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The rate of redistribution and loss of leachable preservatives under service conditions
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30026
This paper describes experiments carried out to determine patterns of preservative redistribution and any associated losses which occur when wood containing unfixed water-soluble wood preservatives is exposed to service conditions where leaching is possible. Scots pine sapwood treated with disodium octaborate was used as a model system. Results are recorded and discussed for trials representing pa...
R J Orsler, G E Holland


The hydrolysis of organo-boron compounds in treated particleborard
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40180
Standard particleboard (manufactured for interior applications) was treated with trimethylborate and modified trimethylborate and then left to hydrolyse for specified periods. The percentage residual trimethylborate was determined by placing samples in kerosene and analysing the kerosene for boron after 3 days of leaching. There was a significant correlation between the percentage hydrolysis of tr...
K M Filcock, P Vinden


Natural exposure weathering tests: Their role in the assessment of wood preservative efficacy
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20006
Previous work has demonstrated the potential and usefulness of natural ageing procedures in e evaluation of wood preservative efficacy. This results from the combination of physico-chemical influences and microbiological interactions with both substrate and wood preservative. In this paper, results are presented for a range of biocide types. Discussions are centred on the value of natural exposure...
G R Williams, J Brown


Leaching characteristics, decay and termite resistance of treated wood with boron compounds, N'-N-(1,8-Naphthalyl) hydroxylamine (NHA-Na), and hydroxynaphthalimide (NHA-H)
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30307
Despite many advantages of boron wood preservatives, boron itself does not adequately protect wood in ground contact and exterior applications because its natural diffusibility and susceptibility to leaching. As a result of previous studies to limit or decrease boron leaching, several fixation systems have been developed. In this study, we evaluated the effects of N'-N-(1, 8-Naphthalyl) h...
S N Kartal, Y Imamura


Effect of boron compounds-furfuryl alcohol treatment of wood on dimensional stability, termite resistance and boron leachability
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40195
Sapwood blocks of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Caribbean pitch pine (Pinus caribaea) measuring 20 (tangential) x 20 (radial) x 10 (longitudinal) mm were impregnated with furfuryl alcohol (FFA) by a vacuum-diffusion process followed by curing under heating. Boron compounds (boric acid, ammonium borate and ammonium biborate) were mixed in the impregnation solution of FFA. Anti- swelling...
S K Ozaki, M K Yalinkilic, Y Imamura, M F Souza


The emission of boron compounds from treated particleboard
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40179
The emission of chemical vapours can be harmful both during treatment and service of wood and wood products. Samples of Standard particleboard (for interior use) were treated with trimethylborate, and a number of modified organo-boron compounds. Treated samples were placed immediately under a desiccator lid and air was drawn across each samples to 3 water traps. Water samples were taken after 30, ...
K M Filcock, P Vinden


Removal of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA treated wood using boron compounds
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50230
This study evaluates the copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) removal from CCA treated wood using boron compounds such as boric acid, borax (sodium tetraborate), and Timbor (DOT, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate) at varying (3 and 5%) concentrations. Remediation processes were taken at 1, 5 and 10 day intervals. Metals in remediated chips or sawdust were then analyzed using ICP and XRF. Res...
B Tarakanadha, T Hata, S N Kartal, W J Hwang, Y Imamura


Development of threshold values for boron compounds in above ground exposures: Preliminary trials
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30179
Boron is increasingly used both as an initial and remedial treatment for protecting wood against fungal and insect attack. While establishing lethal dosages for boron against insects through feeding tests is relatively simple, establishing thresholds for fungal attack poses more of a challenge. Tests using boron dispersed in agar artificially surround the fungus with both boron and excess nutrient...
J J Morrell, C M Freitag, S Unger


Bibliography on the use of boron compounds for the preservation of wood
1973 - IRG/WP 315
This bibliography is based on an earlier literature survey prepared by J. Thornton and Wm. E. Bruce (O.E.C.D. Document No. 27/DAS/CSI/M/91) which was enlarged and revised for a meeting in Paris in October 1968 (Document 27/DAS/CSI/M554) by Professor W. Bavendamm of Reinbek. The latter (1968) document with its 166 references has now been extended and brought up to date. Acknowledgments are due to B...
R Cockcroft, J F Levy


Borates as wood preserving compounds: The status of research in the United States
1989 - IRG/WP 3542
This paper describes the extensive, on-going cooperative research effort among government and university research laboratories and industry to fully evaluate the potential for borates as wood preservatives in the United States. Research is discussed in terms of laboratory evaluations, field testing and mill trials, pilot plant pressure treatment studies, and remedial treatments. Future research pl...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, L H Williams, J J Morrell


A new process for in situ polymerization of vinyl monomers in wood to delay boron leaching
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40110
Efforts were accelerated on effective use of boron compounds in wood preservation owing to their environmentally safe characteristics and relatively low costs in addition to their well-known high bioactivity and fire resistant properties. Although having these unique favorable properties, they are readily leachable from treated wood at humid conditions. Therefore, they had limited market for exter...
M K Yalinkilic, W Dwianto, Y Imamura, M Takahashi


Diazenes and some organic complexes of boron as potential fungicides for preservation of wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30197
Screening for fungicidal activity represents the first step in searching for new active components with enhanced environmental profile in comparison with traditional wood preservatives. Diazenes, their salts, and the salts of the corresponding semicarbazides, as well as several complexes of boron, were screened for fungicidal activity against wood decay fungi Trametes versicolor, Coniophora putean...
M Petric, B Paradiz, J Stern, F Pohleven, S Polanc, B Stefane, R Lenarsic


Addition of boron compounds and octanoic acid for improvement of biocidal properties and copper fixation at copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30408
Copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives became important active substance (formulation) for wood protection, novelty. As copper itself can not ensure sufficient protection against wood destroying organisms and fixation in wood we combine it with other biocides like ethanolamine, boron and octanoic acid. This investigates were performance on spruce wood impregnated with different combination o...
F Pohleven, M Humar


The response of the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) to different boron compounds
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10609
Although boric acid and other boron compounds have been used since the 1800s as insecticides, their mode of action is not well understood. Borate salts, in particular sodium and zinc formulations, are effective wood preservatives and are used extensively in Hawai’i to protect building materials from both drywood (Kalotermitidae) and subterranean (Rhinotermitidae) termites. The Formosan subterra...
M C Gentz, J K Grace


Leaching performance, decay and termite resistance of wood treated with boron compounds incorporated with phenol-formaldehyde resin
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30503
A resol-type phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin was synthesized and designed to penetrate wood incorporated with boron compounds in order to immobilize boron in wood. The leaching performance, decay and termite resistance of treated wood was investigated. Three kinds of boron compounds, that is, boric acid (BA), borax (BX) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), were selected to mix with PF and tw...
Liping Yu, Jinzhen Cao


Biological Performance of Boron-based Chemicals Treated Wood Composites
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40464
In this study, the biological performance of wood-based composites panels treated with boron containing chemicals against to a fungus was determined. Boric acid, borax, zinc borate and agricultural borate (Tarım-bor™), developed and patented by National Boron Research Institute, were mixed with wood chips or fibers and then particleboard, medium strand board and middle density fiberboar...
Ü C Yıldız, H Kalaycıoğlu, S Yıldız, A Temiz, E Tomak Dizman, A Çavdar Dönmez


Sorption properties of wood impregnated with aqueous solution of boric acid and montan wax emulsion
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40492
Non-biocidal techniques for wood protection become more and more important, nowadays. One of the possible treatments is use of water repellents. In the present research influence of, one of the possible water repellent, the montan wax emulsion, on the moisturizing and the sorption characteristic of impregnated wood was investigated. To achieve a better protection against wood decay fungi, montan w...
B Lesar, M Humar


Influence addition of boron compounds to adhesives on the bonding quality and fungicidal properties of glued wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40497
Wood is one of the most important construction materials. However, users of wood face two issues: limited dimensions and insufficient durability. These issues have been overcome with the development of bonding and wood preservation. The preservation of glued wood is elucidated in this paper. Through the addition of boric acid to adhesives, we tried to improve the fungicidal properties of glued woo...
M Humar, B Lesar, A Ugovsek, M Kariz, P Kralj, M Šernek


Effect of P/F ratio, PF concentration and treating method on boron leaching from wood treated with PF modified boron compounds
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30559
In order to immobilize boron in wood, three kinds of resol-type phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin with different P/F ratios were synthesized in laboratory and incorporated with three types of boron compounds to treat wood. The used boron compounds included boric acid (BA), borax (BX) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT). The leaching test of boron from wood blocks was performed according to the...
Liping Yu, Jinzhen Cao


The case for using borates in termite control in tropical Australia
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30573
A brief historical overview of boron based wood preservatives efficacy against subterranean termite management worldwide, and in Australia, is presented. The boron based compounds to be used in H2 hazard conditions, may be applied as a surface treatment by dip, flood coat or spray, and rapidly penetrates to the centre of timber substrates, whether containing sapwood or heartwood. However, section ...
B M Ahmed (Shiday), J R J French


Smart hydrogels from low molecular weight amphiphilic compounds: toward a solution to decrease leachability and increase efficacy of boron preservatives?
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30589
A new catanionic system associating amphiphilic carnosine (AlaHisC8) and lauric acid forms supramolecular hydrogel at very low concentration. This gel was investigated and we have checked the validity of the concept of hydrogels utilization to reduce boron leachability and to develop new wood protection treatments. Impregnation with 5% aqueous borax solution (w/w) and 0.3% gelator agent (...
F Obounou Akong, P Gérardin, C Gérardin-Charbonnier


The Effects of Industrial-Scale Heat Treatment and Impregnation with Boron Compounds on Water Uptake and Tangential Swelling of Some Wood Species
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40599
This study evaluated the effects of boron impregnation and heat treatment on water uptake and tangential swelling of spruce (Picea orientalis), pine (Pinus nigra), beech (Fagus orientalis) and poplar (Populus deltoides) wood species. The samples (10 x 5 x 40 - tangential x radial x longitudinal cm) were impregnated with 4 % boric acid and 4 % borax according to the ASTM D-1413 standard method. Aft...
A Can, S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz


Termite resistance of wood impregnated with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) modified boron compounds
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30604
In order to investigate the effect of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) modified boron compounds on termite resistance of two main plantation-grown wood species, namely, Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.), laboratory termite tests and field tests were carried out according to AWPA standard E1-97 and AWPC protocols/2007. Different concentrations of b...
Jinzhen CAO, Liping YU, Xuexiang HE


Aspects of diffusion of boron through wood
1984 - IRG/WP 3298
Boron compounds have been shown to be toxic to a wide range of wood destroying insects and fungi. They are cheap, have low mammalian toxicity and their application in the treatment of wood does not demand specialized equipment. These attributes make them specially attractive to developing countries. Currently, however, little is known about the mechanism of diffusion of boron through wood. Effecti...
S Iddi


Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi...
M-L Edlund


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