Your search resulted in 828 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Evaluation of wood treated with copper-based preservatives for Cu loss during exposure to heat and copper-tolerant Bacillus licheniformis
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20155
Copper-based wood preservatives need to be effective against exposure to all types of microorganisms. Wood treated with six copper-based preservatives was exposed to 121°C and 20 psi pressure for 15 minutes under standard autoclave conditions and the copper-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis CC01, for 10 d at 28°C and 150 rpm. Sixteen to 37 percent of the copper was released from the woo...
D M Crawford, C A Clausen
An appraisal of methods for environmental testing of leachates from salt-treated wood (2)
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50110
For wood preservatives for use in hazard class 4 information on the ecotoxicity of preservatives and ingredients as well as on the effect of losses from impregnated timber is needed for a proper environmental risk assessment. In the evaluation of a suitable test procedure the leaching behaviour of copper-based formulations was studied using analytical and ecotoxicological test methodology. These ...
H W Wegen, A Platen, G M F Van Eetvelde, M Stevens
Environmental fate of copper-based wood preservatives in different soil substrates - Part 1: Screening of the metal adsorption potential
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-21 a
In treatment plants, spillage of wood preservatives onto soil may be of environmental concern. This potential soil contamination served as an objective for a screening study. Three different mineral soils, a mineral substrate and two horticultural substrates are examined for their sorptive potential of copper through mixing with wood preservative solutions. Depending on the soil/substrate charact...
G M F Van Eetvelde, J M Mwangi, F Tack, R Hartmann, M Stevens
Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of different coniferous wood treatments on two marine bioindicator species
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10999
Coniferous wood panels (Picea abies) were treated with two concentrations of copper-based impregnating agent to increase its durability in marine and brackish environment. In order to assess the environmental compatibility of the treatments a laboratory experiment was conducted with two marine invertebrate species: bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis and a gastropod Steromphala albida. The bioindica...
T Marčeta, N Nesto, I Guarneri, D Tagliapietra, V Moschino
Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Performance of Preservatives in the BAM Fungus Cellar Test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20149
The fungus cellar test is a common means to get reliable data on the long term performance of treated wood in soil contact. A constantly high humidity and a suitable of water holding capacity for a range of micro-organisms provide high decay rates in untreated wood and produce intensive microbial pressures on wood treated with biocides. Presently a range of biocides are under test in the BAM fungu...
I Stephan, M Grinda, D Rudolph
Water-based wood preservatives for curative treatement of insect-infested spruce constructions
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30171
On laying down sanitation measures for wooden constructions infested by wood boring insects, we must take into account static risks for the construction - and, thus, for the security of the user - as well as risks for humans and environment due to the chemical preservative compounds of the treated wood. Analyses on many roof constructions made with spruce (Picea abies L.) have revealed that Hylot...
E Graf, P Manser, B Lanz
A bibliography of organic solvent-based wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 322
Bibliography of organic solvent based wood preservatives
1971 - IRG/WP 38 E
This publication has as its objective the collection of the more important and more recent references dealing with solvent-based timber preservatives; these are often termed - sometimes wrongly - oil-borne preservatives or even organic wood preservatives. It is hoped that this review will stimulate more fundamental studies in the future in this field or on some of its aspects....
Inorganic wood preservative levels in soil near a noise barrier treated with different preservatives after 8 years in service
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50234
In March 1996 nine test sections of a noise barrier were installed near Stockholm Sweden. The test sections include untreated Scots pine, spruce and larch and Scots pine, treated with different wood preservatives. After 8 years in service, the untreated spruce, pine and larch boards in contact with the soil were significantly decayed, with an estimated service life of about 5-10 years, while the u...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, M-L Edlund, J Jermer, O Söderström
Copper based water-borne preservatives: The use of a thin section technique to compare the protection of wood by copper based preservatives against soft-rot and bacterial decay
1987 - IRG/WP 2286
This paper describes the techniques developed and gives examples of results obtained for the performance of copper based wood preservatives against both the bacterial and fungal hazards....
A M Wyles, D J Dickinson
Copper based water-borne preservatives: The biological performance of wood treated with various formulations
1987 - IRG/WP 3451
Wood samples treated with the various components of CCA preservative singly and in combination were tested against a soft rot organism, a copper tolerant brown rot organism and in soil burial both unleached and after leaching. The results suggest that, of the elements tested, fixed copper is essential for preventing soft rot attack and fixed arsenic is essential for preventing attack by a copper t...
S M Gray, D J Dickinson
A bibliography of organic solvent-based wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 313 E
Fungal degradation of wood treated with metal-based preservatives. Part 2: Redox states of chromium
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10164
Concerns have arisen about the leaching of heavy metals from wood treated with metal-based preservatives, such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Of particular concern is the toxic redox state of chromium and arsenic in aging and decayed CCA-treated wood. Generally, hexavalent chromium is more toxic than trivalent chromium and trivalent arsenic is more toxic than pentavalent arsenic. The desired ...
B Illman, S Bajt, T L Highley
The effective control of moulds on freshly impregnated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30352
Beside natural timber it is known, that moulds can also groth at the surface of impregnated wood. This material shows “defects” like resistant dark spots or color changes and causes complaints. During the last years, the problem by moulds seems to increase. Laboratory studies were carried out to show the effect of impregnations against moulds. Wood samples (Pinus sylvestris L.) were impregn...
G Cofta, K Lutomski, P Jüngel
The course of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives
1972 - IRG/WP 307
Copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservatives in contact with wood result in an instant extensive increase of pH, because of ion-exchange and adsorption reactions with the wood. During precipitation of the active elements the pH continuously increases but reaches a maximum, when all chrome is consumed. Some of the early reaction products are unstable and slowly convert via dissolution into stable comp...
Health hazards and environmental aspects when using Cu-HDO-containing wood preservatives in vacuum pressure plants
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-11
Apart from the biological efficacy of wood preservatives, the health and environmental aspects concerning the utilisation of wood preservatives, the use of treated timber and the disposal of impregnated wood are of high significance today. Therefore, information on a possible aerial concentration of wood preservatives, on the mobility of active substances in soil leached from treated timber in ser...
W Hettler, S Breyne, M Maier
Performance of copper-based wood preservatives in above ground and ground contact tests
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30057
The relative performance of a range of copper-based wood preservatives was compared using above ground and ground contact procedures. The data, accumulated after several years' testing, show that on an equivalent active ingredient basis, differences in performance of the preservative systems tested can vary quite markedly. The contribution of co-biocides to the overall performance of thes...
A F Preston, K J Archer, L Jin, W Metzner, D Seepe
Assessment of the toxicity of some copper-, zinc- and boron-based wood preservatives to the cellar fungus Coniophora cerebella Schröet
1974 - IRG/WP 242
This article reports the use of a method based on the determination of the probability of the protection of timber against destruction by fungi. By converting the probability values to probit values and plotting them as a function of the amount of preservative retained in the timber, curves of the toxic effect are obtained, enabling any timber protection probability to be assessed....
V N Sozonova, D A Belenkov
Experiences with penetration of copper-based wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20233
In the Nordic countries there is a long tradition of result type based specifications for preservative-treated wood. A common Nordic standard for treated pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood was published in 1976. After a revision in 1989 this standard, then named INSTA 140, defined four classes of treated wood: M, A, AB and B. Treaters producing according to this standard had to be affiliated to a qualit...
J Jermer, F G Evans, I Johansson
The implementation of restrictions on the use of arsenic and chromium based wood preservatives in Sweden
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50062
In 1992 the Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate introduced restrictions on the use of wood treated with arsenic and/or chromium based wood preservatives. Such wood is now in principle only allowed for use in ground contact or in water. These restrictions have had considerable influence on the use of wood preservatives for sawn timber for the Swedish domestic market. Thus only 35% of the preser...
J Jermer, M-L Edlund, K Nilsson
Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and its Tolerance towards Copper-based Wood Preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10555
Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward cop...
A C Steenkjær Hastrup, F Green III, C A Clausen, B Jensen
Observations on the performance of copper-based wood preservatives in fungal cellar (soil-bed) tests
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20047
Fungal cellar (soil-bed) tests are considered to be an important tool for the evaluation of the performance of ground contact wood preservatives. Facilities of this type have been established world wide although caution has been exercised in their introduction into standard testing methods for the approval of wood preservatives. This is the result of concerns over the variability in the biological...
G R Williams, D Rudolph, M E Hedley, J A Drysdale, R F Fox
Environmental fate of copper-based wood preservatives in different soil substrates - Part 2: Study of the metal sorption and migration potential under simulated rainfall
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-21 b
In order to examine the potential environmental impact of spillages of the saltborne wood preservative CCA in treatment plants, four large scale experiments are set-up so as to follow the water transport and ion mobility in various field soils. A plastic container is filled with a sand, silt, clay and potting soil, made up at their respective bulk density and wetted to a given moisture content. U...
G M F Van Eetvelde, R Hartmann, J M Mwangi, H S Öztürk, M Stevens
The effect of wood preservatives on the relation between the electric resistance and moisture content in scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20142
The effect of two types wood preservatives (TBTO and CuHDO) on moisture content measurements with an electric resistance meter in pine sapwood is assessed. High and low concentration impregnated pine sapwood is climatized at different relative humidities. Once climatized the samples are weighed and the moisture content is measured with an electric resistance meter by fixed stainless steel, isolate...
B W Holleboom, W J Homan
Kinetics and mechanism of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives. Part 5: Effect of wood species and preservative composition on the leaching during storage
1975 - IRG/WP 354
Conversion reactions during storage of CCA treated wood take place even at and below the fiber saturation point as long as ion transport is possible. Increase in drying temperature increases the final pH of the treated wood and the leachability of Cu and decreases slightly the leachability of Cr, while the leachability of As is not affected. This temperature effect is considered to be of no techni...