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Industrial fixation systems: key factors, limitations and optimisation through the use of computer simulation modelling. Discussion paper
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40026
This paper briefly describes four fixation operative in the Netherlands, namely: circulating and non-circulating steam fixation cylinders, steam fixation chambers and controlled climate rooms. The general limitations of industrial practice are reviewed against the background of established fixation theory. The controlling variables, both material and process-related, for fixation processing are sp...
A J Pendlebury, M Riepen, M J Boonstra, W Gard

Three-dimensional modeling of fumigant distribution in wood poles
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30025
The practice of using fumigants to control internal decay has been widely accepted in the United States and has shown to be effect in control internal decay in transmission poles and other large wood timbers. Mathematical models were developed to simulate the chloropicrin movement in utility poles after treatment. The simulation results indicated that treatment of utility poles, using either tradi...
Jing Liu, B Goodell

Modélisation sur maquette du rejet accidentel d'un gaz toxique et inflammable dans l'atmosphere - Emission de type "bouffée d'oxyde d'éthyléne [Water model simulation of toxic and flammable gases in the environment on industrial sites - Puff of ethylen oxide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3576
M Milhe

Decay resistance of wood removed from poles treated with Trichoderma
1989 - IRG/WP 1386
Wood blocks removed from a distribution pole previously treated with a biological control product (Binab FYT pellets) were exposed in soil block tests to selected basidiomycetes. The blocks were removed from regions of poles where Trichoderma colonization had been confirmed by extensive sampling and computer mapping of microbial inhabitants. The results indicate that material from pole interiors c...
A Bruce, B King, T L Highley

Computer-assisted numerical clustering analysis of various strains of Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen:Fr.) Schroeter apud Cohn
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2396
Eight strains of Serpula lacrymans were compared in relation to their previously determined factors (5 physiological and 10 toxicometrical). A numerical clustering analysis was used along with, as coefficient of similarity, "cos Q" after standardization of all results. Results with respect to the combined factors showed a mutual similarity within four groups of strains. The first of these groups c...
J Wazny, J D Thornton, P Stenzel

Laboratory simulation of leaching from creosote treated wood in aquatic exposures
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50157
Creosote has a long history of use as a preservative particularly in industrial wood products, but its use has come under increasing scrutiny as a result of concerns about its potential effects on aquatic and terrestrial non-target organisms. Despite its long use, there is relatively little data on the rates of creosote loss in many exposures. In this report, we describe small scale leaching tank ...
Ying Xiao, J Simonsen, J J Morrell

A deflection test for monitoring decay in miniature beams
1986 - IRG/WP 2269
A laboratory apparatus for assessing decay in small stakes is described. It involves the measurement of deflection in a static bending apparatus using a displacement transducer linked to a microcomputer. Measurements are non-destructive, rapid, accurate and automatic and decay can be assessed repeatedly over long time periods....
S M Gray

Three dimensional computer representations of growth of microbial populations in wood
1984 - IRG/WP 1243
Creosoted distribution poles inoculated with either Lentinus lepideus, biological control organisms including Triochoderma or combinations of both were extensively sampled to monitor the spread of organisms. A computer program which enabled the results to be portrayed in a three dimensional graphic form was developed and is illustrated. Results showed that computer mapping of this type usefully en...
A Bruce, B King, C Bruce, G M Smith

Xenon simulation of natural weathering of external joinery preserving - Finishing systems
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2412
Semitransparent wood stains ('lazures') for external joinery have developed by means of product combination towards complete wood finishing systems that are easy to applicate, have a good weathering resistance and low maintenance cost. The search for enhanced formulations and the possibilities to standardize these products or treatment systems are always facing long periods of we...
J Van Acker, M Stevens, M Nys

Délavabilité de bois ronds traités avec un sel CCA dans des conditions réelles de stockage. Incidence pratique de la fixation accélérée par étuvage. Impact effectif sur l'environnement
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-23
Un essai de terrain a été organisé pour mesurer concrètement, dans des conditions aussi proches que possibles des conditions réelles de terrain, les pertes effectives en produit de traitement lorsque le bois traité est soumis à des intempéries. L'essai a été conduit sur des bois ronds (poteaux), traités en autoclave par procédé Bethell avec un sel CCA de type C, avec comme fi...
M Rayzal, F Larroze

An Australian test of wood preservatives. Part 1: Preservatives, principles and practices
1978 - IRG/WP 2123
Between November, 1963, and July, 1964, a graveyard test of some 6000 preservative-treated stakes was installed at 8 sites equally distributed between Papua New Guinea in the tropics, through Queensland and New South Wales to Victoria. More than 40 different preservatives and preservative mixtures, mostly at several different levels of retention, were used to impregnate sawn specimens of Pinus rad...
J Beesley

New conception for shortering the duration of fungitoxic test of wood preservatives. Part 2: Computer-assisted miniaturisation of wood specimens
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20052
The mass loss of wood used as a criterion in the standarised agar-block method of evaluation of toxic value of preservatives depends upon the relationship between volume of specimens, their outspread planes and ratio of areas of particular anatomic sections. Upon the computer-assisted mathematical basis the dimensions of miniaturized specimens which make 1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 part of standarized ones ...
J Wazny, K J Krajewski

Rainfall simulation to assess CCA permanence
1991 - IRG/WP 2373
During experimental work on accelerated fixation of chromium containing preservatives a method has been developed which compares the degree of preservative levels of contamination of simulated preservative fixation in timber with the levels of simulated rainfall. This method uses commercial sized wood sections wetted in a way that simulates actual rainfall and relates the associated run-off contam...
P Warburton, J A Cornfield

Computer-assisted ranking of potential biocontrol fungi based on data from laboratory screening trials
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10023
Forty two fungal isolates were screened for antibiotic activity. In these sceering tests inhibition of target wood decay fungi was expressed as a series of numerical scores for each isolate. These scores, along with values for 5 other charactetistics, were used to assess the isolates. Using selection indices, isolates were judged on the basis of all the characteristics combined and, ranked in orde...
M W Schoeman, D J Dickinson

Patterns of decay in CCA-treated horticultural post populations - A fungus cellar simulation
1986 - IRG/WP 1286
The distribution of decayed posts in 10-, 14-, and 18-year-old vineyards supported a hypothesis to explain variability in intensity of decay found among posts in New Zealand horticultural properties. The development of decay patterns between samples in a simulated vineyard plot established in the Forest Research Institute fungus cellar gave additional support to the hypothesis that decay within la...
M E Hedley

Preservative treatment of wood by diffusion processes - Simulation of commercial treatment processes
1988 - IRG/WP 3498
Spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula pendula) were preservative treated by diffusion with mixtures of copper sulphate and arsenic pentoxide. The preservative was fixed after a suitable diffusion storage period by soaking in ammonia solution. A high standard of treatment could be achieved in spruce sapwood. This was attributed to its low wood density, and high wood ...
P Vinden

Simulation test of subchronic inhalation toxicity of TBTO vapours in the air
1987 - IRG/WP 3454
The test was carried out in a wainscotted room of a normal size. Wooden panelling had been treated with one coat of basic preserving agent and, after the installation, with 2 coats of stain. Laboratory animals (rats) were kept in this room for 90 days. For the same period a control group of test animals was kept in a room of equal size where there was no panelling. During the test, concentration o...
V Skubic, S Kobal, J Stupar, R Ajlec, J Korošin, G R Pecenko

Accelerated anti-termite laboratory tests, simulation of field conditions and assessment of results for service life
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20034
Termites are one of the most serious biodegrading agents in the tropics. Though some species of termites occur in the warmer temperate regions, only a few species can withstand the rigours of colder regions. Testing of termite resistance of material is done either by field tests or by accelerated laboratory tests. Field tests, though realistic to assess service life, are elaborate, take a long tim...
P K Sen-Sarma

Fire Safety of Wood Floor Assembly: Model and Full-scale Test
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20375
The present paper describes the model for the prediction of fire safety of wood floor assemblies. The model includes heat transfer model for the calculation of the flow of heat in floor assembly and structural model for the analysis of the mechanical performance of wood joists. The floor assemblies considered in this paper are constructed with nominal 2x10 (38x241mm) wood joists lined by Type X ...
H Takeda

Field Liners as physical barriers to prevent wooden utility pole decay in soil: An accelerated field simulation trial
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20384
Field Liners (FL’s), plastic sleeves used to protect in-ground wooden poles from fungal and termite damage, have been tested before as physical barriers to prevent contact between soil and wood and to retain wood preservative treatment. These earlier studies concentrated mostly on creosote preserved poles and early generation FL’s which were cumbersome in their application. The newer generatio...
A R Howgrave-Graham, L J Cookson, T Hale

Service life prediction of wood: scale-dependent tools within a bio-engineering framework
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20387
Service life prediction (SLP) is a complex yet essential method for the building industry. Accurate and precise assessment of the components is crucial for a strong position of wood on the market. As it is a biological material, wood has an inherent variability and is susceptible to fungal attack. Therefore a profound knowledge of these characteristics is the corner stone of SLP for wood products....
J Van den Bulcke, J Van Acker, M Stevens

Simulation and Investigation of Wood Degradation by Erosion Bacteria in Laboratory Experiments
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20431
A Microcosm experiment was successfully set up to establish, monitor and manipulate bacterial wood degradation under low oxygen conditions. Sound pine sticks were placed in waterlogged sediment from a heavily decayed pine pile foundation site in Amsterdam. The system was subject to different gassing treatment regimes in order to investigate the role of oxygen in the bacterial degradation process o...
J Gelbrich, E I Kretschmar, N Lamersdorf, H Militz

Analysis of decay progress anisotropy by X-ray computer tomography
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20501
Wood has a serious handicap as structural materials that it is vulnerable to decay by fungi. A weather exposed bridge has a possibility of an abrupt fall down, and wooden houses with heavily decayed structural members are easily destroyed by large earthquakes. To avoid such damages, a new predicting method on the decay progress in timber structures, and also its strength losing behavior along with...
K Maeda, M Ohta

Observation of Boring Process of Larvae of the Bamboo Powder-post Beetle (Dinoderus minutus)
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10821
The bamboo powder-post beetle Dinoderus minutus is a major pest of felled bamboo in Japan. X-ray computer tomography (CT) was applied to non-destructively trace the movement of the larvae of this beetle inside the infested bamboo samples. The bamboo samples were prepared from pieces of the Japanese timber bamboo Phyllostachys bambusoides culms that were enclosed with adult D. minutus beetles for a...
H Watanabe, Y Yanase, Y Fujii

Simulation of surface climate and mould growth on wooden façades
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20585
The weathering of wooden surfaces is normally caused by mould growth, lignin deterioration and leaching of extractives. For well insulated buildings, the effect of the interior climate on the outer surface is small and sometimes negligible. This paper describes simple models for surface temperature and moisture conditions on a wooden façade that can further be used to model weather degradation an...
T K Thiis, I Burud, D Kraniotis, L Ross Gobakken

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