Your search resulted in 78 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Qualifying ecotoxicity research on tropical hardwood leachates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50096
Almost as a rule, quantification and identification of various types of environmental contamination is grounded on chemical evaluation principles. Yet for monitoring surface water pollution, aquatic bio-assays may provide a more direct way to assess the potential hazard of environmental samples. A battery of such tests is experienced onto leachates of tropical hardwoods used in ground and water co...
G M F Van Eetvelde, P Marchal, M Stevens
Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility ...
Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons ...
B R Richards, D A Webb
Use of vermiculite as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of treated wood
1989 - IRG/WP 3547
It is considered the possibility of using vermiculite instead of soil as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of wood treated with preservatives for agricultural use. Three organic preservatives were used. It had been tested the behaviour of both, vermiculite and soil in case of preservative leaking due to a leach. So that, assays of germination with cucurbitaceous were carried out, mixing a dose ...
M V Baonza Merino, D Franco
Utility, deterioration and preservation of marine timbers in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40314
Timber is extensively used in India in the marine environment for various purposes due to its several advantages over modern materials. Infact, its use is increasing in recent years, finding wider and wider applications and this scenario is not going to change in the near future. Though, the bio-deterioration problem is found very severe in tropical waters, still indigenous methods are widely empl...
B Tarakanadha, M V Rao, M Balaji, P K Aggarwal, K S Rao
Creosote movement from treated wood immersed in fresh water: Initial PAH migration
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50201
Creosote has a long history of successful use as a wood preservative, but polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this preservative have raised environmental concerns, particularly when creosote-treated wood is used in aquatic environments. A number of models have been developed to predict the risk of creosote use in aquatic environments, but one limitation of these models is a lack of data o...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell, J Simonsen, S T Lebow
Effect of leaching temperature and water acidity on the loss of metal elements from CCA treated timber in aquatic conditions. Part 2: Semi-industrial investigation
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-13
In continuation of previous leaching research on the quantification and modelling of metal elements released from CCA treated timber, a series of experiments has been carried out dealing with the influence of temperature and pH of the relative aquatic environment. The leaching method used is the Dutch prestandard for building materials, a long term static leaching test simulating practical bank-sh...
G M F Van Eetvelde, W J Homan, H Militz, M Stevens
Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Fore...
Laboratory simulation of leaching from creosote treated wood in aquatic exposures
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50157
Creosote has a long history of use as a preservative particularly in industrial wood products, but its use has come under increasing scrutiny as a result of concerns about its potential effects on aquatic and terrestrial non-target organisms. Despite its long use, there is relatively little data on the rates of creosote loss in many exposures. In this report, we describe small scale leaching tank ...
Ying Xiao, J Simonsen, J J Morrell
A case for adopting a standardised protocol of field and laboratory bioassays to evaluate a potential soil termiticide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20275
The rationale for adopting a new approach to the field testing of potential soil termiticides is advocated on the grounds that current testing methods are limited to termite bioassays and do not address quantitatively the persistence and bioavailability of soil termiticides to foraging subterranean termites over time and in different soil types. Furthermore, the present testing regimes assume fiel...
J R J French, B M Ahmed
Preliminary studies of the decay mechanism of some brown-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1402
The importance of the enzymatic degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose by brown-rot fungi is still under discussion. Endo-ß-1,4-xylanase and endoglucanase activities of Coniophora puteana and Poria placenta cultures were measured by the increase in reducing groups. Enzymes were produced in liquid and solid sawdust based culture media. Enzyme activities were measured in two, four and eight wee...
A-C Ritschkoff, H Viitanen
An appraisal of methods for environmental testing of leachates from salt-treated wood; part 1
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50115
The magnitude and diversity of leaching tests with salt-treated wood, performed by institutes as well as industry, strongly appeal for harmonisation towards one single method. That procedure should be well-defined, cost- and time-effective and moreover be extended with a clear detection and interpretation scheme. The paper(s) presented here tend to evaluate 2 existing leaching methods, the ENV 12...
G M F Van Eetvelde, M Stevens, F Mahieu, H-W Wegen, A Platen
Composting of waste building up in sawmill dipping basins
1990 - IRG/WP 3570
We have studied composting of waste building up in dipping basins at sawmills although this waste can also be disposed of by incineration. Controlled composting within the sawmill area seems to be a feasible method. Another possibility is to accomplish composting directly at the local dumping site. Waste containing antistain chemicals is generally classed as hazardous. It cannot therefore be place...
I A Linderborg, U Ek
Detection of a brown-rot fungus using serological assays
1986 - IRG/WP 1305
Polyclonal antisera produced to Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke were used in two tests to qualitatively assay for the fungus. Fungal hyphae were fixed to slides and fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques used to visualize the hyphae under the microscope. Fluorescence of non-Poria fungi, when present, could be reduced but not eliminated by cross-absorbing the sera with these fungi. The antisera was also u...
B Goodell, J Jellison
Protection of southern pine using N,N-Napthaloylhydroxylamine: Field tests, soft-rot cellars and aquatic bioassay leach testing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30204
Recent environmental restrictions are limiting the use of broad-spectrum biocides for wood preservation. There is an urgent need for new, sharply targeted, environmentally benign wood preservatives. N'N-Napthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA), a water-soluble calcium-precipitating agent, has been shown to inhibit decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi in soil-block tests and prevent damage by Easte...
D M Crawford, F Green III
New approaches to practical evaluation method of bio-degradation of wooden construction - Non-destructive detection of defects using radar technique
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20214
There have been a number of researches and developments on the techniques and apparatus for the nondestructive evaluation of the biological deterioration in wood and wooden constructions, such as decay or insect attack in house, public buildings or in historically important architectures. As for the detection of the decay in wood, techniques using sound in audible or in ultrasonic frequency ranges...
Y Fujii, Y Komatsu, Y Yanase, S Okumura, Y Imamura, M Tarumi, H Takiuchi, A Inai
Laboratory testing of wood natural durability - In soil-bed assays
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20141
Laboratory methods for assessing wood decay resistance are being investigated in the framework of an ongoing European research project. This paper summarizes the main results obtained for soil-bed tests based on the European prestandard ENV 807-Test 2. The data suggest that this testing methodology is suitable for evaluating the natural durability of timber species in soil-contact under conditions...
R Sierra-Alvarez, I Le Bayon, J K Carey, I Stephan, J Van Acker, M Grinda, G Kleist, H Militz, R-D Peek
Fumigation of New Zealand grown western red cedar for export markets
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30262
The objective of this study was to demonstrate that methyl bromide fumigant penetrates into the centre of western red cedar (Thuja plicata L.) timber to meet the standard for export markets. Kiln dried western red cedar was used and a cavity (50x 30 x 13mm3) was prepared into the centre of each sample board (500 x 200 x 26 mm3 thick). An absorbent sachet used in industry for cross checking that th...
B Kreber, G Durbin, D Wilson
Scandinavian experience – 25 years’ experience in transforming used creosoted wood into bio-fuel
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-18
Swedish experiences show that the best and most efficient way to handle the creosoted wood waste is through combustion. The preparation of creosoted waste wood to fuel chips at IQR AB’s plant in Trollhättan is done by splinting the wood according to a special method. Mainly railroad sleepers, but also other wooden commodities, from all over Europe are delivered to the plant. The wood material i...
The biological effectiveness of wood modified with heptadecenylsuccinic anhydride against two brown rot fungi: Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3705
A modified soil block test was carried out using wood samples reacted with heptadecenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). This modification gave good resistance to decay brought about by the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum during the twelve week exposure period. Results indicated that there was a good correlation between increased loading of modifying reagent and an increase in ...
C Codd, W B Banks, J A Cornfield, G R Williams
Étude de l'impact d'un xénobiotique sur le milieu aquatique: Approche méthodologique
1990 - IRG/WP 3586
L'action de xénobiotiques sur les communautés vivantes des écosystèmes lénitiques a été abordée à des échelles spatiotemporelles différentes. Dépassant le niveau des tests monospécifiques, nous avons effectué des essais en laboratoire sur des microcosmes contenant des végétaux ( Lemna minor ) et des bactéries et également sur des bassins de quelque m³ contenant une gran...
G Blake, G Merlin
Comparison of Temporal Changes in Metal Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity from Wood Treated with CCA and Alternative Preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50236
This study compares the temporal variation of chemical leaching and aquatic toxicity of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and other copper-based wood preservatives (alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper boron azole (CBA), copper citrate (CC) and copper dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC)). Treated wood blocks were leached for 21 days and the leachate collected was analyzed for prese...
B Dubey, T G Townsend, G Bitton, H M Solo-Gabriele
Screening of the technical performance and aquatic toxicity of N-methylolacrylamide treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40166
In the course of the last decades chemical modification of wood species, with a limited natural durability, has been subjected to intensive research. As a possible alternative and supplementary treatment of non-durable wood in a range of applications it remains one of the major topics in the wood preservation world. Different modification systems have been scaled-up and are now in an industrialisi...
V Rijckaert, S De Geyter, J Van Acker, M Stevens
Performance of Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) treated panels of Bombax ceiba and Paraserianthus falcataria against bio-deterioration at Krishnapatnam harbour, east coast of India
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30310
Results of investigations on the durability of light weight timber species (Specific gravity below 0.4) i.e., Bombax ceiba and Paraserianthus falcataria in treated and untreated condition conducted at Krishnapatnam harbour (Lat 13o28’ to 13o59’ N; Long: 80o10’ to 80o16’E) along the east coast of India are reported in the paper. Exposure trails were conducted with panels (Size: 30 x 3.8 x...
B Tarakanadha, N R Raveendra Prasad, K S Rao
Effect of leaching temperature and water acidity on the loss of metal elements from CCA treated timber in aquatic applications. Part 1: Laboratory scale investigation
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50046
In order to investigate the applicability of current prestandard leaching test methods, a series of experiments has been performed on CCA impregnated wood dealing with the influence of pH, temperature and agitation of the surrounding water. The leaching method used in this first part of the investigation is the European prestandard drafted by CEN/TC38/WG11, a short term dynamic leaching test under...
G M F Van Eetvelde, R J Orsler, G E Holland, M Stevens