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Deterioration of wood viewed from iron nail
1991 - IRG/WP 2368
Deterioration of nail was graded by a five - rank numerical - rating. The rating of nail moisture content and decay of wood were inspected in a mortal-wall of 34-year-old house. The wood was mostly in decay, when the rating of the nail was above about 4, and the moisture content was above about 20%. Nailed wood specimens kept in several humidity room of 20°C for 4 years showed that the rating of ...
H Imamura


Wood preservation in the USA
1982 - IRG/WP 3215
This report is a comprehensive survey of the status of the wood preservation field in the U.S.A. at the start of the 1980s. The importance of wood preservation is discussed and its industry described. Various statistics and analyses regarding the use of treated wood have been compiled. Both pressure and non-pressure applications have been covered, as well as remedial treatments and pest control op...
D D Nicholas, R Cockcroft


Laboratory culturing and decay testing with Physisporinus vitreus and Donkioporia expansa orginating from identical cooling tower environments show major differences
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10184
Both Basidiomycete fungi Physisporinus vitreus (Pers.:Fr.) P. Karst. and Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouz. were isolated from identical cooling tower environments. Azobé heartwood (Lophira alata), a very durable tropical wood species was totally deteriorated in cooling towers in a similar way by both fungi. First attempts to culture Physisporinus vitreus in laboratory circumstances sh...
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Utility, deterioration and preservation of marine timbers in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40314
Timber is extensively used in India in the marine environment for various purposes due to its several advantages over modern materials. Infact, its use is increasing in recent years, finding wider and wider applications and this scenario is not going to change in the near future. Though, the bio-deterioration problem is found very severe in tropical waters, still indigenous methods are widely empl...
B Tarakanadha, M V Rao, M Balaji, P K Aggarwal, K S Rao


Examination of timbers from the Mary Rose in storage
1988 - IRG/WP 4149
Timbers from the Tudor ship, Mary Rose, have been examined for the presence of fungal fruiting structures. Wood specimens were also examined for the presence of microbial decay patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. Structural timbers were surveyed using the Pilodyn for an overall picture of the extent of decay. Mary Rose timbers were predominantly inhabited by marine fungi. Fourte...
R Mouzouras


The effect of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts
1986 - IRG/WP 1277
In order to evaluate the effect of the presence of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts, 30 specimens with and without sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus tereticornis were exposed in three test sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the inspection carried out in 1985, after 5 years of exposure, are reported in...
M S Cavalcante, G A C Lopez, E S F Mucci, R G Montagna


Use of the Pilodyn to assess deterioration of treated aspen waferboard after 30 months of outdoor exposure
1986 - IRG/WP 2254
Samples of preservative treated aspen waferboard exposed outdoors for 30 mo. were compared using pin penetrations of the 6 Joule Pilodyn. These results correlated well with rankings of treatment performance based on more laborious standard mechanical tests, and demonstrate the potential for use of the Pilodyn as a tool to evaluate wood composites in test exposures with minimal destruction....
E L Schmidt, M G Dietz


Importance of bacteria in the deterioration of archaeological woods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10122
An electron microscopic study of archaeological woods from different sites and of different ages revealed that the woods had been attacked by erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and soft rot fungi. Bacterial erosion appeared to be most widespread, and was present independently as well as together with tunnelling and soft rot attacks. Thus, in many instances bacterial erosion was the only type of...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, T Nilsson


Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on an archaeological wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10007
Transmission electron microscopy of wood from a Chinese ship submerged in the mud for over 900 years showed bacteria to be the main factor for its deterioration. The micromorphology of degraded wood cell walls was similar to that observed during the attacks of wood by erosion bacteria. Other bacterial forms, previously considered lo be scavenging bacteria, were also abundant in degraded areas of t...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh


Highly virulent wood-rotting Basidiomycetes in cooling tower timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10125
Over the past ten years most industrial cooling towers changed their water treatment systems in order to meet environmental requirements. Since this alterations wood rot attack has been reported more frequently. Several Basidiomycete fungi were isolated and determined. Amongst the most important ones are strains of Physisporinus vitreus (Pers.:Fr.) P. Karst., Phellinus contiguus (Fr.) Pat. and Don...
J Van Acker, M Stevens, V Rijckaert


An evaluation on durability of untreated mining timber support
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20121
Wedge blocks in dimension of 5 x 7 to 8 x 155 cm3 were cut from indigeneous scots pine pitprops. Each of wedge block pairs were numbered and half of them were placed as the test blocks between the steel arches and the strata in a hard coal pit. Controls in laboratory and test wedge blocks in the mine were then sawn into 20 by 20 by 300 mm standard test sticks. Impact bending, static bending and MO...
A Bobat


Effect of vegetable compost on leaching of CCA components from treated wood - An Update
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50048
In an earlier study, the effect of compost on CCA-C leaching was compared with leaching losses under different exposure conditions. Small treated cubes (25 mm³) were destructively sampled over a 12 month period and the residual CCA determined for exposure to compost in a compost bin, exposed to natural rain and buried in soil. This study provides a comparison after 3 years of samples exposed to c...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Environmental risk assessment of treated timber in service: The Environment Focus Group approach
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50162
In the context of the Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC), and of the OECD work on wood preservatives, the Environment Focus Group (EFG), comprising 8 institutes and the European Wood Preservative Manufacturers Group, has been working on the environmental risk assessment of treated timber in service. A literature review of emissions from treated timber has revealed that very little existing data...
G Deroubaix, G Labat, I Le Bayon, S Legay, P Marchal, C Yrieix, E Melcher, R-D Peek, S De Geyter, J Van Acker, W J Homan, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy, E D Suttie, A J Nurmi, A-C Ritschkoff, D Rudolph, I Stephan, D Aston, E F Baines, J B Simonin


Microbial decay of an archaeological wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10053
A light and transmission electron microscopic investigation of an archaeological wood was undertaken to determine the cause of its deterioration. The wood came from a bulwark constructed in early 1100 in the lake Tingstäde Träsk on the island Gotland in Sweden. The samples of the wood, which was identified as Pinus sylvestris, were taken from a depth of 0.85 m below the bottom level. The wood wa...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


New approaches to practical evaluation method of bio-degradation of wooden construction - Non-destructive detection of defects using radar technique
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20214
There have been a number of researches and developments on the techniques and apparatus for the nondestructive evaluation of the biological deterioration in wood and wooden constructions, such as decay or insect attack in house, public buildings or in historically important architectures. As for the detection of the decay in wood, techniques using sound in audible or in ultrasonic frequency ranges...
Y Fujii, Y Komatsu, Y Yanase, S Okumura, Y Imamura, M Tarumi, H Takiuchi, A Inai


Timber deterioration and its prevention in marine environment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10559
Wood-borer activity is an established fact in Mumbai harbour that leads to severe deterioration of timber. In order to prevent the deterioration caused by wood borers three resin preservatives containing Zinc borate, Organo-copper polymer (4 wt% Cu) and Organo-Tin polymer Copoly(TBTM-MMA) were used for timber treatment. Test panels were treated using standard method and the...
B S Swami, M Udhayakumar, P Kumar, A B Samui


An investigation of the factors influencing the rate of deterioration of timber samples due to microfungi in laboratory tests
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20116
An investigation was performed into the comparative performances of test 1 (vermiculite burial) and test 2 (soil burial) as described in ENV 807. Two test preservatives were used - copper naphthenate and propiconazole. Copper chromate was included as a reference preservative. The wood species used was beech (Fagus sylvatica). Test 1 was performed using both a mixed inoculation of the five stipulat...
I J Herring, D J Dickinson, S M Gray, J K Carey


Study of the degradation caused by micro-organisms in Pinus sp. waterlogged wood
1989 - IRG/WP 1411
So far, the different Centers are trying the restoration and the conservation of wood structures, coming from subaquatic archeological deposits, with interest from the historic - artistic point of view. The main objective of this paper has been the determination of the decay level of Pinus sp. wood coming from a roman ship (approximately 2000 years old), where we have analyzed their physical prope...
M T De Troya, M C Escorial, J Garcia, A Cabanas


Some studies on fungal deterioration of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis)
1980 - IRG/WP 2140
For the sreening of anti-stain chemicals trials with selected agricultural fungicides and new chemicals were carried out. Botryodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were used at test organisms. For testing the durability of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) suitable local rotting fungi (Basidiomycetes), based on high degrading power, which may later be employed in standard tests...
A Sujan, A G Tan, M Stevens


Estimates of wood-consumption rates by termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1201
Effects of 2 components; termite-biomass and experiment duration on estimates of wood-consumption rates (mg wood/g termite/day), were examined. Three models; (1) no mortality, (2) linear mortality and (3) nonlinear mortality were used to calculate mean standing-crop biomass of termites. Model (1) predicted a significantly lower wood-consumption rate than those based on models (2) and (3). No signi...
N-Y Su, J P La Fage


Effects of air-seasoning on fungal colonization and wood strength of Douglas fir poles
1987 - IRG/WP 1315
Air seasoning economically reduces the moisture content of Douglas fir poles before pressure treatment with preservatives. Advanced decay in poles in service has resulted when decay fungi (Basidiomycetes) colonized poles during air-seasoning and survived the treatment process. These problems have led to recommendations to severely limit this practice. To determine the role of these fungi in peeled...
J J Morrell, M E Corden, R D Graham, B L Kropp, P Przybylowicz, S M Smith, C A Sexton


Isolation and identification of non-decay fungi affecting the performance of alkylammonium compounds
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10020
The isolation of DDAC tolerant fungi was carried out on lumber treated with a range of antisapstain chemicals containing DDAC as one of their active ingredients. The tolerant fungi were selected by using malt media spiked with DDAC (100 and 2500 ppm). Isolations were tentatively identified into a range of fungi commonly found associated with wood deterioration (i.e. Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma...
A K Doyle, J N R Ruddick


Deterioration and preservation of Japanese pampas grass as a roofing material
1991 - IRG/WP 1490
The deterioration and preservation of Japanese pampas grass as a roofing material were investigated. The pith of stem and sheath were more rapidly decomposed. The vessels were the most important pathway of microbial prevalence. Hyphae invaded into the cell wall of fiber and parenchyma, and made the cavities with conical ends. The contacting cell wall of parenchyma in pith with hyphae was decompose...
K Fukuda


Electrochemical deterioration of wood in sea-water
1981 - IRG/WP 464
In the specialistic literature only few items can be found dealing with the specific kind of wood deterioration called electrochemical corrosion of wood. This deterioration occurs predominantly on marine vessels, yachts, and other marine craft where wood is jointed by means of various metal connectors. Up to date information demonstrates that in wood surrounding copper connectors, when in proximit...
J Raczkowski


Imaging fungal deterioration of wood using x-ray microtomography
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10240
Nondestructive tomographic images of solid Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood and SYP during deterioration by wood decay fungi were obtained by using a new class of synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (CMT). The CMT images will provide information about spatial relationship between degrading fungi and wood structures. Wood samples were scanned with synchrotron-generated X-rays at high resoluti...
B Illman, B A Dowd


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