Your search resulted in 66 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
A novel solvent penetration assessment technique for wood preservativation treatments using waterborne systems
1990 - IRG/WP 2346
Solvent and hence solute (a.i.) penetration during any wood preservation treatment cycle and the flow pathways taken by the solvent in the wood are crucial elements in determining the adequacy of any treatment. Inadequate solvent penetration into specimens or an inappropriate tissue throughflow pattern during impregnation will markedly affect the distribution pattern achieved by many non-diffusibl...
A J Pendlebury, J Coetzee, E Sorfa, A Botha
Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh
Resistance of Alstonia scholaris vestures to degradation by tunnelling bacteria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1547
Electron microscopic examination of vessels and fibre-tracheids in the wood of Alstonia scholaris exposed to tunnelling bacteria (TB) in a liquid culture showed degradation of all areas of the secondary wall. The highly lignified middle lamella was also degraded in advanced stages of TB attack. However, vestured pit membranes and vestures appeared to be resistant to degradation by TB even when oth...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel
The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses. Part 2
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10001
Microscopic characteristics of Pinus radiata wood veneers weathered outdoors for one yea
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10018
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) wood veneers glued to solid wood hacking strips were exposed outdoors at 45° north-facing for one year and then examined by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As expected, the exposed wood surfaces were colonised by a variety of microorganisms; however, wood decay was not observed. Ultlaviolet (UV light) radiation and water were the main...
A P Singh, R A B Sweeney, E A Dunningham, D V Plackett
Effect of methylene bisthiocyanate on morphology and ultra-structure of a sapstain fungus, Ophiostoma floccosum
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10471
In vitro effects of methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) on hyphal morphology and ultrastructure of Ophiostoma floccosum were examined using differential interference contrast, epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Differential interference contrast microscopy suggested that MBT caused rapid changes to the morphology of O. floccosum resulting in excessive formation of vacuoles and...
T Singh, B Kreber, R N Wakeling, A Stewart
A short note on fungal decay in K33-treated poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1169
Soft rot cavities and erosion of the lumen have been found in K33-treated Pinus sylvestris poles from the years 1956-66 by microscopic studies. Poor treatment quality has been proved for some of these poles. The microscopy showed an unusual pattern of attack, and pre-treatment decay is suspected but not yet proved. Sounding the poles and using the Pilodyn indicated decay, but poking did not. Quant...
The isolation of actinomycetes from wood in ground contact and the sea
1980 - IRG/WP 1110
M S Cavalcante, R A Eaton
The Pilodyn instrument as a non-destructive tester of the shock resistance of wood
1978 - IRG/WP 2107
A new non-destructive shock resistance tester, the PILODYN, has been developed. The instrument measures the fracture surface area created by a constant amount of energy. It operates by shooting a blunt pin into wood by an exact amount of energy. The penetration depth is read on a scale. A wide field of application is open to a non-destructive shock resistance tester such as: 1) assessment of the r...
Spatial arrangement of lignin peroxidase in pine decayed by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Fomitopsis pinicola
1988 - IRG/WP 1343
By applying immunoelectronmicroscopic methods, lignin peroxidase of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been localized in the cytoplasm of hyphae, close to the plasmalemma and on the plasmalemma. Infiltration of wood specimen with culture filtrates, concentrated 300-fold, gave clear information on the penetration of the enzyme into the wood cell wall. Penetration was restricted to...
E Srebotnik, K Messner
SEM of wood dust particles
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50084
Dust particles from beech and oak trees have been classified in Germany as being "working materials which are definitely carcinogenic to humans". All other wood dusts, including those from softwoods, are classified as being materials "with reasonable suspicion of carcinogenic potential". The carcinogenic principle of action continues to remain unclear. The mechanical irritation is one of a number ...
U Schmitt, R-D Peek, A O Rapp
The use of the Pilodyn for detecting soft-rot decay in CCA treated eucalypt poles
1986 - IRG/WP 2251
A 6 Joule Pilodyn unit with 2.5 mm diameter pin was used to inspect CCA treated eucalypt poles, suspected of suffering groundline soft-rot decay. Pole plugs were removed at the inspection region and the amount of soft-rot decay present determined microscopically. High correlation (R² = 0.73) was obtained between the amount of soft-rot and Pilodyn pin penetration. The Pilodyn is recommended as a u...
L E Leightley, G A Willoughby
Ultrastructural observations on wood-degrading erosion bacteria
1986 - IRG/WP 1283
G F Daniel, T Nilsson
Bordered Pit Imaging
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10773
New findings about bordered pits will be presented using the latest microscopy techniques. Three-dimensional imagery at the nanolevel is used, and short 3-D movies will shown as part of the discussion on this topic to reveal new features that have not previously been reported in pits. The implications for both microorganism penetration through lignified cells as well as preservative penetration i...
D Mascheck, B Goodell, H Militz, M Lessard, J Jellison
Water sprinkled pine wood: A microscope study on boards showing streaking
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10033
Boards sawn from the outer sapwood of pine lumber previously water sprinkled for periods of 10-18 weeks and kiln dried, showed streaking after staining. Two types of enhanced stain uptake were noted: 1) a more concentrated and localized form after 10 weeks and 2) a more diffuse type which developed in later stages of water sprinkling. Areas showing enhanced stain uptake were examined using light a...
G F Daniel, T Elowson, T Nilsson, A P Singh, K Liukko
Occurrence of manganese deposits in test stakes exposed in groung contact situations
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10182
Dark spots and flecks were frequently recognized on the surface and within non-preservative treated hard- and softwood test stakes placed in soil contact. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in conjunction with electron microscopy showed the flecks to be composed primarily of manganese dioxide. Detailed transmission electron microscopy observations indicated intrusion of manganese into the wood ...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson, J Volc
Importance of bacteria in the deterioration of archaeological woods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10122
An electron microscopic study of archaeological woods from different sites and of different ages revealed that the woods had been attacked by erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and soft rot fungi. Bacterial erosion appeared to be most widespread, and was present independently as well as together with tunnelling and soft rot attacks. Thus, in many instances bacterial erosion was the only type of...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, T Nilsson
Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on an archaeological wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10007
Transmission electron microscopy of wood from a Chinese ship submerged in the mud for over 900 years showed bacteria to be the main factor for its deterioration. The micromorphology of degraded wood cell walls was similar to that observed during the attacks of wood by erosion bacteria. Other bacterial forms, previously considered lo be scavenging bacteria, were also abundant in degraded areas of t...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh
The Relationship of Fiber Cell Wall Ultrastructure to Soft Rot Decay in Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) Heartwoo
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10541
The ultrastructure of fiber walls in kempas (koompassia malaccensis) heartwood was examined in relation to soft rot cavity formation. The fibers consisted of middle lamella and thick secondary wall. The secondary wall was differentiated in to a S1 layer, and a unique multi-lamellar S2 layer. Two distinct forms of lamellae were recognisable, one type being considerably thicker than the other. They ...
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi
The use of immunofluorescence labelling for detecting Ophiostoma piceae in radiata pine
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10268
The primary objective of the current investigation is to understand fungal interactions of dominant sapstaining fungi in radiata pine using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In the current paper, an immunofluorescence labelling technique was developed for detection of Ophiostoma piceae using a monoclonal antibody. The primary antibody was labelled with Oregon green 514 Goat anti-mouse Ig...
Ying Xiao, B Kreber, C Breuil
Ultrastructure of degraded, CCA-treated Pinus radiata wood from a marine pile
1990 - IRG/WP 1461
During an inspection of marine piles, 12 years after installation, severe degradation was noted on one of them in the vicinity of a corroded eye-bolt. The wood was dark brown in colour and tended to crumble easily. Wood fragments were examined by light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were also analysed for carbohydrates and lignin. Light microscopy showed numerous ...
A P Singh, M E Hedley
Novel observations on the micromorphology of soft rot attack of wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10176
Electron microscopic examinations of decaying Pinus radiata horticultural posts which had been treated with CCA preservative prior to being placed in service about nine years ago showed the presence of soft rot fungi and tunnelling bacteria. Some novel observations on the micromorphology of the soft-rotted areas of tracheid walls are described here. The micromorphology of soft-rotted areas was hig...
A P Singh, R N Wakeling
Microbial decay of an archaeological wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10053
A light and transmission electron microscopic investigation of an archaeological wood was undertaken to determine the cause of its deterioration. The wood came from a bulwark constructed in early 1100 in the lake Tingstäde Träsk on the island Gotland in Sweden. The samples of the wood, which was identified as Pinus sylvestris, were taken from a depth of 0.85 m below the bottom level. The wood wa...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel
Termite and fungal resistance of in situ polymerized tributyltin acrylate and acetylated Indonesian and USA wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30219
Wood [Indonesian pine (IP), Indonesian Jabon (IJ) and USA southern yellow pine (USP)] was either in situ polymerized with tributyltin acrylate (TBTA) or acetylated and then exposed to termite and fungal degradation both in laboratory tests and field exposure. The TBTA woods had an average weight percent gain (WPG) of 11% for IP, 12% for IJ, and 10% for USP. The acetylated woods had a WPG of 15-27%...
R E Ibach, Y S Hadi, D Nandika, S Yusuf, Y Indrayani
Studies of the ray parenchyma cell ends on the radial flow of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40164
It is widely accepted that either ray tracheids or ray parenchyma cells offer the major flow pathways radially for the impregnation of softwood with preservative chemicals. It is now generally recognised that, if radial flow does occur through ray parenchyma cells, the cross-field pits play a dominating role for the liquid movement in the radial direction. In this case, the radial flow of fluid is...