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Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi
M-L Edlund


Detection of defects in standing poles by X-ray techniques
1980 - IRG/WP 2132
The application of X-ray techniques to wood pole inspection procedures has been evaluated. Internal defects were accurately identified using X-ray inspection methods. These methods and their possible influence on the safety and economic aspects of wood pale utilization are discussed.
W D Gardner, R S Johnstone, W Pitt


Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigations these structures were also detected in fungi cultivated with glucose on a rotary shaker, where they showed forms similar to tubuli and vesicles. The three-lamellar structures formed by the white-rot fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum, which were contained in the outermost cell wall layer, were isolated by disintegration of the fungal pellet and subsequent digestion of the fungal cell wall by snail enzyme. It was found that these structures are resistant to the enzymatic digestion and are composed of 80 to 90% carbohydrates, mainly consisting of glucose monomeres, 5 to 10% proteins, containing 5 fractions with molecular weights between 30000 and 200000, and finally 5 to 10% lipids which do not contain any phospholipid.
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr


Detection of brown rot decay in wood by ion mobility spectrometry
1991 - IRG/WP 2377
A test method for the detection of brown rot decay in wood is described and involves a two-step procedure: thermal release of vapours from wood samples followed by analysis using Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), with results being obtained in 5-10 seconds. The advantages, limitations as well as the detection limit of the technique are presented.
A H Lawrence, T Nilsson


Detection of incipient brown rot decay in wood by fourier transform infrared spectrometry
1987 - IRG/WP 2275
Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was evaluated as a possible method for detecting different levels of brown-rot decay in pine sapwood. By using first derivative spectra and regression analysis, an equation based on 4 absorption peaks, normalized with an internal standard peak, was developed. The correlation between weight loss and absorption was highly significant indicating that this is a valid method for detecting incipient brown-rot decay.
D D Nicholas, T Schultz


Methods of assessing decay in poles in service with the Pilodyn wood tester
1978 - IRG/WP 2107 A
H Friis-Hansen


The Pilodyn instrument as a non-destructive tester of the shock resistance of wood
1978 - IRG/WP 2107
A new non-destructive shock resistance tester, the PILODYN, has been developed. The instrument measures the fracture surface area created by a constant amount of energy. It operates by shooting a blunt pin into wood by an exact amount of energy. The penetration depth is read on a scale. A wide field of application is open to a non-destructive shock resistance tester such as: 1) assessment of the residual strength of poles decaying from the outside; 2) laboratory evaluation of biodeteriorated wood; 3) the state of wood foundations and woody pilework; 4) degree of chemical decomposition of wood; 5) degree of thermal decomposition of wood; 6) measurement of the density (strength) of standing trees; 7) measurement of the density (strength) of sawn timber; 8) production control of wood based panel boards. A review of existing test results as well as new results are presented containing items 1, 6 and 7. An evaluation of the potential of the PILODYN is attempted.
P Hoffmeyer


Detection of trace organics by ion mobility spectrometry
1990 - IRG/WP 3635
Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is a time of flight analytical technique that is suited to detect chemicals in the low parts per billion range. Some of the advantages of IMS are: operation at atmospheric pressure, fast response time (0.1-10 sec), and the ability to characterize individual chemical species in complex matrices without any prior sample preparation. In this paper, the utility of IMS in providing a rapid, qualitative analytical technique for trace organics is reported for a number of application areas: narcotic traces on the hands of overdose victims, drug residues in body fluids, identification of wood species, detection of early decay in wood. The advantages and limitations of the use of IMS as a chemical sensor are discussed, and the application of mathematical models and algorithms to extract useful information from IMS signals are also be described.
A H Lawrence


Electronic noses for detection of rot in wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20098
In an ongoing project an electronic nose is being studied and developed for detection of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from wood colonised and decayed by fungi. The electronic nose consists of an array of gas sensors with different selectivity patterns for different groups of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The use of pattern recognition routines implemented by artificial neural networks (ANN) is used to evaluate data from the sensor array. The responses from the sensor array have been correlated to weight loss of and contents of chitin in the decayed wood samples. The results obtained so far indicate that the electronic nose qualitatively can detect significant differences between sound and decayed sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Preliminary results also indicate that the electronic nose can detect differences between decay types like brown rot (Lentinus lepideus) and soft rot (Phialophora A). Results from a study aiming at investigating the abilities of the electronic nose to quantitatively detect different stages of decay is now being analysed statistically. The influence on the responses from the sensor array due to variation in relative humidity, moisture content of the decayed wood samples and temperature have also been studied.
K Nilsson


The use of the Pilodyn for detecting soft-rot decay in CCA treated eucalypt poles
1986 - IRG/WP 2251
A 6 Joule Pilodyn unit with 2.5 mm diameter pin was used to inspect CCA treated eucalypt poles, suspected of suffering groundline soft-rot decay. Pole plugs were removed at the inspection region and the amount of soft-rot decay present determined microscopically. High correlation (R² = 0.73) was obtained between the amount of soft-rot and Pilodyn pin penetration. The Pilodyn is recommended as a useful instrument for inspecting eucalypt poles.
L E Leightley, G A Willoughby


Examination of the Pilodyn as a non-destructive test method for detecting decay in CCA treated eucalypt poles
1982 - IRG/WP 2177
Below groundline condition of 274 CCA treated eucalypt poles comprising 13 different species was examined using 6 and 12 Joule Pilodyn units with 2 and 2.5 mm diameter pins. The data obtained was used to calculate regressions of density on pin penetration. A decrease in density was accompanied by an increase in pin penetration. The best correlation was found using the 6 Joule, 60 x 2.5 mm² diameter pin. The results are discussed with comments on future work with the Pilodyn.
L E Leightley


Occurrence, prevention and repair of Dry Rot
1990 - IRG/WP 1439
Information about the frequency, detection, identification and repair of Dry Rot attacks (Serpula lacrymans) is summarized from 13 European countries. Based on 28 completed and returned questionnaires it appears that Dry Rot attacks are recognized in all countries participating, and that there is an appreciable similarity in the frequency of attacks and methods of detection and identification. However, the method of repair is often rather different between the countries and sometimes even within the same country. These differences are reflected in the methods of repair as well as in the chemical treatment to prevent further spread of the attack. Research concerning alternative methods of Dry Rot treatments is only performed in a few countries.
A P Koch


The use of the Shigometer® and Pilodyn® as non-destructive test methods for detecting decay in CCA treated eucalypt poles
1981 - IRG/WP 2153
The groundline condition of sixty C.C.A. treated eucalypt poles comprising six different species was examined using the Pilodyn® and Shigometer®. Although sensitive to the presence of soft-rot decay, the Shigometer® would seem to offer little practical advantage in the eucalypt soft-rot decay situation, since a comparable visual examination could reveal the presence and extent of decay. Initial results using the Pilodyn® suggest that the instrument has potential for use in detecting changes in timber quality caused by decay. Thirty C.C.A. treated Eucalyptus grandis poles were examined for internal decay using the Shigometer®. A visual assessment of internal pole material and Shigometer® results were in close aggreement for most poles. Information obtained with the Shigometer® on the internal condition of the poles seems to offer a useful method for detecting such decay.
L E Leightley


Early detection of brown-rot decay in southern yellow pine using immunodiagnostic procedures
1990 - IRG/WP 2356
Immunodiagnostic procedures have been used to detect incipient decay of southern yellow pine by six common brown-rot fungi. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised to liquid culture fractions of the six fungi. The antibodies, after preadsorption to sawdust, were tested in particle agglutination assays, immuno-dot blot, and ELISA for their·ability to detect the decay organisms when they were grown in southern yellow pine. Results were correlated to wood block weight loss. Each method specifically detected five of the six test organisms at very low wood block weight loss. Agglutination assays were the least effective and lacked the sensitivity of the other assays, even though the latex particles were more sensitive and reproducible than charcoal particles. Cross-reactivity was only noted for one of the control organisms and only in the charcoal agglutination assay. Both dot blot and ELISA were sensitive test methods, but ELISA had the advantage of quantification. We feel that two of these assays, latex for presumptive results and ELISA for definitive results, could effectively detect incipient decay of common brown-rot fungi.
C A Clausen, F Green III, T L Highley


Detection of a brown-rot fungus using serological assays
1986 - IRG/WP 1305
Polyclonal antisera produced to Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke were used in two tests to qualitatively assay for the fungus. Fungal hyphae were fixed to slides and fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques used to visualize the hyphae under the microscope. Fluorescence of non-Poria fungi, when present, could be reduced but not eliminated by cross-absorbing the sera with these fungi. The antisera was also used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to distinguish between Poria placenta and a non-Poria control fungus Rhizoctonia solani.
B Goodell, J Jellison


Dimensional lumber model demonstrates the sensitivity of the particle capture immunoassay in early detection of brown-rot fungi
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20058
A dimensional lumber model was designed to test the sensitivity of the particle capture immunoassay (PCI) compared to traditional methods of culturing and microscopic examination for detection of brown-rot fungi. Southern yellow pine 2 x 4's (5.1x10.2 cm²), and 86.4 cm in length, were inoculated on one end with the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, and tested over the full length of the board for evidence of brown-rot decay after 21 days incubation. Hyphal growth was visible 12.7-15.2 cm from the site of inoculation, but fungal antigens were detected over the entire length of the test unit. The particle capture immunoassay uses antibody coated latex particles to capture extracellular hemicellulases which are secreted from brown-rot fungi. Movement of these fungal enzymes ahead of the visible hyphal growth may account for the ability of the PCI to detect the presence of brown-rot fungi at zero percent wood weight loss, although additional tests with isolated extracellular enzymes did not support a simple diffusion theory. Positive PCI results for brown-rot were detected 53.3 cm ahead of the visible hyphal growth. Culturing detected fungi only in the region of visible hyphae (17.8 cm from the site of inoculation), and microscopic examination subjectively gave positive results in the same region. The PCI is superior to culturing and microscopic examination for the early detection of brown-rot decay.
C A Clausen, L Ferge


The WOODCARE project: Development of detection methods for Death watch beetle larvae and fungal decay
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20172
Woodcare was a European project coordinated by English Heritage. The aim of the research was to develop more targeted and more environmentally friendly treatment methods for Death watch beetle infections in Oak constructions of historical buildings. TNO has developed two new methods for fast and reliable detection of Death watch beetle larvae and related fungal decay in Oak. The problem with Death watch beetle is that the extent of the decay is difficult to judge, without destroying the wood structures. Sonic detection proved to be extremely successful in early stages of decay in laboratory samples and in wood in buildings. Furthermore, several chemical analysis methods were used to identify different stages of decay by three fungi in wood in laboratory conditions. From these methods, Pyrolysis mass spectrometry was the most promising, and was then also used on wood samples from buildings. Results of both detection methods are summarized and discussed.
P Esser, P Van Staalduinen, A C Tas


Evaluation of a utility pole inspection procedure
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20084
Methods were developed and are currently being utilized to appraise residual strength of utility poles based on visual assessment of increment cores. Strength tests, mycological descriptions and anatomical analyses were performed on eight utility poles taken out of service and one new (never in service) pole. Samples were obtained from increment cores removed from 6 levels in the pole: 2 feet, groundline, +2 feet, +4 feet, +6 feet and +8 feet. Each segment (1 cm) of the increment cores was described visually according to the utility company's procedures. Static bending beams (0.6 x 0.6 x 15 cm³) were removed from pole sections adjacent to the core boring site. A method was developed for cutting static bending beams and performing static bending tests. The strength analysis corresponds to increment cores removed for pole inspections. Each beam represents 1 cm along the radius of the increment core. The relationship between percent latewood, strength and radial position will be exploited as a means for strength prediction. New evaluations of residual strength of individual core codes will be considered by the utility company for use in their current pole analysis procedure.
S E Anagnost, C J K Wang


Detection of wood decay fungi in wood using a PCR-based analysis
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10279
We have developed a DNA-based assay to reliably detect brown rot and white rot fungi in wood at different stages of decay. DNA, isolated by a series of CTAB and organic extractions, was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using published universal primers and basidiomycete-specific primers derived from ribosomal DNA sequences. We have surveyed 7 species of brown rot fungi, 7 species of white rot fungi, 1 ectomychorrizal basidiomycete, 1 non-wood decay basidiomycete species, 25 species of wood-inhabiting ascomyetes (pathogens, endophytes, and saprophytes) and 2 species of non-wood-inhabiting ascomycetes. DNA was isolated from pure cultures of these fungi. DNA was also isolated from spruce wood blocks colonized for 8 months by individual wood decay isolates or isolates of some of the wood-inhabiting ascomycetes. Wood blocks inoculated with species of brown rot fungi exhibited more decay as measured by percent weight loss (65.5 to 69.6%) after 8 months than those inoculated with white rot fungi (0 to 40.1%) or wood-inhabiting ascomycetes (0 to 2.7%). The primer pair ITS1-F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4 (universal primer) amplified the internal transcribed spacer region from both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes from both pure culture and inoculated spruce wood, as expected. The primer pair ITS1 -F (specific for higher fungi) and ITS4-B (specific for basidiomycetes) were shown to reliably detect the presence of wood decay basidiomycetes in both pure culture and wood; however, ascomycetes were not detected by this primer pair. We detected the presence of decay fungi in wood by PCR before measurable weight loss had occurred to the wood.
C Jasalavich, A Ostrofsky, J Jellison


Proposal for a simple methodology for the evaluation of the preventive effectiveness of protectors applied in superficial treatments against basidiomycetes fungi
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20167
Due to the considerable effect that the relation between the lateral surface and the volume of wood blocks has on superficial treatments, this work has attempted to determine the ideal size which allows to evaluate the effectiveness of a preservative in the shortest possible time. Three wood blocks of different dimensions were tested. In addition, as it is necessary to neutralise the effect of the heads for superficial treatments, two kinds of sealant which are clearly affected by the size of the wood blocks (inert and active sealants), were also studied. Likewise, two kinds of superficial treatments (deeping and brushing) were analysed. The possible influence of the size and form of the wood blocks in preventive effectiveness was determined by the weight loss they suffered after 12 weeks of incubation on Gloeophyllum trabeum cultures in malt agar. As was expected, the results obtained showed the greatest degradation on smaller wood blocks. For this reason, larger wood blocks should not be used for tests of this kind, as these did not undergo significant weight loss under these two test conditions during the study. Regarding the sealant, it has been proved that inert sealant influences the fungi activity less than the active sealant. Finally, no differences as to the kind of superficial treatment were observed.
M T De Troya, A Navarrete, F Rubio, M Yuste, C Rodríguez-Borrajo, D Muñoz-Mingarro, F Llinares


Evaluation of the natural durability and ultrasonic method for decay detection of some european hardwood and softwood species
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10537
This paper presents the first part of an investigation on the natural durability of mixed plywood made of durable and non durable plies from the following selected timbers : Cedrus atlantica, Cupressus sempervirens, Castanea sativa, Populus sp. I 214 and Fagus sylvatica. In order to carry out this study, the natural durability of the massive wood used to manufacture the plywood panels was assessed towards wood both white and brown rots (Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana respectively) according to the guidance of the EN 350-1 standard. The sampling was done by taking into account the axial and radial position of the wood samples (sapwood, inner heartwood, outer heartwood) into the log, and sapwood was separated from heartwood when possible. Moreover, the ultrasound velocity was evaluated on these wood samples before and after fungal degradation. On the other hand, the density and the longitudinal modulus of elasticity of the timbers used were measured. In terms of natural durability, the results obtained showed that some differences were noticed between the sapwoods tested, but all of them were considered as non durable. Poplar and beech were shown non durable, on the contrary of chestnut, cypress and cedar heartwood that were very durable. A significant decrease of ultrasound velocity was shown when the decay and the mass loss were considerable. It appeared also the response of the ultrasound velocity was different from brown and white rot decay. Nevertheless, ultrasound velocity measurement was an efficient non-destructive method to evaluate biological decay. The natural durability, as well as the physical and mechanical properties evaluated on massive wood are of interest in order to predict the properties of the plywood that will be manufactured from these studied timbers. These results could be helpful to determine the influence of percentage and pattern of the different plies within the plywood panel, ply thickness and glue lines on the natural durability of plywood.
F Faraji, M-F Thévenon, B Thibaut


New methods for nondestructive inspection of timber in buildings
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20070
In these years older buildings are renewed in most European countries on a large scale, and new techniques are needed for both inspection and eradication of fungal attacks. Heat treatment as a means of eradicating the dry rot fungus has been used in Denmark during the last decade. This technique minimises the structural damage to the building, whilst at the same time reducing costs by up to 50%. To utilise these advantages, there is a great need for new methods of non-destructive inspection of buildings. Two techniques have been developed: the snifferdog and Radiological Density Scanning. This paper describes the RDS inspection technique in comparison with a commercial tool, the Decay Detecting Drill developed to detect decay and other defects in living trees and timber. As part of the EUREKA Euroenviron project entitled Decay Control coordinated by Danish Technological Institute new methods of identification and detection of the early stages of fungal attacks are being developed and tested.
B Madsen, O V Frederiksen


The new method of detecting decay in poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2229
In 1982 the Swedish Telecoms Administration in corporation with the Swedish Dog Training Centre started to investigate the possibility of using dogs for detecting decay in poles. At present two German Sheppheards and two Labrador Retrievers are in operation and the results have up to now well fulfilled our expectations. The following results have been obtained: 1.) The dogs can with high reliability indicate salt-treated poles with a diameter reduction of 40 millimeters ore more (Soft Rot). 2.) The method is usable in all seasons. We believe that we during 1984 can develope a method to discover inside decay in salt-treated poles, decay in Creosoted poles and storage-decay in "white" (untreated) poles. The pole route is divided into sections containing 6-8 poles. A pole record is compiled and "search" is performed at one section at the time. If the dog indicates (strong, weak or no indication) a pole, this is noted in the record. Then the dog is resting while the inspector completes inspection of the section. Normally, indicated poles are directly exposed and decay damages measured, but if poles are frozen this is performed by an other inspector at a more suitable season. The advantages of this method are: i) This method is faster than the ordinary as you are spared from exposing those poles the dog indicates as acceptable (e.g. no indication). ii) Poles with decay damages (as a defind limit value) are indicated more accuratly than with other methods. iii) Better accuracy of pole replacement time (e.g. less per centage replaced poles).
A Ammer, B Svedberg


Detection of increased metal cations after wood decay using Chromeazurol-S
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20112
Chromeazurol-S (CAS) is a dye used for the spectrophotometric determination of metals, mainly aluminum (Al), berillium (Be) and copper (Cu). CAS has been widely used for determining the penetration of copper containing preservatives like CCA (AWPA A3-96). Additional uses include: i) detection of utility pole decay (Esyln, 1979), ii) a chemical spot test for aluminum in wood (Kukachka and Miller, 1980) and fungal production of iron III-binding siderophores in agar (Srinivasan et al., 1993, 1994). The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism of color change from pink (negative) to blue (positive) following brown-rot decay (BRD) of Southern pine and white-rot decay (WRD) of maple blocks using soil-block tests. Changes in wood metals (ppm) were estimated by inductive coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS). Although preliminary results suggest that increased translocation of iron into the wood by siderophores during BRD potentiated the CAS color changes, simultaneous translocation of aluminum into the soil blocks by brown-rot fungi (BRF) clearly contributed cumulatively to the positive CAS tests at 12 weeks.
F Green III, U Srinivasan, R B Miller


Use of immunoblotting for the analysis of wood decay basidiomycetes
1988 - IRG/WP 2307
Immunoblotting methods, in particular dot and Western blotting have been used to investigate features of a variety of wood decay organisms, in particular Coriolus versicolor, Lentinus lepideus and Serpula lacrymans. Antisera to each of these decay organisms has been produced by immunisation of rabbits with liquid culture grown hyphae. These antisera, after appropriate preabsorption with sawdust have been used to detect decay organisms grown in their natural substrate, i.e. wood. Production of a semi-quantitative assay for Coriolus versicolor allowed the relationship of antigen content to weight loss to be investigated in wood block experiments. Uninfected blocks contained no detectable antigen. In infected blocks antigen could be detected, however antigen content appeared to be higher in extracts from blocks with low levels of weight loss compared to extracts from blocks with high weight loss. Western blotting, designed to identify the antigenic species present in different cultures of Coriolus versicolor, indicated that the antigenic nature of the organism depends upon its substrate and that during the decay process the nature of antigens produced by Coriolus versicolor changed, i.e. antigens of different molecular weights were detected antigens. Application of the Western blotting technique to two strains of Serpula lacrymans indicated that they could easily be distinguished by their antigenic nature and this technique may have implications for fungal classification. These investigations indicate that immunological methods have considerable potential for the detection of decay organisms and for the study of the decay process itself.
J W Palfreyman, H Glancy, D Button, A Vigrow, A J Score, B King


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