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Remedial treatment of joinery. Comparison of distribution of organic solvent preservative and ammonium bifluoride
1978 - IRG/WP 3115
It is some years since it was recognised in the United Kingdom that there was a problem of premature decay in untreated external joinery. Consequently, recommendations for preservative treatment were made by the Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory. In addition, the National House-Building Council has also included the preservative treatment of external joinery in its requirements. Thus, a large proportion of external joinery manufactured in the U.K. is now preservative treated, mainly in double vacuum impregnation plants. There still remain, however, relatively new buildings where preservative treatment has not been specified and where fungal decay is a problem. Decay occurs most frequently in the lower horizontal members such as cills, and the lower rails of opening lights. The damage is often most severe at the joints, where entry of water is facilitated by exposure of end grain. In some circumstances such as in Local Authority buildings where some of the more exposed joinery has already decayed, it has been considered economic to treat the remaining sound or near-sound joinery in situ in order to prevent future attack and to arrest any slight decay that may already be present. This treatment is normally applied by injecting organic solvent preservative under pressure in the region of the joints and where considered necessary along the lower horizontal member. As an alternative method of treatment, we have investigated the possible use of ammonium bifluoride, since diffusion of gaseous hydrogen fluoride may be expected to penetrate more extensively into wet timber than organic solvent preservative. The work described below was carried out in order to assess the comparative penetration of fluoride and organic solvent preservative in redwood (Pinus sylvestris).
J M Taylor


Fluoride movement through Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber following dipping in potassium/ammonium bifluoride
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40040
The ability of ammonium and potassium fluoride to diffuse through Douglas-fir and hem-fir lumber was evaluated over a 90 day period. Boards were dipped in a solution containing 10% (by weight) of ammonium and potassium bifluoride, then stored under cover for 90 days. Samples removed 30, 60 and 90 days after treatment indicated that the fluoride was unable to completely penetrate the wood. Penetration was markedly better in hem-fir, reflecting the greater permeability of this species. Increasing the dipping time had only a marginal effect on chemical uptake. Longer diffusion periods also had little effect on fluoride movement. Chemical assays of increment cores removed from the boards indicated that most of the chemical was detected in the outer 5 mm, although fluoride was present 5 to 15 mm from the surface. The results suggest that fluoride treatment can not completely diffuse through freshly sawn lumber at levels which would confer protection against many wood inhabiting organisms.
J J Morrell, C S Love


Observations on the colonization of freshly-felled timber treated with prophylactic chemicals by mould and sapstain fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1394
Field tests using freshly felled pine sapwood were set up to determine the effectiveness of a range of antisapstain compounds and to study the problems of colonization by mould and sapstain fungi. Differences were recorded both in the overall performance of the compounds and also their selectivity in controlling specific fungal types. These results were found to be useful in gaining a better understanding of biocide - fungal interactions.
G R Williams, D A Lewis


The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and chromium. When related to the retention of both salts after impregnation, no differences could be found between samples previously treated with anti-blue-stain preservatives and untreated samples. However, the retention of CC diminished significantly by application of quaternary ammonium compounds.
M Van der Zee, W J Homan


Kinetic modelling of adsorption of quaternary ammonium compounds by Scots pine wood sawdust (Pinus sylvestris L.)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30369
The adsorption of new quaternary ammonium compounds from aqueous solutions onto Scots pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) sawdust was studied. The pseudo first- and second- order kinetic models were used for the mathematical description of the sorption dynamic process of QACs onto wood. The highest correlation coefficients were obtained for the pseudo-second order kinetic model, those suggest that chemisorption is involved in the adsorption process.
J Zabielska-Matejuk


Conditions for basidiospore production in the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum separium in axenic culture
1984 - IRG/WP 1232
Attempts to control and optimize the production of hymenial structures and basidiospore production in Gloeophyllum sepiarium in axenic culture resulted in the proposal of the following conditions as being suitable. The dikaryotic mycelia originally isolated from basidiocarps could consistently be induced to produce hymenial structures and pure basidiospore collects if illuminated by near ultraviolet light with emission maximum at 355 nm ("black light") at a temperature of 15°C on a chemically defined medium, where the concentration of the carbon and the nitrogen sources were shown to be of critical significance. The necessary conditions for basidiospore production in lignicolous fungi in general are is briefly discussed.
J Bjurman


The performance of wood preservatives in soil-bed soft rot tests
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20007
Testing the efficacy of wood preservatives in soil is recognised as a fundamental part of the assessment of long-term wood protection in ground contact. Laboratory based tests can provide a hazardous environment in which a preservative can be challenged by a range of micro-organisms. This paper presents the results of tests carried out to investigate the performance of wood preservatives in a wet soil environment using both strength loss and weight loss as the main criteria for performance assessment.
G R Williams, S Caswell


Proposed degradation pathway for quaternary ammonium compounds by mould fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10166
One group of chemicals that has attracted considerable attention as potential wood preservatives are the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Based upon results of previous research this study confirmed the degradation pathway employed in QAC-tolerant fungi. For this experiment the two dialkylammonium compounds didecyldimethylammonnium chloride and dioctyldimethylammonium chloride were used. QAC-treated wood blocks were inoculated with the tolerant fungi Gliocladium roseum and Verticillium bulbillosum. After incubation the remaining QACs were extracted with acidified acetonitrilic and HPLC was used to quantify and detect the degradation products.
J L Bürgel, J Dubois, J N R Ruddick


The effect of temperature on the rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound (AAC) wood preservative
1984 - IRG/WP 3293
The rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound wood preservative was measured by soaking samples of wood wool in various preparations of the preservative for arbitrary times followed by immediate leaching in water. The wood wool was then analysed for residual preservative. The results indicated that fixation was very rapid and increased at higher temperatures.
P Vinden


Interaction mechanisms of F/Cr/As/B type preservative and wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3183
The paper reports results of investigations on the fixation of the components of a F/Cr/As/B preservative in wood and its lignin and cellulosic components.
N Ermush, I Andersone


Evaluation of an alkyl ammonium compound as a fungicide to control sapstain and mould during diffusion storage
1984 - IRG/WP 3282
An alkyl ammonium compound ('Akzo' ES 255) was evaluated for its effectiveness against mould and sapstain during diffusion storage of boron-treated rubber wood. Though ES 255 at 1.0% concentration was effective against mould (71%) and sapstain (89%) it is less satisfactory compared to 0.5% sodium pentachlorophenoxide against mould (92%) and sapstain (98%).
R Gnanaharan


Effect of borate on uptake and efficacy of an anti-sapstain treatment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30380
The potential for using borates to enhance uptake and efficacy of propiconazole-based anti-sapstain chemicals was assessed on ponderosa pine sapwood wafers. Borates had no consistent effect on either net solution absorption or propiconazole distribution in the wood. Even small amounts of borate, however, markedly improved the performance of propiconazole against fungal discoloration. These results are consistent with previous tests of borate addition to other fungicides and highlight the potential for using less expensive ingredients to boost the performance of more costly biocides.
Jianju Luo, Hua Chen, J J Morrell


Antifungal properties of new quaternary ammonium and imidazolium salts against wood decay, staining and mould fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30347
The biological activity of twenty-four potential wood preservatives – imidazolium and quaternary ammonium salts with a modified anion structure was determined employing screening agar-plate and agar-block methods. Experiments were carried out on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood. The aim of the performed studies was to investigate the effect of structure modification of IC and QAC with organic anions or copper (ll) and zinc complexes on their biological activity against wood decay, staining and mould fungi. The fungicidal value of new compounds for Coniophora puteana ranged from 0.64 kg/m3 to 2.2 kg/m3. Aspergillus niger turned out to be the most resistant fungus to the action of modified IC and QACs, whereas Sclerophoma pityophila was effectively inhibited by the examined salts. The performed soil-block tests showed that the IC and QAC were leached from the experimental wood in conditions of contact with moist soil and revealed their fungal detoxification by mould fungi, especially by Gliocladium roseum. Observations made using the scanning electron microscope of the colonization and decay of treated wood by mould fungi confirmed tolerance of mould fungi to QACs.
J Zabielska-Matejuk, W Wieczorek


A potential anti-sapstain chemical for sawmills
1984 - IRG/WP 3300
Several biocidal formulations were tested under laboratory conditions in order to discover an alternative antisapstain chemical to chlorophenoxides. The formulations tested were experimental water solutions containing a quaternary ammonium chloride, a commercial fungicide and/or a sodium salt of some carboxylic acids. The effect of sodium carbonate and borax decahydrate in mixture with a quaternary compound was also examined. The best cost-effectiveness was obtained with trimethylcocoammoniumchloride in combination with a sodium salt of a branched-chain aliphatic acid. This finding was later confirmed in pilot and mill scale tests.
I A Linderborg


The Chemical and Biological Properties of Polymeric Betaine
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30512
Didecyl polyoxyethyl ammonium borate (DPAB), also known as Polymeric Betaine, was developed as a co-biocide for chromium-free copper based wood preservatives in Europe in the 1980’s. DPAB as a wood preservative has been reported previously. This paper summarizes the chemical, physical, and biological properties of DPAB.
H Härtner, S Schmitt, Futong Cui, H M Barnes


Leaching results of shower test on L-joints with boric acid, bifluoride and TBTO rods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50051
As part of the EC-project "Improvement of a local preservation process for wood products with reduced environmental impact", TNO has performed a leaching test on L-joints treated with pills with boric acid (Defence corner), bifluorides (Woodpil 55) and TBTO (Woodcap). The L-joints were exposed in an adapted shower test during 10 days, using 70 liters of water per day. The experiment is designed to measure leaching under extreme service conditions. Spruce and pine, painted and unpainted L-joints were compared. In general leaching was the highest in spruce. The L-joints treated with boric acid pills showed the highest leaching, with very small differences between painted and unpainted L-joints. Leaching from fluoride and TBTO treated L-joints was even slightly higher than in painted L-joints. From these results it is suggested, that the active ingredients predominantly leach from the end grains in the open joint area of the timber. A higher water run off rate from longitudinal surfaces in painted L-joints could explain for the higher leaching rate in these samples
P Esser, M J Boonstra, W L D Suitela, A J Pendlebury


Natural exposure weathering tests: Their role in the assessment of wood preservative efficacy
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20006
Previous work has demonstrated the potential and usefulness of natural ageing procedures in e evaluation of wood preservative efficacy. This results from the combination of physico-chemical influences and microbiological interactions with both substrate and wood preservative. In this paper, results are presented for a range of biocide types. Discussions are centred on the value of natural exposure weathering tests for preservative efficacy assessment and the importance of biological persistence in the design of effective wood preservatives.
G R Williams, J Brown


The fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10263
This work focuses on the biodegradation of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) by the mould fungus Gliocladium roseum within a woody matrix. Three sawdust types, distinguished by their treatment and amount of DDAC retained, were inoculated with the fungus and their DDAC loss was measured over 11 weeks. The rates of degradation varied depending on the sawdust; however, a significant loss of DDAC was observed for all three. A metabolic by-product coincided with the fungal degradation of DDAC. The metabolite was separated using preparative HPLC and identified by proton-NMR and infrared spectroscopy to be a hydroxylated QAC.
J W Dubois, J N R Ruddick


Composting of waste building up in sawmill dipping basins
1990 - IRG/WP 3570
We have studied composting of waste building up in dipping basins at sawmills although this waste can also be disposed of by incineration. Controlled composting within the sawmill area seems to be a feasible method. Another possibility is to accomplish composting directly at the local dumping site. Waste containing antistain chemicals is generally classed as hazardous. It cannot therefore be placed as such at common dumps. However after successful composting the permission to do so can probably be obtained. The composted dipping basin waste might also be suitable as land filling or in some cases as soil improvement material - at least in parks and green belt areas.
I A Linderborg, U Ek


Adsorption of ACQ and CuMEA Wood Preservatives in Red pine
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30374
The rates of stabilization or fixation of ACQ subcomponents (CuO, DDAC and MEA) in red pine (Pinus resinosa) were compared for different solution concentrations (0.75%, 1.5%, 2.25% and 3% ACQ-D) and post treatment conditioning temperatures. Preservative solutions were impregnated into red pine sapwood by a full-cell treatment. Copper and MEA adsorptions from copper monoethanolamine solutions without DDAC were also evaluated for comparison. After the treatments, samples were conditioned without drying either at 22° C for seven weeks or at 50° C for one week. At different times after treatment, expressate from the specimen blocks was analyzed for copper, DDAC and MEA. Copper and MEA adsorption by the wood cell walls followed similar trends. The equilibrium copper adsorption ranged from 44% at high ACQ retentions to about 95% for the lowest retention while the values in the CuMEA system were slightly higher for the higher retentions, ranging from about 54% to 93%. This suggests that DDAC may compete with CuMEA for reaction sites at high ACQ concentrations. Adsorption of DDAC into the wood cell wall matrix was rapid; at all solution concentrations, more than 80% of DDAC was adsorbed by red pine sapwood within minutes after treatment.
C Tascioglu, P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Fungitoxic effect of the quaternary ammonium compounds preservatives against Basidiomycetes by using agar-plate and agar-block methods
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30118
Results of investigations on the fungitoxic value of three versions of wood preservatives based on the quaternary ammonium compounds (lauryldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, lauryldimethyl-benzylammonium bromide and alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride) and borates in relation to the wood destroying fungi have been presented. The agar-plate (screening) and agar-block method were applied. A wide range of the fungitoxic activity of all the three formulations and a very small leachability were proved.
J Wazny, P Rudniewski


Toxic value estimation of wood preservatives by using the probit analysis
1990 - IRG/WP 2348
As it was assumed from previous experiments, the probit analysis appears to be the most suitable method of all used to estimate the toxic value of wood preservatives. With the help of the classical agar-block method the probit analysis was tested for its suitability in: 1) fungitoxic value estimation of the WR-3 preservative (quaternary ammonium compound + borate), as compared to different test fungi (Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Lentinus lepideus, Poria placenta, Serpula lacrymans), and 2) in leaching value estimation by the mycological method (Coniophora puteana)
J Wazny, K J Krajewski


Evaluating the potential of amine chemicals for use as wood protecting agents. Part 1: Investigation of cation components of quaternary ammonium compounds
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30049
Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) have shown a great potential as more environmentally acceptable wood preservatives. In order to identify chemicals possessing the wood protecting potential, an evaluation was carried out of a range of commercially available 'quats', using a modified soil block test. Ponderosa pine sapwood blocks were treated with selected 'quat', leached with water and sterilized with gamma radiation. The blocks then were exposed to Postia placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor in soil jars. After incubation at 25°C for twelve weeks, weight losses of the blocks after the test were calculated and the fungal toxic threshold determined. The four 'quats' examined were very effective in preventing attack of ponderosa pine sapwood blocks by the three fungi.
Hang Tang, J N R Ruddick


Tests with ammoniacal copper and alkyl ammonium compounds as wood preservatives
1984 - IRG/WP 3299
Formulations based on copper and alkyl ammonium compounds in ammonia solution have been tested in a fungus cellar on Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica. This type of products gives promising results as wood preservatives, especially on hardwood and are safe to destroy by e.g. combustion. The best results were achieved with a dialkyl ammonium compound, Cu/octyldecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (NH3). The optimal weight ratio of Cu/AAC is for Pinus radiata = 0.2-0.4 and Fagus sylvatica = 1.0 based on cost-effectiveness. Fixation and leaching of coppertetrammine are discussed in detail. The leaching of active components from the Cu/AAC/NH3-systems is very low.
C-E Sundman


The effect of chemical treatment on the moisture distribution of Pinus radiata D.Don subjected to wick action
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40135
Radiata pine sapwood stakes were treated with a range of chemicals, including an ammoniacal copper quaternary ammonium compound (ACQ), a copper-chrome and arsenic (CCA) solution and a CCA-oil treatment, potassium linoleate copper linoleate, a paraffin wax and a proprietary alkyd resin. The effect of these treatments on the extent of water absorption and moisture movement through the stakes was investigated. Results indicate that pre-treatments could affect uptake and flow of water through the wood, which in time could be attributed to the properties of the solutions and whether they had surface active, bulking or water repellent attributes.
J Hann, P Vinden


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