Your search resulted in 41 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Variation in Canadian bluestain fungi: Tolerance to DDAC and DOT
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10303
Bluestain in Canadian wood products results in significant and unpredictable losses each year. In order to develop rational methods to eliminate or reduce the sapstain problem, a more complete knowledge of the causal organisms must be gained. This includes a knowledge of the variability in tolerance of different fungal species and strains to commercially used chemicals. In British Columbia, the ma...
J Dubois, A Byrne, J E Clark, A Uzunovic
Effect of borate on uptake and efficacy of an anti-sapstain treatment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30380
The potential for using borates to enhance uptake and efficacy of propiconazole-based anti-sapstain chemicals was assessed on ponderosa pine sapwood wafers. Borates had no consistent effect on either net solution absorption or propiconazole distribution in the wood. Even small amounts of borate, however, markedly improved the performance of propiconazole against fungal discoloration. These resul...
Jianju Luo, Hua Chen, J J Morrell
The effect of didecyldimethylammonium chloride on growth of different strains of mould fungus Gliocladium roseum
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10105
The tolerance and degrading ability of different strains of Gliocladium roseum towards didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were studied. All four of the strains of Gliocladium roseum were tolerant to DDAC and after their growth on amended malt agar, the retention of DDAC in the medium was reduced....
Yu Zheng, J N R Ruddick
Fungus cellar testing as an evaluation method for performance of treated timber in ground contact
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20227
A fungus cellar method for the accelerated evaluation of performance of treated wood in ground contact is described. The test soil comprised of sandy loam, vermiculite and Japanese horticulture soil "Kanumatsuchi" in a ratio of 6:2:2 by volume. The soil was inoculated with the dominant test fungus isolated with selective medium from decayed wood samples. Pairs of treated and untreated wood specime...
Effect of soil parameters on biocide depletion: laboratory and field studies of water- and emulsion-borne preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30234
Two field test sites with different soils were selected. Soil analysis showed that the soil at the two sites had considerable texture, base saturation, acidity, and cation exchange capacity differences. Five sets of field stakes were treated as follows: three with water-borne CCA to about 0.4 pcf (6.4 kgm-3) retention, one with 0.75% DDAC, and one with 0.75% DDAC:0.25% chlorothalonil. The last two...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, D E Pettry, M G Kim
Field tests of preservative-treated radiata pine in Japan
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30083
Test stakes of radiata pine treated with various alkyl ammonium compound (AAC) formulations and with copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) as reference preservative were installed in 3 test sites in Japan in 1981-82. When inspected in 1995, CCA-treated stakes showed less decay at all three sites than stakes treated with other formulations. Ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ)- treatment was only slightly les...
M E Hedley, K Tsunoda, K Suzuki
The fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10263
This work focuses on the biodegradation of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) by the mould fungus Gliocladium roseum within a woody matrix. Three sawdust types, distinguished by their treatment and amount of DDAC retained, were inoculated with the fungus and their DDAC loss was measured over 11 weeks. The rates of degradation varied depending on the sawdust; however, a significant loss of DDA...
J W Dubois, J N R Ruddick
A prototypical needle-incisor for refractory timber
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40041
A needle-incisor was manufactured for trial. This machine has an incising mechanism that a set of needles held by a rotary plate incises timber which is moved toward the front simultaneously, and then another set of needles incises a new part of the timber. Timber is incised by recycling the process. Timber incised of 4400 incisons/m² with the depth of 56 mm by 2.8 mm-diameter needles on all the ...
A Yakuwa, H Endoh, M Mori, S Doi
Sentry®, a new antisapstain formulation for protecting logs and lumber. - Part 2: protection of lumber
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30189
Recent research conducted by Forest Research, Chemcolour Industries (NZ) Ltd. and Fletcher Challenge Forest Ltd. has resulted in the development of antisapstain formulations that meet the efficacy requirements of the New Zealand Forest industry for export logs. One treatment, called Sentry®, is now poised for commercial use in New Zealand for treating export logs, having undergone an extensive su...
R N Wakeling, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter, I Dorset, R Kuluz, J Wakeman
Adsorption of ACQ and CuMEA Wood Preservatives in Red pine
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30374
The rates of stabilization or fixation of ACQ subcomponents (CuO, DDAC and MEA) in red pine (Pinus resinosa) were compared for different solution concentrations (0.75%, 1.5%, 2.25% and 3% ACQ-D) and post treatment conditioning temperatures. Preservative solutions were impregnated into red pine sapwood by a full-cell treatment. Copper and MEA adsorptions from copper monoethanolamine solutions witho...
C Tascioglu, P A Cooper, Y T Ung
Tendency of the preservative use for impregnation industries in Japan
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-05
In Japan, since 1997, the acceptable limit of the arsenic in the waste water become to 0,1 mg/l and the additional regional severer restriction can be established. In this reason, Japanese wood preservation industries intend to use other than CCA, like DDAC, ACQ, Tanalith CuAz, copper-naphthate and zinc-naphthenate, as replacing from CCA. In Jan-June 1997, the share of CCA preservatives was less t...
Field performance of novel antisapstain formulations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30125
The effectiveness as antisapstain formulations of combinations of oxine copper (Cu-8), carbendazim, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, flusilazole, didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), an alkanolamine borate (SB), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), 2-n-octylisothiazolin -3-one (isothiazoline) and p-chlorophenyl-3-iodopropagilformal (CPIPF) was determined for freshly sawn, block-stacked radiata pine in th...
D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals
Leachability of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound) from four wood species
1982 - IRG/WP 3204
Sapwood blocks prepared from red pine, ponderosa pine, southern yellow pine and hem-fir (a commercial mixture of western hemlock and amabilis fir) were treated with didecyldimethylammonium chloride, (an alkylammonium compound, AAC). After oven drying the blocks were vacuum impregnated with distilled water and subjected to a static leach cycle for 48 hours. The leachate was analyzed and the amount ...
J N R Ruddick, A R H Sam
Factors affecting decay rates in a fungus cellar II
1986 - IRG/WP 2259
Tests were initiated to investigate the influence of various factors on the decay rate in a "Fungus Cellar". Birch and pine stakes treated with chromated copper arsenate and didecyldimethyl ammronium chloride, as well as untreated control stakes, were incubated in two soils in a Fungus Cellar test and installed at two field sites for comparative purposes. The visual rating vs actual stake weight l...
P A McKaig
Efficacy of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride (DDAC), Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate (DOT), and Chlorothalonil (CTL) against Common Mold Fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30338
The fungitoxic properties of four fungicides, alone and in combination, against four different mold fungi commonly associated with indoor air quality problems were evaluated on two different wood species and sheetrock. The fungicides were chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (CTL) in a 40.4% aqueous dispersion, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in two different forms - a ...
J A Micales-Glaeser, J D Lloyd, T L Woods
Synergistic combination of an antioxidant and wood preservative: a preliminary study
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30172
We previously proposed that extractives in highly durable angiosperm heartwood may protect wood against white-rot fungal colonization and subsequent degradation by a dual mechanism: extractives have some fungicidal activity and are also free radical scavengers (antioxidants) and thus interfere with the fungal free radical degradative mechanisms. We tested this hypothesis using the commercial bioci...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, J Minn, K D McMurtrey, T H Fisher
Sentry®), a new antisapstain formulation for protecting logs and lumber. - Part 1: advances in protection of New Zealand radiata pine logs
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30188
Until recently antisapstain formulations gave approximately 10 weeks protection to radiata pine logs and even within this time frame protection was often not consistent. Industry requires 20 weeks protection. The degree of protection sought by industry is in the order of 90-95%. For example, this equates to a maximum of 5 - 10% surface cover of sapstain in the first whole veneer produced from a pe...
R N Wakeling, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter, I Dorset, R Kuluz, J Wakeman, T Price, B Nairn
Use of compression strength loss for measuring decay in the soil block test
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20083
The possibility of using radial direction compression strength of wood, rather than mass loss, was evaluated for both a brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). With untreated pine wafers (5 x 19 x 19 mm³ - l x r x t) exposed to Gloeophyllum trabeum in a soil block test for five days, the compression strength loss was nearly 50% compared to a 5% mass los...
D D Nicholas, Zhongwei Jin
Fungicidal effectiveness of amended alkylammonium compound
1987 - IRG/WP 3421
Amendment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride was attempted to improve its fungicidal effectiveness and properties of treating solutions. Addition of copper definitely increased effectiveness in controlling wood decay fungi, although metal corrosiveness and stability of treating solutions was unsatisfactory. Further amendment with stabilizer(s), anticorrosive agent(s) and sequestering agent(s) res...
K Tsunoda, K Nishimoto
Step-wise pressure process for reducing surface roughness in Japanese cedar timber
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40256
Sixteen dried sawn-timber (10.5 x 10.5 x 360 cm) were cut into half. The half of them was treated by step-wise pressure process with 2.5 MPa maximum, and the other half was treated by conventional pressure process with 2.5 MPa maximum. Average DDAC preservative absorption was 461 kg/m3 in the former and 525 kg/m3 in the later. Surface roughness was expressed as the profile element height of collap...
K Yamamoto, M Nozoki
A study on the effectiveness of didecyldimethylammonium chloride to protect wood from attack by termites
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30009
A laboratory bioassay was conducted on the ability of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) to protect Pinus radiata D.Don wood specimens from attack by two of Australia's most economically important species of subterranean termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Sapwood specimens of Pinus radiata, treated to achieve nominal retentions of 0.5...
J W Creffield
Isolation and identification of non-decay fungi affecting the performance of alkylammonium compounds
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10020
The isolation of DDAC tolerant fungi was carried out on lumber treated with a range of antisapstain chemicals containing DDAC as one of their active ingredients. The tolerant fungi were selected by using malt media spiked with DDAC (100 and 2500 ppm). Isolations were tentatively identified into a range of fungi commonly found associated with wood deterioration (i.e. Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma...
A K Doyle, J N R Ruddick
Immunoassays for detecting and tracking wood-protecting chemicals
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-10
To respond to new environmental regulations, forest products industries are reducing or eliminating the release into the environment of chemicals used to protect wood products. For this, mills need tools that support practical and reliable programs for monitoring concentrations of wood protectants in processes and the environment. Conventionally, wood preservatives are detected mainly by gas-liqui...
C Breuil, J Bull
Surface characteristics of wood treated with various AAC, ACQ and CCA formulations after weathering
1991 - IRG/WP 2369
Wood samples treated with various alkylammonium compounds (AACs) as well as ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) have been studied in accelerated weathering experiments. Microscopic examination of the surfaces of these samples after exposure in a weatherometer revealed several different changes. Samples treated with didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) show consider...
L Jin, K J Archer, A F Preston
A microscopic study on the effect of IPBC/DDAC on growth morphology of the sapstaining fungus Ophiostoma piceae
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10191
An exploratory study was performed to probe into fungal/wood/fungicide interactions using Ophiostoma piceae, a common sapstaining fungus on unseasoned radiate pine. Treated (1% solution containing IPBC (0.07% w/w) and DDAC (0.60% w/w)) and untreated radiate pine wafers were inoculated with O. piceae and examined microscopically over a ten days incubation time. The results of the study showed that ...
Ying Xiao, B Kreber