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Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi...
M-L Edlund

Detection of defects in standing poles by X-ray techniques
1980 - IRG/WP 2132
The application of X-ray techniques to wood pole inspection procedures has been evaluated. Internal defects were accurately identified using X-ray inspection methods. These methods and their possible influence on the safety and economic aspects of wood pale utilization are discussed....
W D Gardner, R S Johnstone, W Pitt

Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigati...
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr

Detection of brown rot decay in wood by ion mobility spectrometry
1991 - IRG/WP 2377
A test method for the detection of brown rot decay in wood is described and involves a two-step procedure: thermal release of vapours from wood samples followed by analysis using Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), with results being obtained in 5-10 seconds. The advantages, limitations as well as the detection limit of the technique are presented....
A H Lawrence, T Nilsson

Detection of incipient brown rot decay in wood by fourier transform infrared spectrometry
1987 - IRG/WP 2275
Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was evaluated as a possible method for detecting different levels of brown-rot decay in pine sapwood. By using first derivative spectra and regression analysis, an equation based on 4 absorption peaks, normalized with an internal standard peak, was developed. The correlation between weight loss and absorption was highly significant indicating that this is a ...
D D Nicholas, T Schultz

Methods of assessing decay in poles in service with the Pilodyn wood tester
1978 - IRG/WP 2107 A
H Friis-Hansen

The Pilodyn instrument as a non-destructive tester of the shock resistance of wood
1978 - IRG/WP 2107
A new non-destructive shock resistance tester, the PILODYN, has been developed. The instrument measures the fracture surface area created by a constant amount of energy. It operates by shooting a blunt pin into wood by an exact amount of energy. The penetration depth is read on a scale. A wide field of application is open to a non-destructive shock resistance tester such as: 1) assessment of the r...
P Hoffmeyer

Detection of trace organics by ion mobility spectrometry
1990 - IRG/WP 3635
Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is a time of flight analytical technique that is suited to detect chemicals in the low parts per billion range. Some of the advantages of IMS are: operation at atmospheric pressure, fast response time (0.1-10 sec), and the ability to characterize individual chemical species in complex matrices without any prior sample preparation. In this paper, the utility of IMS i...
A H Lawrence

Electronic noses for detection of rot in wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20098
In an ongoing project an electronic nose is being studied and developed for detection of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from wood colonised and decayed by fungi. The electronic nose consists of an array of gas sensors with different selectivity patterns for different groups of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The use of pattern recognition routines implemented by artificial neural netwo...
K Nilsson

The use of the Pilodyn for detecting soft-rot decay in CCA treated eucalypt poles
1986 - IRG/WP 2251
A 6 Joule Pilodyn unit with 2.5 mm diameter pin was used to inspect CCA treated eucalypt poles, suspected of suffering groundline soft-rot decay. Pole plugs were removed at the inspection region and the amount of soft-rot decay present determined microscopically. High correlation (R² = 0.73) was obtained between the amount of soft-rot and Pilodyn pin penetration. The Pilodyn is recommended as a u...
L E Leightley, G A Willoughby

Examination of the Pilodyn as a non-destructive test method for detecting decay in CCA treated eucalypt poles
1982 - IRG/WP 2177
Below groundline condition of 274 CCA treated eucalypt poles comprising 13 different species was examined using 6 and 12 Joule Pilodyn units with 2 and 2.5 mm diameter pins. The data obtained was used to calculate regressions of density on pin penetration. A decrease in density was accompanied by an increase in pin penetration. The best correlation was found using the 6 Joule, 60 x 2.5 mm² diamet...
L E Leightley

Occurrence, prevention and repair of Dry Rot
1990 - IRG/WP 1439
Information about the frequency, detection, identification and repair of Dry Rot attacks (Serpula lacrymans) is summarized from 13 European countries. Based on 28 completed and returned questionnaires it appears that Dry Rot attacks are recognized in all countries participating, and that there is an appreciable similarity in the frequency of attacks and methods of detection and identification. How...
A P Koch

The use of the Shigometer® and Pilodyn® as non-destructive test methods for detecting decay in CCA treated eucalypt poles
1981 - IRG/WP 2153
The groundline condition of sixty C.C.A. treated eucalypt poles comprising six different species was examined using the Pilodyn® and Shigometer®. Although sensitive to the presence of soft-rot decay, the Shigometer® would seem to offer little practical advantage in the eucalypt soft-rot decay situation, since a comparable visual examination could reveal the presence and extent of decay. Initial...
L E Leightley

Early detection of brown-rot decay in southern yellow pine using immunodiagnostic procedures
1990 - IRG/WP 2356
Immunodiagnostic procedures have been used to detect incipient decay of southern yellow pine by six common brown-rot fungi. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised to liquid culture fractions of the six fungi. The antibodies, after preadsorption to sawdust, were tested in particle agglutination assays, immuno-dot blot, and ELISA for their·ability to detect the decay organisms when they were grow...
C A Clausen, F Green III, T L Highley

Detection of a brown-rot fungus using serological assays
1986 - IRG/WP 1305
Polyclonal antisera produced to Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke were used in two tests to qualitatively assay for the fungus. Fungal hyphae were fixed to slides and fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques used to visualize the hyphae under the microscope. Fluorescence of non-Poria fungi, when present, could be reduced but not eliminated by cross-absorbing the sera with these fungi. The antisera was also u...
B Goodell, J Jellison

Dimensional lumber model demonstrates the sensitivity of the particle capture immunoassay in early detection of brown-rot fungi
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20058
A dimensional lumber model was designed to test the sensitivity of the particle capture immunoassay (PCI) compared to traditional methods of culturing and microscopic examination for detection of brown-rot fungi. Southern yellow pine 2 x 4's (5.1x10.2 cm²), and 86.4 cm in length, were inoculated on one end with the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, and tested over the full length of the...
C A Clausen, L Ferge

The WOODCARE project: Development of detection methods for Death watch beetle larvae and fungal decay
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20172
Woodcare was a European project coordinated by English Heritage. The aim of the research was to develop more targeted and more environmentally friendly treatment methods for Death watch beetle infections in Oak constructions of historical buildings. TNO has developed two new methods for fast and reliable detection of Death watch beetle larvae and related fungal decay in Oak. The problem with Death...
P Esser, P Van Staalduinen, A C Tas

Evaluation of a utility pole inspection procedure
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20084
Methods were developed and are currently being utilized to appraise residual strength of utility poles based on visual assessment of increment cores. Strength tests, mycological descriptions and anatomical analyses were performed on eight utility poles taken out of service and one new (never in service) pole. Samples were obtained from increment cores removed from 6 levels in the pole: 2 feet, gro...
S E Anagnost, C J K Wang

Detection of wood decay fungi in wood using a PCR-based analysis
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10279
We have developed a DNA-based assay to reliably detect brown rot and white rot fungi in wood at different stages of decay. DNA, isolated by a series of CTAB and organic extractions, was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using published universal primers and basidiomycete-specific primers derived from ribosomal DNA sequences. We have surveyed 7 species of brown rot fungi, 7 species of whit...
C Jasalavich, A Ostrofsky, J Jellison

Proposal for a simple methodology for the evaluation of the preventive effectiveness of protectors applied in superficial treatments against basidiomycetes fungi
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20167
Due to the considerable effect that the relation between the lateral surface and the volume of wood blocks has on superficial treatments, this work has attempted to determine the ideal size which allows to evaluate the effectiveness of a preservative in the shortest possible time. Three wood blocks of different dimensions were tested. In addition, as it is necessary to neutralise the effect of the...
M T De Troya, A Navarrete, F Rubio, M Yuste, C Rodríguez-Borrajo, D Muñoz-Mingarro, F Llinares

Evaluation of the natural durability and ultrasonic method for decay detection of some european hardwood and softwood species
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10537
This paper presents the first part of an investigation on the natural durability of mixed plywood made of durable and non durable plies from the following selected timbers : Cedrus atlantica, Cupressus sempervirens, Castanea sativa, Populus sp. I 214 and Fagus sylvatica. In order to carry out this study, the natural durability of the massive wood used to manufacture the plywood panels was asses...
F Faraji, M-F Thévenon, B Thibaut

New methods for nondestructive inspection of timber in buildings
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20070
In these years older buildings are renewed in most European countries on a large scale, and new techniques are needed for both inspection and eradication of fungal attacks. Heat treatment as a means of eradicating the dry rot fungus has been used in Denmark during the last decade. This technique minimises the structural damage to the building, whilst at the same time reducing costs by up to 50%. T...
B Madsen, O V Frederiksen

The new method of detecting decay in poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2229
In 1982 the Swedish Telecoms Administration in corporation with the Swedish Dog Training Centre started to investigate the possibility of using dogs for detecting decay in poles. At present two German Sheppheards and two Labrador Retrievers are in operation and the results have up to now well fulfilled our expectations. The following results have been obtained: 1.) The dogs can with high reliabili...
A Ammer, B Svedberg

Detection of increased metal cations after wood decay using Chromeazurol-S
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20112
Chromeazurol-S (CAS) is a dye used for the spectrophotometric determination of metals, mainly aluminum (Al), berillium (Be) and copper (Cu). CAS has been widely used for determining the penetration of copper containing preservatives like CCA (AWPA A3-96). Additional uses include: i) detection of utility pole decay (Esyln, 1979), ii) a chemical spot test for aluminum in wood (Kukachka and Miller, 1...
F Green III, U Srinivasan, R B Miller

Use of immunoblotting for the analysis of wood decay basidiomycetes
1988 - IRG/WP 2307
Immunoblotting methods, in particular dot and Western blotting have been used to investigate features of a variety of wood decay organisms, in particular Coriolus versicolor, Lentinus lepideus and Serpula lacrymans. Antisera to each of these decay organisms has been produced by immunisation of rabbits with liquid culture grown hyphae. These antisera, after appropriate preabsorption with sawdust ha...
J W Palfreyman, H Glancy, D Button, A Vigrow, A J Score, B King

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