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Supercritical fluid impregnation of Douglas-fir heartwood with cyproconazole using temperature induced deposition
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40259
A limited understanding of the fundamental aspects of supercritical fluid (SCF) impregnation in wood remains an obstacle to the development of this technology. Developing a better understanding of the effects of various process parameters on treatment results would facilitate more rational development of SCF impregnation. In this project, the effect of treating period and specimen length on supercritical fluid impregnation of cyproconzaole was evaluated on Douglas-fir heartwood using temperature decrease to induce biocide deposition. The results showed that biocide movement was slower than expected, and suggested that diffusion was the primary phenomena accounting for biocide penetration into the interior of sample. Further trials will be required to better understand the mechanism of biocide movement.
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell

Effects of cyproconazole and copper sulphate on the length of the hyphal growth unit (HGU) of the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10473
Wood decay basidiomycetes have been shown to produce appreciable quantities of extracellular mucilaginous materials (ECMM). The relationship between ECMM and total biomass production has been investigated in the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (CTB 863 A). Differences in the amount of ECMM produced by the fungus proportionally to the total biomass, were observed under a range of physiological conditions, including the presence of biocides. Such differences suggest that stress may have a role in stimulating an increase in the amount of ECMM produced by C. versicolor. The rationale behind this study is that the increase in the proportional amount of ECMM produced by the organism under a range of different stress conditions, may be explained by the hypothesis of the Hyphal Growth Unit length (HGU). The results presented in this paper support the hypothesis that the length of the HGU is strongly related to the environmental conditions. Cyproconazole at 0.1 mmols l-1 in the growth medium, reduced total biomass by approximately 50% and decreased the length of the HGU by approximately 50%. This change in the HGU length reflects a change in the hyphal behaviour to a highly brached mycelial habit. Associated with this was a 100% increase in the proportion of ECMM in relation to the hyphal biomass. Since ECMM is known to be secreted at the tip of actively growing hyphae, it is hypothesised that by adjusting the length of the HGU, filamentous fungi are able to produce a highly branched mycelium, which leads to the production of high levels of ECMM. This could offer protection against adverse environmental conditions, such as the presence of biocides. These results are discussed with regard to the possible role(s) of ECMM in the decay process and its interaction with preservative treatments.
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy

Potential for using dip/supercritical fluid treatments for wood impregnation
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40276
While supercritical fluid impregnation offers tremendous potential for impregnating wood species that resist conventional liquid preservative treatments, the resulting treatments are often not uniform among samples in a charge or between charges. One factor that influences treatment is the dynamic change in pressure that occurs during introduction of the biocide laden supercritical fluid into the treatment vessel. Subcritical conditions during these time periods sharply reduce biocide solubility, setting the stage for more variable treatment results. One approach to limiting these variations would be to deliver a large percentage of the biocide into the wood prior to SCF treatment. This would place the biocide closer to their intended locations with in the wood as it was solubilized. The potential for using a dip treatment to deliver biocide into the wood surface followed by SCF impregnation was assessed using Douglas-fir heartwood blocks and cyproconazole. Dipping in biocide tended to produce slightly more uniform internal retentions, however, inclusion of otherwise untreated samples in the vessels indicated that biocide also diffused from the blocks into the SC-CO2 where it was available for uptake into other wood. The results suggest that surface loading of wood prior to SCF treatment produced only marginal gains in uptake and is probably not practical.
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell

A study of the efficacy of antisapstain formulations containing triazole fungicides
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30021
This document gives efficacy data for antisapstain formulations based on triazole fungicides. A rapid (3 week) laboratory screening method was used to determine the efficacy of six triazole fugicides alone and in combination with other fungicides. Field trials were carried out of three promising formulation types, each comprising a triazole compound as the primary fungicide in combination with a secondary fungicide system. Of three triazoles tested in field trials hexaconazole gave significantly (5% probability level) better protection than flusilazole and cyproconazole for all three formulation types. The relatie performance of flusilazole and cyproconazole depended on the type of formulation. Type 3 formulations of hexaconazole (0.03% w/w) and flusilazole (0.05% w/w) and a Type 2 formulation of hexaconazole (0.05% w/w) gave exceptional protection to block-stacked radiata pine for thirty weeks with between 76 and 84% of boards having 5% or less of surface fungal degrade. The best commercial standards in field trials were Copper-8 hydroxyquinolinolate (Cu-8) (0.24% w/w) (Cutrol 375) and Cu-8 (0.15% w/w) plus carbendazim (0.15% w/w) (Hylite Extra) which at thirty weeks after treatment had a majority (> 80%) of boards with between 25 and 75% surface fungal degrade. These concentrations of Cu-8 and Cu-8 plus carbendazim are between 2 and 3 times what are normally used in New Zealand. At thirty weeks sodium pentachlorophenate (0.5% w/w) plus borax (1.5% w/w) had 40% of boards with between 26 and 50% degrade, 40% of boards with between 51 and 75% degrade and 20% of boards with between 76-100% degrade.
R N Wakeling, N P N Maynard, R D Narayan

Extracellular mucilage (ECM) in wood decay basidiomycetes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10439
The ability of wood decay basidiomycetes to produce extracellular mucilage (ECM) and its relationship with total biomass production is being investigated. Growth and ECM production by the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum (FPRL 108 N) and the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (CTB 863 A) was assessed in liquid culture under different conditions and in the presence of the fungicide cyproconazole. The production of biomass in G. trabeum was significantly influenced by the carbon source, monosaccharides stimulating increased biomass compared with oligosaccharides and polyols. The nitrogen source also significantly affected biomass production, with arginine and L-glutamic acid supporting maximum biomass. The best temperature for growth was 30°C, lower temperature causing a significant reduction in biomass production. The pH optimum for maximum growth was found to be 4.0. ECM production was influenced significantly by the nitrogen source, as well as by the pH of the medium and the temperature of incubation. The greatest proportion of ECM in the total biomass was produced by cultures incubated at 10°C (27% of the total biomass) and at pH 5.0 (16% of the total biomass). The same factors that affected the production of biomass and ECM in G. trabeum, also significantly affected C. versicolor. Again, simple monosaccharides supported the best growth. Amongst the nitrogen sources tested, L-glutamic acid stimulated maximum biomass production (double that of any other nitrogen source tested) whereas the greatest proportion of ECM in the total biomass was produced with arginine and isoleucine as nitrogen sources. The optimal temperature for growth was 22° C, whilst the optimum pH was 5.0. At 10°C the greatest proportion of ECM was produced, which represented about 24% of the total biomass. In terms of pH effects, the greatest proportion of ECM was produced at pH 6.0. The introduction of cyproconazole significantly reduced the amount of biomass produced by both organisms as expected. However, the production of ECM in both species was also affected greatly by the presence of biocide, with the proportion of ECM in the total biomass increasing significantly as the concentration of cyproconazole was raised. The results are discussed with regard to the possible role(s) of ECM in the decay process and its interaction with a specific organic preservative.
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy

Effects of biocides on the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) produced by two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10469
Growth and production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) by the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum (FPRL 108 N) and the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (CTB 863 A) was assessed in liquid culture, supplemented with the biocides CuSO4 and cyproconazole. The production of biomass in G. trabeum was significantly influenced by the concentration of CuSO4 in the medium. When CuSO4 was added at 1.0 mmols l-1, biomass was reduced by approximately 35%. At this concentration, the production of ECMM, both absolute and relative to biomass, was increased. Cyproconazole had a similar effect to that observed for CuSO4, although much lower concentrations of the biocide were required to achieve a similar response. Addition of 0.1 mmols l-1 of cyproconazole to the growth medium caused a decrease of approximately 35% in the amount of biomass produced and a 200% increase in the proportional amount of ECMM produced by the fungus. A similar behaviour was also confirmed for C. versicolor . In this case, higher concentrations of CuSO4 were required in order to achieve the same levels of inhibition observed for G. trabeum. Cyproconazole-supplemented cultures also behaved similarly to G. trabeum. A concentration of cyproconazole of 0.1mmols l-1 caused a reduction of 50% in biomass and a 100% increase in the proportional amount of ECMM produced by this fungus. The presence of biocide also led to qualitative changes in the composition of ECMM. Galactose, xylose and glucose were the main components of the polysaccharide fractions of the ECMM produced by the two species growing on control media. As biocides were introduced, the proportion of galactose in the ECMM increased. This was always associated with a decrease in the proportion of glucose for G. trabeum and with a decrease in the proportion of xylose in the ECMM produced by C. versicolor. The results are discussed with regard to the possible role(s) of ECMM in the decay process and its interaction with preservative treatments.
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy

Bethoguard; A new wood protecting fungicide for use in metal free ground contact wood preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30301
Research has identified the limitations in both the spectrum of activity and permanence of organic biocides placed in wood in high hazard environments, particularly in the absence of heavy metals such as copper. More specifically, the control of soft rot decay in wood in soil contact has proven to be most problematic. The new organic biocide, Bethoguard; an oxathiazine, has demonstrated excellent potential for these end uses and has shown particularly good soft rot performance in both laboratory and simulated field exposure evaluations. During this research, emphasis has been placed on the inclusion of additional active ingredients necessary to complete the spectrum of activity towards other wood degrading organisms such as white rot and brown rot. This paper presents an overview of this molecule as a new wood preservative and presents preliminary results from laboratory screening procedures.
S C Forster, G R Williams, M Van Der Flaas, M Bacon, J Gors

Quantitative Determination of Cyproconazole in Wood treated with Tanalith CY
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20369
The HPLC method has been widely applied to quantitative determination of cyproconazole in preservative solutions. However, HPLC assay has not been successfully employed to determine cyproconazole content in treated wood. Some extractives from treated wood hinder cyproconazole determination because they have a similar retention time to that of cyproconazole on an HPLC chromatogram. In addition, large peaks of wood extractives appearing at early retention time also affect the determination of cyproconazole. In this paper, the application of solid-phase extraction to remove wood extractives that interfere with cyproconazole determination was investigated. Wood flour from four wood species, namely Japanese cedar, Japanese larch, Yezo spruce and Western hemlock, were treated with Tanalith CY containing copper oxide and cyproconazole as active ingredients. About 1 g of the treated flour was extracted for 2 hours in an ultrasonic bath with 10-50 ml of methanol containing tebuconazole that was used as an internal standard. Methanol extracts were removed with a solid-phase extraction cartridge (Oasis MCX) and finally cyproconazole and tebuconazole were collected. These azoles were then dissolved in a mobile phase for the HPLC analysis and concentrations of the azoles were determined using the software that came with the HPLC system. The results of the HPLC analysis indicate that solid-phase extraction is useful for removing wood extractives that hinder cyproconazole determination. The results also suggest that the volume of methanol solution for cyproconazole extraction from treated wood does not affect cyproconazole determination when tebuconazole is used as the internal standard. Ten ml of methanol is sufficient to get reproducible results for one gram of wood flour.
I Momohara, T Miyauchi, M Mori

EVIPOL® and EVIPOL®10TK - Lab and field data on the efficacy of cyproconazole and its formulations
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30539
EVIPOL® (= cyproconazole) is one of the triazoles commercially used in wood preservation. Although this active is well established in some geographical regions, little information on its efficacy against decay fungi is published yet. Therefore, threshold values derived from EN113 (after EN73 and EN84) as well as field test data (L-joint and lap-joint) are compiled. The paper focus on water dilutable formulations and describes the improvements which can be achieved by using the technical concentrate EVIPOL® 10TK.
H Leithoff

Glueline fungicides in veneer based engineered wood products - results from laboratory work for the H1.2 hazard class in New Zealand
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30593
The use of glueline insecticides in plywood and laminated veneer lumber is commonplace in several countries. However, few glueline fungicides are registered for commercial use with previous work suggesting that achieving control of decay from the glueline is very challenging. This paper summarises two tests completed on Pinus radiata plywood with a new glueline fungicide comprising the active ingredients triadimefon and cyproconazole (Triad/Cypro). Tests were completed in New Zealand using a bin method to satisfy the requirements for the H1.2 hazard class (wet area framing). In both tests, Triad/Cypro in the glueline of plywood restricted decay growth comparably or better than the recognised reference preservative of propiconazole plus tebuconazole applied as a light organic solvent preservative treatment.
A Siraa, K Day, P Lobb

Glueline fungicides in veneer based engineered wood products – updated results from laboratory work for the H1.2 hazard class in New Zealand
2018 - IRG/WP 18-30726
Results from New Zealand H1.2 ‘bin’ trials containing plywood glueline treated with triadimefon and cyproconazole were reported in 2012 (IRG/WP 12-30593). One of these trials has continued to the present day (2108) and updated results of this trial are reported. The triadimefon and cyproconazole glueline treatment continues to compare with, or outperform, the reference preservative used, being propiconazole and tebuconazole applied as a light organic solvent preservative treatment.
A Siraa, K Day, B Kibby

Influence of different triazoles as co-biocides in wood preservatives on efficacy and the environmental impact
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50333
In this study we investigated the efficacy and impact on the environment of different co-biocide triazoles in wood preservatives. Four different formulations (all containing 9.5% Copper) contained individual and combinations of cyproconazole, tebuconazole, propiconazole as co-biocides. Four formulations were tested according to EN 113 and EN 84 (ageing) to determine the brv for each formulation. To further demonstrate the environmental impact, a CEN/TS 15119-2 laboratory leaching study was performed for each product; the retention corresponding to the previously determined biological reference value, brv. Significantly, cyproconazole produced the lowest brv of the individual and combination of co-biocides tested. Furthermore, from an environmental perspective copper leaching from the copper:cyproconazole product was half that of the copper:propiconazole formulation tested. This significant and positive finding for the efficacy and environmental impact of cyproconazole will be discussed.
M Klamer, T Jensen, S Bang-Achton, E Morsing