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Exterior weathering trials on radiata pine roofing shingles
1985 - IRG/WP 3240
A series of test roofs clad with radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) shingles that had been pressure-treated with various water-borne preservative formulations were installed at a Forest Research Institute test site in Rotorua in 1977. A further series of test roofs installed in 1978 included radiata pine shingles pressure-treated with a commercial light organic solvent preservative (LOSP). Evalua...
D V Plackett, C M Chittenden, A F Preston


Growth of two selected sapstain fungi and one mould on chitosan amended nutrient medium
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10466
In vitro studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of chitosan on growth of Leptographium procerum, Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma harzianum. Chitosan was tested at three molecular weight (MW) ranges and different concentrations formulated as either a powdered suspension or as a solution. The results generally showed that low MW chitosan produced a greater inhibitory effect on growt...
C Chittenden, R N Wakeling, B Kreber


Depletion of wood preservatives after four years' marine exposure in Mt. Maunganui harbour, NZ
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50036
This paper reports on chemical analysis of marine test samples exposed in Mt. Maunganui harbour, New Zealand from 1977 to 1981. Depletion data for a Class II CCA, a CCA-A formulation, acid copper chromate and ammoniacal copper arsenate are presented. The results suggest differences in the rate of loss of individual preservative components among the four formulations and redistribution of individua...
K J Archer, A F Preston, C M Chittenden, D R Page


In vitro studies on the effect of chitosan on mycelial growth and spore germination of decay fungi, moulds and staining fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10507
The effect of solubilised, low molecular weight chitosan on established mycelial growth of a range of decay fungi, moulds and staining fungi was investigated using nutrient medium amended with different concentrations of chitosan that ranged from 0.1 to 0.4% weight per volume (%w/v). Also, spore germination of Trichoderma harzianum and Leptographium procerum was examined on chitosan amended nutrie...
C Chittenden, B Kreber, N McDowell, T Singh


Effect of wood moisture on ability of Sphaeropsis sapinea to colonise Pinus radiata
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10311
The factors influencing colonisation of unseasoned radiata pine logs by sapstaining fungi which can result in detrimental wood discolouration, are being explored. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of wood moisture content on fungal growth and wood colouration (melanisation). Five replicate trials were set up using increment cores (10mm diameter) which were taken from ...
B Kreber, D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter


The efficacy of Sentry® as a treatment for the control of sapstain in pre-infected radiata pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30260
Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of Sentry® when used to control sapstain fungi on radiata pine branch billets stored under high fungal hazard conditions. Prior to antisapstain treatment, the billets were pre-infected with a mixed inoculum of staining fungi and held from zero to 10 days at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. This was done to produce billets with different degrees...
C Chittenden, J G van der Waals, B Kreber, R N Wakeling


Sentry®, a new antisapstain formulation for protecting logs and lumber. - Part 2: protection of lumber
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30189
Recent research conducted by Forest Research, Chemcolour Industries (NZ) Ltd. and Fletcher Challenge Forest Ltd. has resulted in the development of antisapstain formulations that meet the efficacy requirements of the New Zealand Forest industry for export logs. One treatment, called Sentry®, is now poised for commercial use in New Zealand for treating export logs, having undergone an extensive su...
R N Wakeling, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter, I Dorset, R Kuluz, J Wakeman


Marine trial progress report
1980 - IRG/WP 453
In May 1977 and May 1978, tests of new chemical formulations for the protection of timber in the sea were installed in Mt. Maunganui Harbour. Investigation into new preservatives for such usage was urgently required since it had been found that there was progressive leaching of copper from copper-chrome-arsenate treated marine piles which could lead to a reduction in their service life. Hochmann (...
A F Preston, C M Chittenden


Field performance of novel antisapstain formulations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30125
The effectiveness as antisapstain formulations of combinations of oxine copper (Cu-8), carbendazim, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, flusilazole, didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), an alkanolamine borate (SB), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), 2-n-octylisothiazolin -3-one (isothiazoline) and p-chlorophenyl-3-iodopropagilformal (CPIPF) was determined for freshly sawn, block-stacked radiata pine in th...
D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals


Biofumigation of sapstaining fungi using natural products
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10428
Control of deep-seated fungal infections in raw logs of radiata pine continues to be a challenge for achieving consistent and satisfactory protection of high value logs destined for export markets. To develop solutions for this problem, a study was undertaken to investigate inhibition of spore germination and growth of sapstaining fungi by volatiles released from a selection of natural products. ...
B Kreber, C Chittenden, R N Wakeling


Laboratory trial to identify potential in-forest treatments to control fungal pre-infections of radiata pine logs
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30220
Development of fungal infections of radiata pine logs by wood degrading fungi commences immediately after tree felling. In general, subsequent antisapstain treatments are unable to control fungal degrade on logs where the pre-treatment log storage time exceeds 2-5 days. However, use of an in-forest treatment of logs may be advantageous to log exporters to control fungal pre-infections during the p...
D R Eden, B Kreber, R N Wakeling, J G Van der Waals, C M Chittenden


Effect of bioextracts on colonisation of radiata pine sapwood by three sapstain fungi
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10485
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous bioextracts prepared following two-week incubation of forest soil, garden compost and chicken manure respectively, on the ability of Ophiostoma flocossum, Leptographium procerum and Sphaeropsis sapinea to colonise unseasoned radiata pine sapwood. The research showed that all bioextracts tested retarded the rate of fungal colonis...
J van der Waals, C Chittenden, B Kreber


Laboratory and field trials of novel antisapstain formulations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30146
This document covers the results of laboratory and field trials of combinations of fungicides formulated using a patented technology (PCT NZ 96/00143). A 3 week laboratory trial that uses radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) branch discs as a substrate was used to determine which combinations possessed a suitable spectrum of fungitoxicity against key sapstain, mould and decay fungi. In particular f...
R N Wakeling, P N Maynard, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter


Use of mixed populations of microflora to control sapstain on radiata pine
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10427
Most methods of biological control in the wood products field have focused on the use of single species of fungi or bacteria to control sapstain or decay. The approach taken in this study involved applying soil microorganisms, in combination with nutrients and various adjuvants that collectively form the biological control system. Radiata pine branch discs, autoclaved or fresh, were dipped in ...
C Chittenden, R Wakeling, B Kreber


Comparison of the FRIM and forest research laboratory methods for screening of anti-sapstain formulations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20170
Two laboratory methods for screening of anti-sapstain formulations were compared. The method adopted by the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) involved 3 weeks assessment of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) blocks, dipped in the candidate formulation and inoculated with mycelial/spore suspension of sapstain (Botryodiplodia theobromae) or decay (Schizophyllum commune) fungi, and incubated on ...
A H H Wong, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, M E Hedley, R N Wakeling


Chitosan for wood protection - state of the art
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30378
The aim of this paper was to give a state of the art description of chitosan as a wood protecting agent. Chitosan is a metal free natural compound derived from crustacean shells and is under evaluation as an environmentally benign wood protecting agent. Information from journals states that chitosan may act both fungistatically and at higher concentrations, as fungitoxic, but the mode of action is...
M Eikenes, G Alfredsen, E Larnøy, H Militz, B Kreber, C Chittenden


Time limits for holding logs to achieve successful antisapstain treatment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30126
The purpose of these trials was to determine the maximum time that logs can be left in winter and summer before treatment if sapstain, caused by pre-treatment infection, was to be prevented. Pre-treatment storage conditions representative of average temperature and humidity for the winter months of June, July and August, and of moderately severe summer conditions, for the Bay of Plenty, New Zealan...
D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter


Variable tolerance of Ophiostoma spp. and Diplodia pinea to commercial antisapstain products
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10266
A recent survey of the occurrence of sapstain fungi in New Zealand, conducted at The University of Waikato, provided the opportunity to examine fungicidal tolerance amongst new isolates. It also enabled a comparison of tolerance amongst new isolates with those used in routine antisapstain screening trials at Forest Research. A rapid antisapstain laboratory disc trial was used to determine the ext...
D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Kreber, J G Van der Waals, R N Wakeling, R L Farrell, T Harrington


Effect of origin and orientation of Radiata pine substrates on the development of fungal degrade
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30221
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different radiata pine substrates on colonisation by sapstain fungi. Freshly-cut branch wood, stem wood and sawn lumber were used to prepare test samples with the largest wood surface area showing a transverse, radial or tangential face. Test samples were evaluated against sapstain fungi using a rapid laboratory antisapstain screening m...
B Kreber, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter, J G Van der Waals


Sentry®), a new antisapstain formulation for protecting logs and lumber. - Part 1: advances in protection of New Zealand radiata pine logs
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30188
Until recently antisapstain formulations gave approximately 10 weeks protection to radiata pine logs and even within this time frame protection was often not consistent. Industry requires 20 weeks protection. The degree of protection sought by industry is in the order of 90-95%. For example, this equates to a maximum of 5 - 10% surface cover of sapstain in the first whole veneer produced from a pe...
R N Wakeling, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter, I Dorset, R Kuluz, J Wakeman, T Price, B Nairn


Antisapstain field trials of NeXgen in New Zealand
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30145
This document covers the results of summer and winter log trials of NeXgen, an antisapstain formulation containing methylene bis thiocyanate plus chlorothalonil. Log billets (20 - 25cm diameter) were stripped of bark using a commercial maul debarker and antisapstain treated within 8 hours of felling by dip application. Billets were stored in a pole barn and assessed for internal sapstain and decay...
R N Wakeling, T L Woods, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter


Weathering trials on natural wood finishes in New Zealand
1986 - IRG/WP 3383
The weathering properties of various transparent and semi-transparent exterior finishes for New Zealand-grown radiata pine are currently being examined. After 12 to 16 months' weathering, unpigmented water repellents have failed to provide satisfactory protection from weathering under field test conditions. With the exception of two formulations, penetrating oil-based stains are already s...
D V Plackett, C M Chittenden


Minimum inhibitory concentration of methylene bisthiocyanate towards selected wood inhabiting fungi in liquid culture and on radiata pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30261
The objective of the current study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) towards wood inhabiting fungi common on unseasoned radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). The fungi used were Ophiostoma floccosum, Leptographium procerum, Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma viride. Fungi were individually inoculated into nutrient media spiked with differ...
T Singh, B Kreber, C Chittenden, R N Wakeling, A Stewart


Laboratory evaluation of water repellents as antisapstain treatment additives
1986 - IRG/WP 3382
Water repellent formulations consisting of five paraffin wax emulsions, three polyethylene wax emulsions, two polybutadiene resin emulsions, a polyester emulsion, and a ß-pinene polymer emulsion were subjected to water repellency tests on radiata pine sapwood. With one exception, the parafin wax emulsions were more effective water repellents than the alternative formulations and one of the paraff...
D V Plackett, C M Chittenden


Prevention of sapstain in logs using water barriers
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30147
Placing logs in ponds or under water sprinklers to keep moisture levels high enough to prevent oxygen tensions rising above inhibitory levels, is a proven method of preventing sapstain. The objective of this experiment was to determine if water barriers significantly reduce the rate of sapstain penetration into logs by maintaining moisture contents, and consequently oxygen tensions, at inhibitory ...
R N Wakeling, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter, I Dorset, J Wakeman, R Kuluz


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