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Studies on the destruction by marine borers of fishing boats along the north-eastern Black Sea coasts of Turkey
1980 - IRG/WP 451
Marine wood-boring organisms are attacking fishing boats along the northeastern coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. The damage and the intensity of attack of Teredo navalis L in fishing boats were studied.
O A Sekendiz, R Ilhan


Report on International Conference on Marine Biodeterioration, Goa, India, January 1986
1986 - IRG/WP 4127
At the International Conference on Marine Biodeterioration - Advanced Techniques Applicable to the Indian Ocean, there were a number of papers relevant to the aims of Working Group IV of IRG. Abstracts of these papers and a brief commentary on the conference are presented.
S M Cragg


Studies on the destruction by marine wood boring organisms of fishing boats in the Eastern Black Sea of Turkey
1977 - IRG/WP 427
The present paper concerns the problem of fishing boats which are attacked by wood boring organisms in the Black Sea of Turkey. The aims of this study are: 1) to identify the marine wood boring organisms attacking fishing boats in the Northern Black Sea of Turkey; 2) to identify the wood species that are used in boat building construction and assess their durability; 3) to assess the degree of attack of the marine wood boring organisms and to evaluate the protection methods and chemicals currently applied to the fishing boats.
R Ilhan, O A Sekendiz


Evaluation of some polyurethanes as protective marine coatings for wood
1985 - IRG/WP 4115
Several polyurethane formulations were evaluated in the marine environment as possible replacements for Irish felt used on U.S. Navy minesweepers as a marine borer barrier between the main wooden hull and an outer, wooden sheathing which covers it. Pine panels coated with the candidate materials were tightly juxtaposed with untreated pine baitwood to simulate the hull/sheathing configuration, the baitwood serving as a substrate in which settling borer larve could metamorphose. Primarily, the purpose was to see if adult borers could perforate the coatings at the coating/wood interface and enter the wood beneath, however the ability of these coatings to survive in sea water for an extended time was also noted. Panels were exposed from 48 to 89 months in Panamanian waters. Teredinids were able to perforate four of the coatings from the baitwood; pholads were able to perforate all of the coatings with ease and were the major cause of coating damage at the coating/baitwood interface. None of the coating surfaces exposed directly to the sea water were damaged by teredinids or pholads, however the coatings on some of the panels were eventually reduced to tatters with large sections of the original specimen missing. This was a result of borer infestation of the underlying wood via prior pholad-induced holes which were uncovered when the panel faces were reversed in the panel/baitwood configuration during the exposure.
J D Bultman, J E Pinto


The degradation of wood by metal fastenings and fittings
1972 - IRG/WP 302
As well as the hazards of biological decay, timber used in boat building is subject to the effects of chemical decay associated with the corrosion of metallic fastenings. The title has been deliberately chosen to emphasize that in wooden construction the troubles are not just those of corrosion of the fastenings, but also the destructive secondary effects on the wood caused by the products of the corrosion processes (Plate I). For centuries the world has lived with these troubles commonly referred to as "nail sickness". In contrast to biological decay the chemical decay associated with corrosion is confined to the wood adjacent to corroded fastenings and it is regrettable that in repair work so much wood has to be replaced because of a small percentage degrade in vital spots. Before methods can be devised to overcome these troubles, it is necessary that a better understanding is reached of the mechanisms operating in the degradation process, and recent work at FPRL has thrown some light in this area. The general problem will now be considered in some detail followed by suggestions on possible preventative and remedial measures. Corrosion is the result of an electrochemical process in which the corrosive effect is proportional to the current which flows between areas of potential difference. There are a number of causes of this electrochemical effect such as dissimilar metals in contact, differences in concentration of some chemical factor such as the electrolyte or oxygen availability, stress etc. In all cases areas of different polarity are produced and corrosion only proceeds when the electrical circuit is completed by an electrolyte bridge eg sea water, and a conductor between the anodic and cathodic areas. Figure 1 shows a simple diagram of electrochemical corrosion.
L C Pinion


Construction of dhows in Kuwait
1981 - IRG/WP 465
To most people Kuwait means oil and the opulence associated with it, but to the seafarer, Kuwait means Dhows. There are as early references to the Kuwaiti Dhows as the 17th century. The Danish explorer Nebuhr in 1756 described Kuwait as having a work power of 10,000 people and 800 wooden boats involved in fishing, pearl diving, and trade. Dhows might well have been the original carriers of "The Perfumes of Arabia" referred to by Shakespeare in "Macbeth". At the coastal village of Doha, Kuwaiti shipwrights continue to build vessels that bear much resemblance to the ancient dhows. The aim of this paper is to show the construction of a traditional dhow with particular emphasis on the methods commonly used to preserve and prolong seaworthiness of these magnificent wooden ships.
A S Zainal, M A Ghannoum


Observations on the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-borers with special reference to the West Coast
1981 - IRG/WP 468
The paper highlights the economic importance of the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-destroying agencies. The annual loss involved is to the extent of over 94 million rupees. Thirty-nine spectes and one variety of woodborer have so far been recorded from India, of which Bankia campanellata, Bankia carinata, Bankia rochi, Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo clappi, Teredo furcifera, Nausitora hedleyi, Martesia striata, Sphaeroma terebrans, and Sphaeroma annandalei are widely distributed and quite destructive. Of the 59 timber species used in the construction of fishing craft, all are quickly damaged by these pests. Timber species which are in good demand for boat building are Tectona grandis, Artocarpus hirsutus, Calophyllum ionophyllum, Hopea parviflora, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Mangifera indica, Melia composita, Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Pterocarpus marsupium, Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabarica, Terminalia alata, Terminalia paniculata, Tetrameles nudiflora and Xylia xylocarpa. Materials used for the indigenous methods of preservation of boats have been included together with details of special preparations. Crude fish oil, cashew nut shell oil, poon seed oil, neem seed oil, crude engine oil, red-ochre, lime plaster, animal fat, castor oil, ground nut oil, coal tar, karanjel oil and 'chandrus' constitute a series ingredients, used either alone or in various combinations. The indigenous preservative formulations have no particular efficacy to prevent biodeterioration, with the result the problem persists much to the disadvantage of the fishing industry.
L N Santhakumaran, J C Jain


Main problems of Turkish wooden boat manufacturers
1982 - IRG/WP 485
The best transportation system to the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey has been since the earliest history sea transportation. As is well known the historical 'silk road' from Europe to the Far East and China was over the Black Sea and via Trabzon. During the last five years also this same connecting route has become very important for the transportation of food and industrial products from the West to the Middle East. Two other factors that are influencing the building of boats in this region are the local rich forest resources and fishing facilities. It can be pointed out that 80% of the Turkish sea food is produced in the Black Sea region, which amounts to 380,000 tons per year. Therefore the main purpose of boat building in this area can be attributed to the needs of the fishing industry
R Ilhan


Observations on the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-borers with special reference to the West Coast
1981 - IRG/WP 472
The paper highlights the economic importance of the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-destroying agencies. The annual loss involved is to the extent of over 94 million rupees. Thirty-nine spectes and one variety of woodborer have so far been recorded from India, of which Bankia campanellata, Bankia carinata, Bankia rochi, Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo clappi, Teredo furcifera, Nausitora hedleyi, Martesia striata, Sphaeroma terebrans, and Sphaeroma annandalei are widely distributed and quite destructive. Of the 59 timber species used in the construction of fishing craft, all are quickly damaged by these pests. Timber species which are in good demand for boat building are Tectona grandis, Artocarpus hirsutus, Calophyllum ionophyllum, Hopea parviflora, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Mangifera indica, Melia composita, Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Pterocarpus marsupium, Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabarica, Terminalia alata, Terminalia paniculata, Tetrameles nudiflora and Xylia xylocarpa. Materials used for the indigenous methods of preservation of boats have been included together with details of special preparations. Crude fish oil, cashew nut shell oil, poon seed oil, neem seed oil, crude engine oil, red-ochre, lime plaster, animal fat, castor oil, ground nut oil, coal tar, karanjel oil and 'chandrus' constitute a series ingredients, used either alone or in various combinations. The indigenous preservative formulations have no particular efficacy to prevent biodeterioration, with the result the problem persists much to the disadvantage of the fishing industry.
L N Santhakumaran, J C Jain


The present status of wooden catamarans of the Indian Coast
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10231
Catamarans (a.k.a. kattumarams) are the most widely used fishing craft in India, and hundreds of thousands of poor, traditional fishermen depend on these vessels for their livelihood that are almost made entirely of wood. In recent years, acute shortages and phenomenal increases in prices of timber species used in catamaran fabrication have been reported, causing great hardship to the user community. Further, the patterns of usage are based on age-old practices and not on scientific lines, resulting in significant waste of timber during fabrication and use. This paper, while highlighting the importance and benefit of usage of catamarans in the Indian context, stresses the need for introduction of steps to ameliorate the current losses, and outlines the various research and development efforts undertaken in this direction. Of special importance in this context is the on-going World Bank-aided program on catamarans, being handled at the Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore.
K S Rao


Borer fauna of Iran biodeterioration of wooden boats in Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10230
In Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman (Indian Ocean) there are thousands of wooden boats from the time of Acheamenian and Sassand dynasti when India was a part of the Persian Empire. Now after 2500 years again, the Indian timbers specially Tectona Grandis and other Indian timbers and also tropical woods of Zanzibar (Tanzania) are brought to the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman (Indian Ocean). Unfortunately the woods are not pressure impregnated but the boats are made from many kinds of woods (indigenous and exotic) and with bad oil impregnation (local impregnation). As a result the wooden boats are very badly attacked by different borers. None of the timber species currently in demand for boat building possesses any natural bioresistance, and will be completely destroyed within 6 to 12 months. The Iranian ministry of Jihad (reconstruction) should use pressure impregnation of wood with preservative chemicals, but the impregnation is inadequate. The need for long-term research in the field of marine biodeterioration for improving the efficiency of currently known control measures, with emphasis of application of non-polluting biological methods has been suggested in this paper.
P Niloufari


Serpula lacrymans – calcium, iron, and foundering wooden boats
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10691
Serpula lacrymans is one of the most destructive wood-degrading brown rot fungi in temperate environments. Its virulence has often been linked to its ability to grow over non-woody materials and extract calcium (Ca) or iron (Fe) to promote wood degradation in buildings. This fungus has also been a severe problem in historic wooden warships and in modern wooden vessels, sometimes leading to foundering (break up) in high seas. In recent work, we have found evidence supportive of the theory that S. lacrymans can translocate and utilize elements from non-woody sources. In the research presented here, we provide data that complement earlier work suggesting that calcium can actually inhibit wood degradation by this fungus, while iron impurities can relieve this apparent stress. Oxalate analysis from agar, as well as SEM-EDS imaging of calcium oxalate crystals and direct hyphal contact with gypsum substrates, suggest calcium may bind oxalate non-productively and may limit its role in iron sequestration. Work by other researchers showing calcium can inhibit oxalate from detoxifying copper and showing supplemental iron may help fungi overcome copper-based preservatives support our observations. These results relate directly to cultural management of this destructive fungal pest and lend mechanistic information on the role of oxalate during brown rot.
J S Schilling, S M Duncan


Selection of an appropriate coating system for wooden boats to be used in fresh water
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40472
Properties of several, most commonly used protective low-price coatings, which are used by the pletnja boat owners in Bled, Slovenia, were extensively studied. The aim of this professional, practically oriented study was to compare various coating systems, and to recommend the most suitable one to the boat owners. Regarding specific use conditions, the following properties, including their resistance against artificial accelerated weathering, were selected to be tested: gloss, colour, adhesion, hardness and liquid water permeability. The latter one was assumed to be of the highest importance in the selection process. The best performance was exhibited by the urethane alkyd resin based coating system, so it was suggested to the pletnja boat owners. However, other seven tested systems performed adequately as well.
M Petrič, B Kričej, A Logar, M Pavlič


Protective effectiveness of antifouling coatings for wooden boats in the Northern Adriatic Sea
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40634
There are various conventional biocide containing antifouling coatings and some more environmentally friendly paints for boats on the market. However, the question of their performance in accordance with the manufacturers’ statements or guaranties arises. The aim of our preliminary investigation was to state which type of antifouling coating exhibits better effectiveness against fouling organisms in the Northern Adriatic Sea. In order to elucidate this question, the impregnated and coated specimens of Scots pine wood were exposed to the sea water in the Port of Koper, Slovenia. The specimens were treated with different types of antifouling coatings. The most effective ones were those of the soft and hard types. On the other hand, the tested nano-based antifouling finish did not exhibit any protective efficiency against fouling.
M Petrič, M Humar, J Adamek, B Kričej