 and 1970) in the USA. The greatest number of species has been found in North America, where the variability in host trees and in climatic conditions is greater than in North Europe.
A Käärik


Gaseous treatment of timber with allyl isothiocyanate. Fungicidal and insecticidal effects
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30108
Gaseous treatment with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was tested for its effects on the growth of microorganisms on the wood substrate and the mortality of subterranean termites and powder-post beetles. Toxic limits of AIT were determined as concentrations in the air when an AIT-treated filter paper was placed in a sealed container with fungus-inoculated wood specimens. Those were <3.8 ppm for Aureobasidium pullulans, 7.5-15 ppm for Aspergillus niger, 30-59 ppm for Gliocladium virens, 59-118 ppm for Penicillium funiculosum and >118 ppm for Rhizopus stolonifer. LD 50 values were determined for insects. Twenty workers of Coptotermes formosanus or 10 adults of Lyctus brunneus were placed in an air-circulated glass bottle, and the mortality of the test insects was recorded after 24 hours. LD 50/24h were 10-13 ppm and approximately 80 ppm in the air for Coptotermes formosanus and Lyctus brunneus, respectively.
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura


Field study: Wood degradation pattern in buildings and utility poles in tropical climates of Nigeria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1521
The paper is the result of five years field study of wood degradation patterns in three ecological forest zones (Guinea Savannah, Tropical rain forest and mangrove forest zones, respectively). It involved 800 residential buildings and 700 electric overhead transmission poles. The methodology used was a modified Eslyn (6) test. A high rate of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes attack especially on the windward side of residential buildings was noted. A high incidence of subterranean termite attack as well as their ability to bridge resistant structures to reach their ultimate host was recorded. Powderpost beetles attack in household furniture and fittings made of non-durable wood and sapwood were common, but particle board proved immune. Overhead electric transmission poles pressure treated with cole tar based preservatives proved very resistant to biodeterioration. Seasoning defects are a common feature on the windward side of buildings and a major problem in poles. The author concluded that because of the favourable climate, pressure or other deep penetration treatments is desirable for all non-durable woods in tropical climates. Wood preservative formulations for utility poles should possess some dimensional stabilization properties. Remedial treatments were also recommended for dry rot, termite and powderpost beetles in existing structures.
E O Onuorah


Minthea rugicollis (Walk.) (Coleoptera: Lyctidae): A pest of rubberwood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1570
Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) has grown in prominence as a source of timber in recent years. One of the drawbacks in the utilization of this species is its susceptibility to attack by powder-post beetles belonging to the family Lyctidae. In Malaysia, Minthea rugicollis (Walk) is the, most commonly found species attacking seasoned rubberwood. In this paper, information available thus far on Minthea rugicollis is collated in brief and an outline given of a current research project aimed at developing comprehensive information on the biology of this important pest of rubberwood. Some inherent properties of rubberwood and their effect on the activities of Minthea rugicollis will also be investigated.
F Abood, R W Berry, R J Murphy


Evaluation of fungi isolated from the galleries of the striped ambrosia beetle Xyloterus lineatus (Ol.) (Col., Scolytidae)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10092
Fungi from the galleries of the striped ambrosia beetle Xyloterus lineatus (Trypodendron lineatum) (Ol.) found in spruce logs were studied. The following fungi were isolated and identified: Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, the yeast Pichia anomale Hansen (Kurzman), the blue-stain fungus Ceratocystis piceae (graphium) (Münch) Bakshi and a fungus closely similar to Ceratocystis araucariae (anamorph). The growth rate of the fungi was determined on potato dextrose agar (Difco). The most intensive mycelial growth activity was observed at 20 and 25°C. Fungi stained the wood but did not cause significant weight loss of spruce and pine sapwood samples in laboratory conditions. Enzymatical activity was studied by using simple laboratory test methods. Specific ectoenzymes involved in wood decay were determined.
G Babuder,F Pohleven


Beetle-Fungus Associations in Woody Substrates in the Context of International Trade
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10610
Interest in the role of insects in transmitting various fungi and in the potential for outbreaks of insects vectoring plant disease organisms has resulted in a large volume of literature on insect-fungi relationships. Mites are mentioned as an important third partner in these associations. This paper summarizes information and provides an update on major aspects of these intricate associations in the context of woody substrate, modern forestry, global climate change and international trade with wood products. This paper discusses the partners separately and comments on their potential pathogenicity, the reason for the associations and how are they maintained, and addresses the complexity of the research around these issues. Beetles as well as fungi range from being secondary, harmless and pure saprotrophs to being aggressive and pathogenic. Globally there are a number of examples where particular insect-fungi combinations have caused significant economic losses, especially when exotic organisms are imported. The vector-fungus relationship is a strategy that makes both groups ecologically effective; together they spread fast, may have high plasticity, invade new territories, evolve and explore new crops on a global scale. There is an increased awareness of invasive species and more vigorous inspections in many countries causing trade disruptions and market loss. Wood packaging, logs and green lumber are generally considered to be a high-risk pathway. Currently the ISPM-15 standard imposes obligatory phytosanitary treatment (heat treatment at 56°C for 30 minutes to the core or fumigation with methyl bromide) of wood packaging in international trade. Other alternative treatments are actively being investigated and will cover a larger array of traded commodities. Chemical pressure impregnation has been shown to be effective in eradicating some pests. If approved internationally as a phytosanitary treatment it would facilitate trade in treated wood products, protect existing markets and open new ones. It will also reduce the potential cost of additional treatment for phytosanitary purposes. Further research is needed in this area to define effective treatment parameters.
A Uzunovic


Preventing Xylosandrus crassiusculus Beetle Attack in Large Green Timbers Using Pyrethroid Dip Treatments
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10642
Although awareness about the risk of invasive species has increased over the past decade, a large number of highly destructive exotic pests are still being introduced around the world. One of the more important pest introductions in the Southeastern United States has been the Asian ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. This species is particularly important because of its ability to kill living hardwoods. This beetle also attacks low value hardwood products that are shipped out of the region, creating the risk of further spread. Accepted phytosanitary treatments such as bark removal, heating or fumigation, are not effective against X. crassiusculus because the adults do not require bark for ovi-positioning and they can reinfest materials after heating or fumigant treatment. One possibility for preventing attack is to dip timbers in insecticidal solutions shortly after cutting; however, there is little data on the efficacy of this treatment option. In this report, we describe field trials of synthetic pyrethroids on hardwood species used for railway ties (sleepers). The results showed that dip treatment sharply reduced, but did not completely eliminate the risk of beetle attack. Recommendations are provided for making this process more effective.
C Schauwecker, A F Preston, J J Morrell


DNA-based tools for rapidly detecting, quantifying and monitoring ophiostomatoid fungi on beetles, in trees and wood products
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20450
Approximately half of the trees harvested for commercial purposes are lost because of native or introduced insects or insect-vectored microorganisms. Ophiostomatoid fungi, which are well adapted to dissemination by insects, include ~140 species of saprobes and pathogens. They are present worldwide, have high economical impact and many are subject to quarantine regulation. Thus, it is necessary to quickly and efficiently characterize which fungi are associated with beetles, host trees, and wood products, and to establish the relative degree of damage or quarantine risk associated with these pests. During the past decade, molecular biology approaches have provided diverse DNA-based diagnostic tools that have gradually made their way into forestry and forest products industries. Such tools are typically sensitive, able to detect pests without the need to grow the microorganisms and able to provide quick answers. The new tools are rapidly becoming the new standard for detecting, monitoring and quantifying pests worldwide. In this paper we will review the molecular techniques available, as well as some of our own results, discussing issues like single and multiple gene amplification, sequencing and phylogeny, genetic markers to differentiate species or individual in a species, quantitative PCR and meta-genomic sequencing.
L Khadempour, Young Woon Lim, S Massoumi Alamouti, C Breuil


Response of Terminalia mantaly H. Perrier wood to beetles tunneling in Southern Nigeria
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10918
Terminalia mantaly (TM), is extremely susceptible to beetles attack, as evidenced by the many scars and/or tunnels on nearly all the trees in the Southern Nigeria. However, information on the responses of wood to insects tunnelling is poorly known for tropical species. To examine the response of TM stem wood to beetles tunnelling in the University of Port Harcourt, we scheduled field observational visitations and measurements daily once. The tunnelling beetles were identified as Apate terebrans. All the trees responded to tunnelling through sequential exudations of resin and gum for mean duration of 47.25±8.25 and 27.42±4.83 days, respectively. Resin significantly contained higher concentrations of compound phenol ˃ tannin ˃ terpenoids ˃ alkaloids ˃ saponin than gum while gum significantly contained elevated contents of element chloride ˃ calcium ˃ Iron ˃ lead ˃ zinc compared to resin, indicating their specificity roles in the healing scenario of TM wood to A. terebrans tunnelling. Healing period was largely positively correlated with tunnel depth (r = 0.990, p<0.000), reflecting the opportunity for greater biochemical responses during the healing process. The results suggest that the resilience of TM against insects attack is highly possible, but the possibility for further degradations by secondary agents is high.
G A Adedeji, U Zakka, A A Aiyeloja, A I Ochuba


Visualization of Feeding Process of Larvae of the Wood-boring Beetles Using X-ray Computer Tomography
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10953
X-ray computer tomography (CT) was applied to observe the movement of the larvae of the wood-boring beetles Lyctus brunneus, Lyctus africanus, and Heterobostrychus aequalis inside the infested wood specimens. The larvae bred with artificial diet were inserted into the hole of wood specimens of rubber wood Hevea spp. or Japanese oak Quercus crispula. The wood specimens with larvae were scanned using the microfocus X-ray CT system every 3 to 7 days. In the CT images, with the voxel size of 61.9 μm, the figures of the larvae and other stages of the beetles were clearly visible and were distinguished from wood, tunnels, and frass. It was also possible to trace the movement of larvae, mostly along the fiber direction. However, all of the larvae of H. aequalis had hardly bored and had pupated or died near the inner surface of the specimen, in this study. The CT images were also used to evaluate the amount of wood bored by a larva. The larva was traced until pupation and the time courses of tunnel length and volume were estimated by measuring the changes in the length and volume of the tunnel in pixels. Thus mean tunnel length and volume of larvae of L. brunneus or L. africanus are estimated to by 1.89 mm and 6.64 mm3, or 1.38 mm and 3.12 mm3 per day, respectively.
Y Yanase, H Watanabe, I Fujimoto, T Yoshimura, Y Fujii


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