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Essais biologiques sur poteaux traités à la Wolmanit C.B. suivant le procédé Boucherie modifé
1974 - IRG/WP 336
D Lapetite, C Jacquiot, J Campredon


Untersuchungen über die Imprägnierbarkeit verschiedener türkischer Holzarten mit wirtschaftlicher Bedeutung
1976 - IRG/WP 370
Holzarten mit einer geringen natürlichen Dauerhaftigkeit können nur dann wirtschaftlich verwendet werden, wenn ihre Gebrauchsdauer durch einen zusätzlichen chemischen Schutz verlängert wird. Holzschutzmaßnahmen können nur regelmäßig geplant werden, wenn die Tränkbarkeit der verwendeten Holzarten bekannt ist. Aufgabe dieser Versuche war es daher, festzustellen, wieweit die Holzarten hinreichend getränkt werden können. In Rahmen der zur Zeit in der Türkei laufenden Entwicklungsvorhaben entstand die Frage nach den tränk-technischen Eigenschaften türkischer Holzarten, um ihre Verwendungsmöglichkeiten besser beurteilen zu können.
R Ilhan


Imprégnation de bois ronds par déplacement de sève à Madagascar
1975 - IRG/WP 352
M Fougerousse, P Guéneau


Impregnation of roundwoods by sap-displacement in Madagasca
1975 - IRG/WP 352 E
The use of roundwoods is already very important in Madagascar and steadily increasing for the following applications: - posts, electricity and telephone line supports (medium voltage) - stakes, piles for civil engineering structures, bridges, gantries, road and port works, etc. - construction of houses (posts, frameworks, piles, etc.) and rural buildings (sheds, stables, piggeries) - fence posts, vine stakes, posts for cattle pens, etc. As in all tropical, climates, the agents of destruction of standing timber are numerous and very active. Under these conditions, the natural durability of currently used species does not exceed a few years. It is necessary therefore to consider treatments for securing prolonged service life, without too much cost increase, so that users do not choose substitutes such as metal or concrete. The treatments in pressure vessels can only be applied, from an economical point of view, in regions near impregnation plants. But rural areas, too remote and badly served by transport, cannot be supplied in this way, because of the high transportation cost which has to be added to that of the treatment. This is why for a long time attention has been given to treatment processes and preservatives which can be applied without industrial equipment, at small scale sites, scattered eventually mobile. For a reasonable cost, these techniques confer to the wood a sufficient resistance to the agents of destruction, the most virulent of which are decay fungi and termites, in some cases both, depending on the area. Research in this direction has been carried out on the treatability of some Madagascan species using sap displacement.
M Fougerousse, P Guéneau


Untersuchungen über die Imprägnierbarkeit bei verschiedenen türkischer Holzarten von wirtschaftlicher Bedeutung
1976 - IRG/WP 365
Holzarten mit einer geringen natürlichen Dauerhaftigkeit können nur dann wirtschaftlich verwendet werden, wenn ihre Gebrauchsdauer durch einen zusätzlichen chemischen Schutz verlängert wird. Holzschutzmaßnahmen können nur regelmäßig geplant werden, wenn die Tränkbarkeit der gebrauchten Holzarten bekannt ist. Aufgaben dieser Versuche war es daher, festzustellen, wieweit die Holzarten hinreichend getränkt werden können. Im Rahmen der zur Zeit in der Türkei laufenden Entwicklungsvorhaben entstand die Frage nach den tränk-technischen Eigenschaften türkischer Holzarten, um ihre Verwendungsmöglichkeiten besser beurteilen zu können.
R Ilhan


A note on the distribution of copper-chrome-boric (CCB) along the culm length of freshly felled bamboo treated by modified Boucherie process
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40317
Preservative treatment of green and dry bamboo poses severe problems. A number of bamboo/ wood preservatives (Chemical formulations) for the destroying organism like fungi, borers and termites etc. In this paper we reported preliminary results of treatment of fresh green round bamboo attached with baranches by modified Boucheri process. Sample full length of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus is taken for the treatment. Bamboo culm is treated with 8% solution of copper-chrome-Boric (CCB) for 6 hours. The treatment was discontinued after six hours. When the out coming solution showed almost equivalent concentration and bamboo was removed from the equipment. Branches were removed and bamboo culm was stored under cover for slow drying to allow diffusion of salts from the vessels to the adjoining tissues. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration, retention and absorption of CCB preservative in bamboo culm.
R Lal, C N Vani


Preservative treatment of two bamboo species Borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb) and Talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb) by Boucherie method
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40262
Bamboo is widely used as a construction material in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. It is perishable in nature and highly susceptible to the attack of borer, termites and fungi. As a result, bamboo products do not last long. This short life of bamboo is increasing demand thereby increasing pressure on our homestead and natural reserve of bamboo. For this reason, it is needed to make the bamboo more durable by treating it with more simple and easy method with more effective preserving chemicals. Preservation of two bamboo species namely - borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb.) has been carried out by Boucherie method with CCB (Chromated-Copper-Boron) chemicals. It has been observed that, talla can be easily treated than borak by this method. It has also been observed that total treating time varies with species, amount of pressure applied and the length of the bamboo species. The penetration of preservative throughout the bamboo is more or less similar for both the species.
M N Islam, A S M A Huda, A K Saha, S M Mithue


Investigations of the treatability of various commercially significant Turkish timbers
1976 - IRG/WP 370 E
Timbers which naturally deteriorate quickly can only be used commercially when their life is increased by the use of chemical treatments. The treatment of the timber can only be planned on a regular basis when the treatability of the wood is known. The purpose of the experiments was therefore to determine to what extent the various types of wood could be sufficiently impregnated. The question of the resistant to treatment of Turkish timbers arose in the context of the currently running program of development in Turkey, in order to be able to judge their usefulness more accurately. The experiments were carried out on small test pieces of sapwood and inner and outer heartwood; and on poles and sleepers of the following species of wood: Abies bornmülleriana Mattf. (Bornmueller fir); Picea orientalis L. Carr. (Oriental spruce); Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine); Pinus nigra var. pallasiana (Austrian pine); Fagus orientalis L. (Turkish beech); Quercus dschorochensis K. Koch (Dschorochensis oak). The species of wood mentioned were chosen as experimental material; coal tar creosote and an aqueous solution of Wolmanit-CB were chosen as preservatives, and the techniques used were the vacuum/pressure method and a newly developed method of replacing the sap under atmospheric pressure. The technique of impregnation was such that the results are relevant to a great extent to practical situations. The analysis of the extensive data was carried out by electronic computer. The analysis used the following statistical methods: Anaylsis of variance - Correlation - Simple linear regression with graphical representation of the regression line - Multiple linear regression. The experiments were an attempt to evaluate the treatability of the various species of wood by a statistical analysis of the amount of preservative taken up and its depth of penetration. In this work a series of correlations between the amount of preservative taken up and the depth of penetration, and their dependence on the properties (of the wood) are explained.
R Ilhan


Pollution in wood preservation - Aspects and problems
1973 - IRG/WP 55
In the field of wood preservation too, pollution problems have to be considered. They originate with the wood preservatives used. The extent of pollution differs widely with the type of preservative and the treatment process used. Per unit of impregnated timber, pollution will be lower if treatment is performed in treating plants than in distributed places. It will be highest for the old type Boucherie process. Considering impregnated timber, only freshly treated material may do some harm, while pollution by timber in use mostly is negligible. In comparison with large problems such as carbonmonoxide or radioactivity, however, pollution by wood preservatives is of relatively little importance. In addition, wood preservation has various positive aspects too. Nevertheless it is essential to minimize pollution by wood preservatives as much as possible by developing new preservatives and improving the ways in which they are handled.
H Willeitner


Comparative study between dipping and boucherie method of bamboo preservation
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40324
A comparative study has been carried out between dipping and boucherie method for three major bamboo species namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) with CCB (Chromated-copper-boron). Preservative treatment has been carried out with five different concentrations of preservative (2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 6%) and four different durations of dipping (2 days, 4 days, 6 days and 8 days). It has been observed that jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) and bamboo can be treated more easily and effectively than borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and talla (Bambusa tulda Roxb.). In boucherie method, 2% concentration has been given adequate penetration of preservatives. Similarly, 6% concentrations and 8 days duration of dipping has been given better results of preservative penetration. Boron has been penetrated better than copper for all variables. Boucherie method is better than dipping method because this method can preserve a full length of green bamboo within a very short period of time.
A S M A Huda, S M Mithue, M N Islam, M O Hannan


Bamboo Protection Research: Contributions from India
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40355
Bamboo preservation has become more important in India because of Government’s directions to develop bamboo resources and adopt their rational utilization to conserve natural forests. This paper traces the development of various processes for treatment of bamboo and their effectiveness. Results obtained by various workers since 1947 when systematic work on bamboo protection was first published. Various non-pressure and pressure treatment studies carried out different bamboo species have been summarized. The results obtained in different studies have been collated to provide reference to future work. Bamboo is a non-durable material and without proper protection perishes soon. Although available cheap, it effects the resource base and colossal losses of labor for replacements. Traditional methods adopted in tribal/rural areas have not been included as there has been no systematic study to evaluate their performance. In nutshell, the presentation is an extended summary of the work published so far. Any omission is coincidental and not deliberate.
S Kumar