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Antifungal activity of a stilbene glucoside from the bark of Picea glehnii
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10402
Stilbene glucosides are widely distributed as phenolic extractives in the bark of Picea glehnii, a commercially species planted in the northern area of Japan, and its content reaches to more than 10% by the dried weight of the bark. Although antifungal activities of these compounds have been reported, the mechanism of growth inhibition is still unclear. Isorhapontin (5,4'-dihydroxy-3&...
S Shibutani, M Samejima


Influence of bark damage on bluestain development in pine logs
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10197
Mechanized harvesting of conifers can lead to extensive bark damage, with the resulting wounds providing suitable entry points for bluestain fungi that are not associated with bark beetle vectors. However, the amount of bluestain colonisation can vary greatly between the different types of wound. To evaluate the effect of wound type seven different types of wounds were artificially created on fres...
A Uzunovic, J F Webber, D J Dickinson


Feasibility of AE (Acoustic Emission) monitoring for the detection of the activities of wood-destroying insects
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2416
The feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) as a nondestructive testing method for the detection of the wood destroying insects was investigated. AEs were detected from the wood specimens under feeding attack of sugi bark borers or powder-post beetles. However, the feasible monitoring area of an AE sensor is influenced by the attenuation of AE amplitude, so that this could be a problem in the practi...
Y Fujii, Y Imamura, E Shibata, M Noguchi


Influence of the peeling on the absorption in the sap displacement method
1990 - IRG/WP 3626
Results of tests on the Eucalyptus and pine fenceposts treated by sap displacement method are presented. Freshly cut post 2 m in length and 8 to 16 cm in diameter were placed for 6 days with their butt ends down in water soluble preservative solution (CCF) to a depth of about 65 cm, and these were inverted and kept in the same way for 3 days more. The treatment began a few hours after felling. The...
M V Baonza Merino


Anti-feedant activity of stilbenic components from bark of Picea glehnii against a subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10447
Stilbenic components, one of polyphenolic groups, widely distributed in plant bodies have been known as anti-microbial agents, but not known whether to have anti-termite activities. A stilbene glucoside, isorhapontin, from the bark of Picea glehnii was examined on the anti-feedant activity against a subterranean Reticulitermes speratus. Isorhapontigenin, the aglycone of isorhapontin, induced from ...
S Shibutani, M Samejima, S Doi


Sapstain development on Jack pine logs in Eastern Canada
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10358
During 1998-99, a study was initiated to investigate the influence of seasons, log types and storage time on the sapstain development on jack pine logs at two sites in Eastern Canada. Jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana) were harvested into whole-tree and cut-to-length logs in spring and in autumn. Sapstain development was examined in these logs at 2 to 4 week intervals after felling. The mean stain ...
Dian-Qing Yang, R Beauregard


The relationship between blue-stain and bark beetles
1971 - IRG/WP 19
The attack of bark beetles on standing or in newly-felled stems provides special growth conditions to wood-inhabiting fungi. In the wood attacked by bark beetles, a specific and rich fungus flora is found, and from these fungi the economically important group of blueing fungi has been more thoroughly investigated. These fungi live on nutritive substances present in the cells, especially in the med...
A Käärik


Anti-fungal properties of pyrolytic oils derived from softwood bark
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30218
Thermal decomposition of balsam fir and white spruce mixed bark residues at 450°C and under vacuum (< 20 kPa abs.) results in high yields of pyroligneous liquors rich in phenolic content. This vacuum pyrolysis process has been scaled-up to a pyrolysis plant with a feed capacity of 3.5 t/h of softwood bark, which is the largest plant of this type in the world. The pyrolytic aqueous condensates ...
D Mourant, Dian-Qing Yang, Xiao Lu, C Roy


Protection of freshly felled timber against attack by bark boring insects
1981 - IRG/WP 1143
This report describes two experiments with the insecticide formulation Perigen, which contains the synthetic pyrethroid permethrin. At 0.2% w/v active ingredient individual logs were protected against bark boring beetles for 18 weeks. At 0.3% w/v active ingredients Perigen gave similar protection against insect attack to stacks of recently felled unbarked pine logs. This protection was at least eq...
J Dominik, P R Skidmore


Development of bluestain in commercially harvested logs in Britain
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10150
In Britain, mechanised harvesting of conifer forestry crops is now the preferred method of felling where terrain and access allows. However, use of mechanised harvesters can lead to excessive debarking, loosening of the bark and wood splintering with, on average, about a third of the bark removed from the more severely damaged logs. More bark has also been observed to be lost from logs harvested e...
A Uzunovic, J F Webber, D J Dickinson


Preliminary indications of the natural durability of Spruce bark board
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10312
A board material made from pressed bark, with no added adhesive, has been developed by Forintek&apos;s composites group and tested for durability by Forintek&apos;s treated-wood group and the University of Hawaii. This material was also manufactured with veneers in a one-step process. Since one role of bark on the tree is protection against pests and diseases, barkboard was expected to hav...
P I Morris, J K Grace, G E Troughton


Efficacies of an insecticide and a fungicide for preventing blue-stain of Japanese red pine logs
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20329
We examined blue-stain fungi on Japanese red pine at 3 forests and 2 saw mills in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The isolated ophiostomatoid fungi were Leptographium sp and Ophiostoma sp. There were 3 routes of the blue-stain; fungal growth from the spore or hypha stuck on the cross cut surfaces, fungal spread through the inner bark by bark beetles and fungal invasion around whorled knot. The larger ext...
H Taniuchi, T Koiwa, H Masuya, S Doi


Efficacies of physical barriers for preventing blue-stain of Japanese red pine logs
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20359
This paper deals with field trials on physical barriers to prevent blue stain on Japanese red pine logs using a fly screen, bark and leaves of Japanese cedar as covering materials. These barriers arrested blue stain and bark beetle attacks to low levels than control for 1 month except covering with a small amount of bark. Covering with the fly screen and a large amount of bark permissibly suppress...
H Taniuchi, T Koiwa, H Masuya, S Doi


Do insects infest wood packing material with bark following heat-treatment?
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10633
As a result of international trade, many bark- and wood-infesting insects are inadvertently transported in wood packing materials (WPM) such as crating, dunnage, and pallets. WPM is suspected as the likely pathway for most of these borers, although the exact mode of entry into the USA is unknown for all 25 borers. The top 10 countries of origin were, in decreasing order, Italy, Germany, China, Spa...
R A Haack, T R Petrice, P Nzokou, D P Kamdem


Run-off quality from sprinkled debarked logs and logs with bark from Picea abies and Pinus contorta
2007 - IRG/WP 07-50248
Storage of roundwood is necessary for efficient industrial production at sawmills and pulpmills. The need for wood storage becomes even more critical when large storm fellings create huge volumes of wood that is at risk for deterioration. In Scandinavia, the technique of sprinkling of water on roundwood is used to protect stored wood from fungal and insect infestation and drying during the summer....
M Jonsson


The Comparison of Fixation and Leachability of Bark, Fruit and Leaf Tannin Extracts with Boron Minerals
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30473
Tannins extracted from several plants have natural durability properties. Due to these properties, some of the researchers have studied them for protecting wood. In this study, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and beech (Fagus orientalis) wood samples were treated with bark, fruit, and leaf extracts as well as water-based wood preservative salts at various concentrations to increase fixation. The pen...
S Sen, C Tascioglu, K Tirak


Effect of juglone from Juglans mandshurica bark activity of wood decay fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30502
Juglone was extracted from Juglans mandshurica bark via vacuum-assisted steam stripping. The extract was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extraction process was easy to perform and produced excellent yields (0.22 g juglone/100 g of bark) of a high purity extract (96.42% juglone...
Dongmei Yang, Shuangyue Li, Shujun Li, Wenqiang Su, Yan Jin, Molong Sun


Antifungal Effect of Bark and Wood Extracts of Condalia hookerii (Rhamnaceae), Ebenopsis ebano (Fabaceae) and Helietta parvifolia (Rutaceae) on Trametes versicolor
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30532
This research detail the growing inhibition effect on Coniophora puteana and Trametes versicolor fungi caused by hot water sawdust and bark extracts of three semi-arid land species Condalia hookerii, Ebenopsis ebano and Helietta parvifolia diluted in malt extract agar medium at 2000 ppm and 10000 ppm. After 12-14 days incubation the inhibition growing effect was measured based on the difference be...
A Carrillo, J G Marmolejo, F Garza, V Bustamante, M Garza


Preference of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) for Southern Pine Blue-Stained Sapwood from Beetle-Killed Trees
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10763
Bark beetles and their associated Ophiostomatiod fungi are the major pests of pine forests in the southeastern USA, and termites are the major insect decomposers of dead trees and wood products in the southeastern USA. While both are the principal destructive insects of southern pine trees and southern pine lumber, respectively, no relationship between the two has apparently been reported in the ...
N S Little, J J Riggins, A J Londo, T P Schultz, D D Nicholas


Anti-Fungal Activity on Some Wood extracts as a Wood Protectant
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30684
In this study, six different wood barks were used, where obtained bark extracts were blended with potato-agar in order to investigate their antifungal properties. To determine the inhibition effectiveness of extractives, two different fungi; Coniophera puteana and Trametes versicolor were selected. Fungal activity was carefully observed for the duration of seven days. Following biological testing,...
Ö Özgenç, S Durmaz


Improvement of wood properties by impregnation with liquefied spruce bark based resins
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40761
In this paper, biobased phenolic thermosetting resins are designed to be used as wood stabilization treatment. The originality of the study stands in substituting part of phenol by spruce (picea abies) bark: this is achieved by a liquefaction process in phenol in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. Next, thermosetting resins are synthetized from liquefied bark by condensation on formaldehy...
X Duret, E Fredon, E Masson, P Gérardin


The Protective Effect of Different Tree Bark Extractives against Decay Fungi
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30707
There are various modification methods which increase the resistance of wooden materials. Due to recent environmental regulations, there is a need for new and environmentally-friendly wood preservatives. In this study, six different tree bark extractives were evaluated for their wood resistance against fungal degradation. For this purpose, the white rot fungi (Tramates versicolour) and brown rot f...
Ö Özgenç, S Durmaz


Chemical composition and termiticidal activity of Khaya ivorensis stem bark extracts on woods
2018 - IRG/WP 18-30723
The genus Khaya is extractives rich, but the extractives in the stem bark are among the most abundant, accessible and utilised materials in Nigeria. These extractives are of considerable interest for wood protection because of their pesticidal properties. In this study, the chemical constituents of Khaya ivorensis stem bark (KISB) and their termiticidal activity were investigated on Triplochiton s...
G A Adedeji, O Y Ogunsanwo, F S Eguankun, T O Elufioye


Application of suberin fatty acids extracted from birch bark for wood coating
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40914
It is well known that chemical modifications to improve decay resistance also reduce the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood. The mechanism of this action, however, has been the subject of much debate. Several groups have suggested that decay resistance is a result of lower diffusion rates of fungal degradation agents through the wood cell wall. A recent paper explained the fundamental prin...
A Kumar, Risto Korpinen, Veikko Möttönen