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International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in Australia, France, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Unites States of America. Solutions of these two wood preservatives were prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loading of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments were carried out at the Division of Forestry and Forest Products in Melbourne. The treated specimens were dispatched to the participating researchers who subjected these specimens to attack by their test termite species, and have now returned the specimens to Melbourne. This paper reports the amount of wood consumed and the mean mass loss (%) on both treated and untreated wood blocks by the termites in the various laboratory bioassays.
J R J French


International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Update
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20032
It was agreed by members at the termite workshop at the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 to initiate an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives (CCA and Cu-naphthenate) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in the various countries. Solutions of these two wood preservatives will be prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loadings of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments will be carried out at the Division of Forest Products in Melbourne. After treatment, blocks will be dispatched to the participating researchers who will subject these specimens to attack by their test termite species. The method of comparative evaluation will be expressed using a standardised unit, namely, the amount of wood consumed (mg) per gram of termite per day per loading of wood preservative. Any termite mortality will be recorded over the test period. Apart from the intrinsic value of comparing protocols used by the various termite researchers, it is hoped that the results will assist the wood preservation industry in evaluating an economic lethal threshold level for potential wood preservatives in preventing attack and damage by major subterraneaan termite species found in the different countries. This paper reports the organisation of this collaborative study to date, lists the collaborators, and the preparation of the treated wood specimens. Delay in treatments have been experienced due to technical delays in the treatment plant. The results of the entire study will be presented to all IRG members when completed.
J R J French


The metabolism and comparative elimination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in termites
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10038
Termites may serve as a potential supplementary food source for fish, poultry and pigs. Waste paper may be used as a source of food in mass rearing the termites. However, paper products and printing inks contain trace levels of toxic xenobiotics e.g. polychlorinatecl biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins. This study examined the ability of Mastotermes darwinensis and Coptotermes acinaciformis to metabolise these xenobiotics when fed paper as a food source. A series of PCBs was used as model lipophilic xenobiotics and fed to two species of termite. Extracted whole termites and their faeces were analysed for content of PCBs and metabolites. A phenolic metabolite of 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (44-DCB) was extracted and identified from the bodies and faeces of both termite species. 2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (224455-HCB) was retained in termite bodies at a significantly higher concentration than 3,3',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (334455-HCB) when fed the congeners in paper at the same concentration.
V S Haritos, J R J French, J T Ahokas


International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Second update
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10117
As was agreed by members at the termite workshop at the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 to initiate an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives (CCA and Cu-naphthenate) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in the various countries. Solutions of these two wood preservatives will be prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loading of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments have been carried out at the Division of Forest Products in Melbourne, and following retention calculations, the treated specimens will be dispatched to the participating researchers who will subject these specimens to attack by their test termite species. The method of comparative evaluation will be expressed using a standardised unit, namely, the amount of wood consumed (mg) per gram of termite per day per loading of wood preservative. Any termite mortality will be recorded over the test period.
J R J French


A selective-choice laboratory bioassay technique with Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) (Isoptera: Termitidae)
1983 - IRG/WP 1176
This paper presents a laboratory bioassay technique for simultaneous exposure of a variety of specimens to the same termite biomass. Details of the technique are given in a small scale selective-choice assessment with Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) in which timber species susceptibility is compared together with the efficacy of sub-lethal concentrations of protective compounds.
C D Howick, J W Creffield, P R Burridge


Laboratory and field evaluation of Plasmite Reticulation System using bifenthrin as a chemical barrier within wall cavities against subterranean termites.
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20307
Laboratory and field bioassays undertaken to demonstrate Plasmite Reticulation system effectively delivers the termiticide (bifenthrin) within a simulated wall cavity at the required concentration. The chemical assay indicated that the amount of bifenthrin sampled at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25m along the simulated reticulation system tested (30m) exceeded the manufacturer’s minimum recommendation of 0.0044%m/m. Results of the laboratory bioassay, using Coptotermes acinaciformis, indicated that the concentrations of bifenthrin present in the soil core samples at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25m were extremely toxic and prevented termite penetration of bifenthrin treated soil in laboratory bioassays immediately after field soil treatment. No penetration of any soil core samples was observed in the field test against Coptotermes lacteus.
J R J French, B M Ahmed, J Thorpe, A Anderson


Correlation between a laboratory bioassay and field trial conducted to determine the termiticidal effectiveness of bifenthrin
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20248
Details are given of a laboratory bioassay and field trial undertaken to determine the termiticidal effectiveness of the synthetic pyrethroid bifenthrin, when impregnated into Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood specimens. Results show a strong correlation between the laboratory and field methods of evaluation. Protection threshold limits obtained were the same for the two test species of termite employed, Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Lower and upper threshold limits obtained for M. darwiniensis in both the laboratory and field were 10 and 20 g/m3. The threshold limits for C. acinaciformis were not determined, but must be less than the lowest retentions tested (<2.5 g/m3 in the laboratory and <5 g/m3 in the field).
J W Creffield, K Watson


Evaluating the potential of modified wood for use in marine environments using a short-term laboratory bioassay
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10525
Chemically modified wood may be an alternative to preservative treated timber for marine structures. In this study a screening laboratory test using the wood-boring isopod crustacean Limnoria quadripunctata was used to assess the durability of chemically modified Pinus sylvestris, Pinus radiata and Picea sp. Most of the treatments used a combination of one of two of types of the resin dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) and phosphobutane tricarboxylic acid (PBTC). Untreated Pinus sylvestris sapwood was used as a non-durable comparison. Small test sticks from different types of modified wood were prepared and leached in seawater for 8 days prior to the experiment. A wood stick with a Limnoria and 4 ml of seawater was placed in each 12mm diameter well of a cell culture chamber. The number of faecal pellets produced by the animals was measured under these forced feeding conditions, and activity and mortality was recorded. With some treatments, no faecal pellets were produced, with others more faecal pellets were produced than with untreated Pinus sylvestris. Non-production of faecal pellets was sometimes due to mortality, but in some treatments there were also evidence of antifeedant effects as there was no evidence of acute toxicity Limnoria. However, some moribund animals were observed in these treatments and there was significant reduction in the number of pellets produced, so chronic toxicity may be suspected. The Arkofix type of DMDHEU gave significantly higher protection against borers than DMDHEU NG. A dose-dependent suppression of pellet production by PBTC was also detected.
L M S Borges, S M Cragg, M van der Zee


Laboratory bioassay on the termiticidal efficacy of two ACQ formulations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30199
The termiticidal efficacy of two ammoniacal copper quaternary ammonium formulations (ACQ) was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay using two species of subterranean termites, Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Five retentions (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kg/m3 of active ingredient) of each ACQ formulation (MitrexACQ and ACQ97) were assessed in sapwood specimens of the softwood Pinus radiata D. Don and compared with the same retentions of the conventional benchmark preservative CCA (Tanalith C). All specimens (including controls) were subjected to an artificial weathering schedule prior to the bioassay. Under the conditions of the laboratory bioassay, both MitrexACQ and ACQ97 showed considerable potential as water-borne preservatives for preventing significant attack of P. radiata sapwood from two of Australia&apos;s most economically significant species of termite. At each of the retentions tested, MitrexACQ and ACQ97 performed comparably or better than equivalent retentions of CCA.
J W Creffield, A F Preston, N Chew


A laboratory bioassay on the termiticidal efficacy of a chlorothalonil formulation and a chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos formulation to Mastotermes darwiniensis Frogatt
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30004
Results of a laboratory bioassay on the efficacy of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) to the Australian subterranean termite Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt are given. Specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood were treated to three retentions of each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2 + 0.2, 6.4 + 0.4 and 12.8 + 0.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos a.i. All specimens (including controls) were subjected to an artificial leaching/volatilisation weathering schedule prior to the bioassay. Results showed that all three retentions of each formulation were successful in protecting specimens from significant attack by Mastotermes darwiniensis. The results also indicated that the chlorothalonil in oil formulation appeared to have had an antifeedant effect on Mastotermes darwiniensis. The results of the bioassay were sufficiently encouraging to warrant an evaluation of the two preservative formulations in the field.
J W Creffield, N Chew


Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 2: Laboratory fungal bioassays
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20204
Extracts from sawmill residues of the naturally durable white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla were tested for fungicidal activity in a series of laboratory bioassays. The effects of different extraction solvents, techniques and sources of material on the biocidal efficacy of the resultant extracts were evaluated. Soil jar decay tests were used initially however, contractual time constraints necessitated the development of a more rapid screening technique. A modified sapwood agar media was developed and found to be suitable for testing the extracts. It could be applied to other non-diffusible wood preservatives. Ground white cypress sapwood was impregnated with a range of concentrations of various extracts and gamma irradiated. The treated sterilised sawdust was suspended in water agar. The media were inoculated with a white rot, Lopharia crassa, or a brown rot fungus Polyporus verecundus. Growth of the isolates was monitored for four weeks, enabling dose responses to be accurately determined. Methanol was determined to be the most effective extracting solvent, and toxic threshold values of the methanol extracts were estimated. Fractions of the total extract were also compared. Most fungicidal activity was found in the most abundant fraction, which contained significant proportions of terpenes and other non-polar, low boiling point compounds.
M A Powell, L M Stephens, L Francis, M J Kennedy


Laboratory evaluation of borate formulations as wood preservatves to control the subterranean termite coptotermes acinaciformis (isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Australia
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30266
The termiticidal efficacy of Borocol (sodium octaborate tetrahydrate), boric acid, bore-ester-7 and tri- methyl borate was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Seasoned sapwood blocks of Pinus radiata D. Don, and Eucalyptus regnans (F. Muell) were impregnated with the various borate compounds. There were marked differences in mass loss and mortality rate of the termite used in the bioassay units for different boron retentions. After 8 weeks the result suggested that, borate was toxic to termites in laboratory bioassay even at 0.20% m/m BAE and caused significant termite mortality. However, termites were not deterred from attacking the borate treated timber at higher retentions of > 2.0% m/m BAE. These laboratory results indicated that the minimum borate treatment required to protect timber against termites attack and damage was > 1.0% m/m BAE.
B M Ahmed, J R J French, P Vinden


Establishing standard principles for laboratory bioassays of termiticides with subterranean termites - progress, problems and prospects
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10013
Laboratory bioassays of termiticides, including wood preservatives, aim to give an indication of the likely concentrations effective in preventing damage to timber products and other materials in the field. In laboratory bioassays field conditions should be simulated as closely as possible. With a wide range of procedures in use around the world it may often be difficult to compare results between laboratories. Standardizing a number of principles could provide a solution to this problem. We discuss several topics of termite biology, pointing either to limitations in the extent to limitation in the extent to which standardization can be achieved or to the need for further collaborative research between laboratories: optimal physical environment for the test termites; variations in termite vigour and behaviour between colonies of a given species; origin of test termites, i.e. from feeding sites (traps) or the nest; group size; correlation between the size of test timber specimens and feeding activity of the termites; test duration. Satisfactory standardization of bioassays with subterranean termites, if it can be achieved, is a more complex and involved endeavour than implied from discussions at recent IRG meetings.
M Lenz, J W Creffield, Zhong Yun-hong, L R Miller


Estimation of oral toxicity of boron as a bait toxicant and the trophallactic effects between individual members of termite colonies.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10495
In recent years, because of the favourable environmental characteristics of boron, researchers in the wood preservation industries have refocussed on the use of boron as a major wood preservative against wood-destroying insects. Currently the greatest use of boron compounds is in remedial treatments. Boron has been found to have slow-acting toxicity against subterranean termites. Because of this characteristic, boron compounds may also be used as termite bait toxicants. The effect of boric acid on an individual donor termite was investigated in laboratory bioassays Trophallactic transfer of boron by these individual termites to other orphaned group of termite workers was conducted and the effects on the recipient groups recorded. It was believed that, this sequence of tests would provide a greater understanding of the carrying ability of ‘bait toxicant’ by individual termites, and allow estimates of the threshold toxicity of boric acid and termite survival rates to be determined. The bait matrix was Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell sawdust impregnated with various formulations of boric acid solutions in the laboratory. The result suggests that the toxicity of boron is dose dependent and it critical for the termites to ingest sufficient amounts of boron. But the mode of toxicity of boron has not yet been fully explained.
B M Ahmed


Laboratory evaluation of the termiticidal effectiveness of TanalithÒ 3485
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10109
The termiticidal effectiveness of the copper azole TANALITH 3485 was evaluated with the benchmark preservative TANALITH C in a laboratory bioassay using two species of subterranean termites, Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Retentions of TANALITH 3485 tested were 0.15, 0.24, 0.285 and 0.40% m/m Cu and for TANALITH C 0.025, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.095% m/m Cu. Under the conditions of the bioassay, TANALITH 3485 at the retentions of 0.24, 0.285 and 0.40% m/m Cu and TANALITH C at the retentions of 0.05, 0.08 and 0.095% m/m Cu (0.20, 0.32 and 0.38% m/m total active elements [TAE], respectively) were each successful in protecting Pinus radiata D. Don test specimens against significant attack by Mastotermes darwiniensis. The lowest retention of each formulation failed. When exposed to Coptotermes acinaciformis, all retentions of TANALITH 3485 tested were successful in protecting test specimens whereas TANALITH C at the lowest retention of 0.025% m/m Cu (0.10% m/m TAE) failed. Specimens treated with TANALITH 3485 exhibited little, if any, toxicity to Mastotermes darwiniensis. The formulation appeared to have imparted a repellent and/or antifeedant effect on Mastotermes darwiniensis. In contrast, TANALITH C displayed toxicity to Mastotermes darwiniensis thereby causing a decrease in survival of termites throughout the bioassay as the retention of preservative in test specimens increased.
J W Creffield, J A Drysdale, N Chew, N-K Nguyen


A laboratory bioassay method for testing preservatives against the marine borers Limnoria tripunctata, L. quadripunctata (Crustacea) and Lyrodus pedicellatus (Mollusca)
1990 - IRG/WP 4159
A laboratory culture and bioassay method is described for the marine borers Limnoria tripunctata, Limnoria quadripunctata, and Lyrodus pedicellatus. The methods were tested in a bioassay using established marine preservatives. The attack produced on blocks treated with CCA or creosote in some ways paralleled the attack found in the sea. Limnoria tripunctata attacked treated and untreated pine blocks more readily than eucalypt blocks, a difference that was much less apparent in the other species. Limnoria tripunctata was more active on blocks placed on the floor of aquaria, than on blocks suspended in the seawater, or those placed with limnoriids in separate dishes.
L J Cookson


Determination of fungitoxic value of preservatives in laboratory wood-block tests. Part 2: Statistical estimation
1989 - IRG/WP 2327
Laboratory modified agar-block tests were made to determine the fungitoxic value of the wood preservative CCA against the test fungus Serpula lacrymans using statistical methods. With the aid of statistical computer programmes based on the least square method. the regression equation was found for the dependence between sample mass loss and preservative retention both in terms of percentage and following probit, decimal and natural logarithmic transformations. The fungitoxic value was found to be lying in the point of intersection between the lines calculated and that of a 3 per cent mass loss. The application of mathematical statistics seems to have increased the objectivity and repeatability of measurements of fungitoxic value in the case of this wood preservative.
J Wazny, J D Thornton, K J Krajewski


Determination of fungitoxic value of preservatives in laboratory wood-block tests. Part 1: Standard procedures
1989 - IRG/WP 2326
By applying a modified agar-block method, a comparative analysis was made on the toxic value of the wood preservative CCA against the test fungus Serpula lacrymans. The procedure applied to determine the results accounted for different standards: EN (Toxic limit), ASTM (threshold retention), GOST (threshold retention and protection probability), PN (toxic doses) and JIS (value of efficiency). Despite some procedural differences the results obtained were to a large extent similar.
J Wazny, J D Thornton


Inter-laboratory comparison of assessment methods for wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Determination of protection threshold limits for CCA
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10317
In 1996, several institutes conducted laboratory bioassays on the efficacy of unleached Pinus radiata specimens treated with copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu Naph) at retentions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m3 (total salt for CCA; elemental copper for Cu Naph) against a range of species of subterranean termites (IRG/WP/96-10174). Each participant employed the standard test method of his or her respective laboratory or country. Results demonstrated that the retentions of preservatives tested were too high, thereby preventing meaningful comparison of the various test methods. Consequently, it was decided to undertake a laboratory bioassay in Australia in an attempt to establish the protection threshold limits for unleached CCA-treated P. radiata specimens prior to advancing to the next stage of the collaborative study. This paper presents the results on the efficacy of unleached P. radiata specimens impregnated with CCA at retentions of 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 kg/m3 (total salt) to attack by two species of subterranean termites, Mastotermes darwiniensis and Coptotermes acinaciformis.
J W Creffield, M Lenz


Comparative study on the leaching of wood preservatives between natural exposure and accelerating laboratory conditions
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50134
Impregnated specimens with CCA, ACQ, and BAAC were subjected to leaching tests. Specimens of 2x2x1 cm3 in size were used for the laboratory leaching test for 10 days according to JIS K 1571. Specimens of 25x1 x1 cm3 were used for outdoor leaching test for 6 months. Total leaching amounts of boron per cm3 of specimens treated with BAAC were 325 µg in the laboratory test and 206 µg in the outdoor test through the leaching periods. Those of Cu from ACQ and CCA treated specimens were 400 µg and 41 µg in the former test and 97 µg and 16 µg in the latter test. Leaching amounts in the laboratory test was much higher in every elements than those in the outdoor test without exception.
K Yamamoto, S Motegi, A Inai


Laboratory bioassay and field trial on imidacloprid and cypermethrin as glueline treatments for softwood plywood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30405
The effectiveness of imidacloprid and cypermethrin as glueline treatments for protecting phenol formaldehyde (PF)-bonded Pinus radiata (radiata pine) plywood from attack by subterranean termites was evaluated both in the laboratory and field. Imidacloprid was evaluated in two plywood constructions (19 ply x 1.6 mm-thick veneers and 5 ply x 3.2 mm-thick veneers) whereas cypermethrin was evaluated in only one (19 ply x 1.6 mm-thick veneers). There was a strong correlation between the results obtained from the laboratory bioassay and the subsequent field trial. Results of both the laboratory bioassay and field trial demonstrated that imidacloprid at the retention of 20 g a.i./m3 failed to adequately protect test specimens of radiata pine plywood (19 ply x 1.6 mm-thick veneers) from attack by both Coptotermes acinaciformis and Mastotermes darwiniensis. However, it was noted that imidacloprid only marginally failed against attack by C. acinaciformis in the field. In contrast, imidacloprid at the retention of 20 g a.i./m3 was successful in protecting test specimens of radiata pine plywood (5 ply x 3.2 mm-thick veneers) from significant attack by C. acinaciformis, but comprehensively failed against M. darwiniensis. Cypermethrin at the retention of 420 g a.i./m3 was successful in protecting test specimens of radiata pine plywood (19 ply x 1.6 mm-thick veneers) from significant attack by C. acinaciformis. The same retention of cypermethrin performed well in protecting radiata pine plywood test specimens from attack by M. darwiniensis, even though it marginally failed in the laboratory. It is hypothesised that the longer hot pressing time used for the manufacture of plywood test panels of 19 ply x 1.6 mm-thick veneers may have caused more degradation of the imidacloprid active than in panels of 5 ply x 3.2 mm-thick veneers.
J W Creffield, D K Scown


Comparative Laboratory Leaching Test Methods to Study Post-Treatment Storage Period Impacts on CCA Leachability and Fixation in Treated Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) Heartwood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20376
Three laboratory leaching test methods were compared to determine the effects of different post-treatment storage fixation periods on leachability/fixation of CCA components from treated kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) permeable heartwood. End-sealed test wood blocks of permeable were treated with CCA to target retention of 5.6 kg/m3, immediately stored to fix at ambient conditions for 0 and 48 hours, 1, 2 and 4 weeks, followed by a 2 weeks leaching test comparing 3 leaching tests: the methods of EN84 (consisting of initial vacuum impregnation of wood in water), EN84-1 (replacing initial vacuum impregnation with initial immersion of wood in water) and a new, and least severe, test EN84-2 (daily routine of soaking wood for 5 hours in water followed by drip drying for 19 hours). Leachates harvested from these leaching tests were analysed for cumulative leaching losses of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) that occurred over the 2 weeks leaching period. Overall, leached CCA elements ranged from 0.48 – 4.02µg/ml Cu, 0.61 – 5.76 µg/ml Cr and 0.46 – 4.02 µg/ml As. There were significant variations in leaching losses (P<0.05) between unfixed and stored fixed blocks among the 3 laboratory leaching test methods. Significant variations of Cu, Cr and As levels existed between the least severe method and the other two methods that used prolonged immersion of wood in water. However, there were no significant differences in CCA leaching losses between EN84 method and the EN84-1 method, while the merits of the least severe leaching regime as indicators of realistic CCA leaching of “fixed” treated wood aboveground outdoors are discussed.
A H H Wong, H C Lai


Performance of sintered glass screening as a potential physical barrier against subterranean termites in the laboratory and after 4 years of field test
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10646
This paper describes the performance of sintered glass screenings as a potential physical barrier against the subterranean termites, Coptotermes acinaciformis and Mastotermes darwiniensis in the laboratory and after four years of field testing in active above-ground mound colonies of Coptotermes lacteus. The laboratory results suggest that sintered glass is a viable control option against Coptotermes species in Australia, particularly against the subterranean termites C. acinaciformis and C. lacteus. There was a marked difference between the C. acinaciformis and M. darwiniensis termites’ ability to tunnel the sintered glass physical barriers in the laboratory bioassays. After 8 weeks of laboratory bioassay, the result suggested that C. acinaciformis was not able to tunnel through the sintered glass physical barrier, while M. darwiniensis tunnelled through the barrier within less than 48 hours. These laboratory and field results indicated that the sintered glass physical barrier can protect structural timbers from attack and damage by subterranean termites.
J R J French, B M Ahmed (Shiday)


Laboratory study on the termiticidal efficacy of Eremophilone oil
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30497
A novel timber preservative formulation, Termilone® TT, is being developed by BioProspect Limited. This environmentally friendly preservative formulation incorporates Eremophilone oil, extracted from Eremophila mitchellii, as the active ingredient. Chemical analysis performed on Pinus radiata sapwood specimens treated with the Termilone® TT formulation revealed that the Eremophilone oil is relatively stable within the timber even after being subjected to artificial weathering in vacuum ovens for five days. After exposure in a laboratory bioassay, P. radiata specimens treated with Termilone® TT formulation containing 3% m/m Eremophilone oil sustained slight to moderate damage by Mastotermes darwiniensis. Against M. darwiniensis, the performance of P. radiata specimens treated with this formulation was comparable to specimens treated with the approved H2 retention of the industry reference insecticide, permethrin (0.02% m/m). In addition, treatment of P. radiata specimens with the Termilone® TT formulation containing 3% m/m Eremophilone oil successfully prevented significant damage by Coptotermes acinaciformis.
D K Scown, J W Creffield, R Spooner-Hart


Laboratory and field evaluation of Laminated Strand Lumber treated with Borogard® ZB against termites
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30498
A laboratory bioassay and subsequent field trial was undertaken to determine the termiticidal effectiveness of a Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL) composite when treated with Borogard® ZB. The bioassay and field trial were conducted against two of Australia’s most economically important species of termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis and Coptotermes acinaciformis. Against both species of termite, LSL test specimens treated with an analysed retention of 2.06% m/m Zinc Borate performed as well as test specimens treated with an approved commercial reference preservative (permethrin). Furthermore, results indicated that the Borogard® ZB-treatment of LSL was resistant to water leaching. The studies demonstrated a strong correlation between the results obtained from the laboratory and those obtained from the field methods of evaluation.
D K Scown and J W Creffield


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