Your search resulted in 2973 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Biological Durability of Laminated Veneer Lumber from Durable and Non-Durable Wood Species
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10567
Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) was laboratory manufactured using veneers from decay and non decay resistant species in order to evaluate changes in the durability as a result of the LVL manufacturing process, and to test if the mixing of decay resistant species and non decay resistant species can improve durability. Laboratory soil block test and field test were conducted. The durability of solid w...
P Nzokou, J Zyskowski, S Boury, D P Kamdem
Estimation of service life of durable timber species by accelerated decay test and fungal cellar test
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20249
Many kinds of durable wood species for outdoor uses has been imported from all over the world to Japan. However information on the natural durability of these species is not sufficient to estimate the service life of them in the climate of Japan. Highly durable species such as Jarrh, Teak, Ipe, Ekki, Selangan batu, Red wood, Western red cedar showed no significant percent mass losses by accelerate...
K Yamamoto, I Momohara
Thermal modification of non-durable wood species 1. The PLATO technology: thermal modification of wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40123
The PLATO technology is an innovative upgrading technology with low environmental impact, which can be applied to fast grown and non-durable wood species. This technology is based on a thermal modification of solid wood without the addition of chemicals (e.g. preservatives), consisting of a hydrothermal treatment, followed by drying and curing. The PLATO technology results in a substantial improve...
M J Boonstra, B F Tjeerdsma, H A C Groeneveld
Comparison of three methods for assessing the in-ground termite resistance of treated timber, durable timber and plastics at sites in Australia, USA and Thailand - First results
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20132
The in-ground resistance of materials to attack by subterranean termites is most commonly assessed with one form or another of the conventional graveyard method, despite the significant shortcomings of this method. In Australia, an alternative method, in which all samples of test materials are placed below-ground, has been in use for more than 10 years. The method provides reliable exposure of sam...
M Lenz, A F Preston, J W Creffield, K J Archer, B M Kard, C Vongkaluang, Y Sornnuwat
The practice of using concrete on wood piling for marine use in Thailand
1982 - IRG/WP 492
The practice of using concrete on wooden poles has been carried on in Thailand for a long time in pile-houses and pier constructions which have been situated in, or partly in the sea. In such instances, the hewed round and/or square-sawn heartwood poles of naturally durable timber species have been coated with concrete of about 5 to 10 cm or more in thickness, and to about 100 cm above the highest...
Severe decay damages of bridges made of ekki (Lophira alata) wood known as a durable species
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10383
Bridges made of ekki (azobe, bongossi, Lophira alata Banks et Gaertn.) timbers were severely decayed only 10 years after the construction possibly caused from no maintenance for the periods. The reason of no maintenance is due to the misunderstandings on wood durability against wood-decaying fungi. Some civil-engineers and architectures understand "durable species" means "absolutely decay-durable ...
S Doi, T Sasaki, Y Iijima
Microbial decay in an extremely durable Malaysian hardwood Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) - an overview
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10216
The heartwood of Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri) is highly regarded among the naturally durable Malaysian hardwoods, and is therefore a choice timber for soilcontact use in the humid tropics such as untreated telecommunication poles, fence posts and railway sleepers. The high microbial resistance of the wood is evidenced by the mere superficial degradation observed in some pole samples after 20 yea...
A H H Wong, A P Singh
The high decay resistance in the sapwood of the naturally durable Malaysian hardwood Belian (Eusideroxylon zwageri)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10410
It has long been assumed that the observed natural durability of the heartwood in certain timbers is perhaps associated with a relatively lower decay susceptibility also of the sapwood of these species. While the heartwood of Belian is reputedly highly decay resistant among the tropical hardwoods of Southeast Asia, laboratory decay tests reported in this paper have also confirmed the high decay re...
A A H Wong, A P Singh
Thermal modification of non-durable wood species 2. Improved wood properties of thermal treated wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40124
Properties of wood treated in a new heat-treatment process called the PLATO-process have been studied. Several wood species have been treated using this new thermal modification process using a range of process conditions (mainly time and temperature). In this study the characteristics of the treated wood were determined using samples from whole planks treated on pilot plant scale. The modified ch...
B F Tjeerdsma, M J Boonstra, H Militz
Possible durability transfer from durable to non durable wood species. The study case of teak wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10392
Teakwood is well known for its excellent natural durability, mostly due to its high proportion of extracts. Amongst these extracts, quinones, and more precisely some naphtoquinones (such as lapachol) and anthraquinones (such as tectoquinone) appear to play a crucial role in the resistance to wood decay organisms. At a laboratory scale, sawdust from malaysian teak heartwood has been extracted under...
M-F Thévenon, C Roussel, J-P Haluk
Laboratory Evaluation of Soft Rot Resistance of Non-Durable Lesser-Known Malaysian Hardwoods
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10582
Resistance of six non-durable lesser-known Malaysian hardwoods, Pulai (Alstonia spp.), Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis), Ludai (Sapium spp.), Jelutong (Dyera costulata), Gaham Badak (Blumeodendron tokbrai) and Kayu arang (Diospyros spp.) compared with temperate Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris), were evaluated using the unsterile soil burial (mixed with Chaetomium globosum) versus vermiculite-b...
A H H Wong
Detection of Anti-Fungal Sapwood Extractives in Non-Durable Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) and Jelutong (Dyera costulata)
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10634
A general laboratory bioassay method of Woodward and Pearce (1985) was adopted to detect anti-fungal activity of sapwood or heartwood extractives of 5 Malaysian hardwoods [dark red meranti heartwood (Shorea spp.), red balau heartwood (Shorea spp.), kulim heartwood (Scorodocarpus borneensis), jelutong sapwood (Dyera costulata) and rubberwood sapwood (Hevea brasiliensis), including the temperate Pin...
A H H Wong, R B Pearce
Feasibility study on three furfurylated non-durable tropical wood species evaluated for resistance to brown, white and soft rot fungi
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40395
Furfurylation can protect non-durable wood species against biological degradation, but the method used today cannot fully protect the heartwood of Scots pine due to insufficient penetration. In order to test alternative wood substrates for furfurylation, three Malaysian grown wood species (Kelempayan, Rubberwood and Sena) were furfurylated and subjected to soil block decay testing. Their performan...
T Mark Venås, A H H Wong
Field Tests of naturally Durable North American Wood Species
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10675
There has been little field test performance data published on North American naturally durable species in general, and no published data on second growth material in particular. Yellow cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis), western red cedar (Thuja plicata), eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), and three wood species reputed to be moderately durable were installed in ground-contact (stakes) an...
P E Laks, P I Morris, G M Larkin, J K Ingram
Ensure Durable Wood-Frame Construction under the Climate and Biological Hazards in Shanghai
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20413
This paper provides technical background for developing durability-related provisions for the Shanghai wood-frame construction code. It summarizes the related climate, decay and termite hazards in this area as well as traditional durability solutions used for wood and wood hybrid constructions in China. The overall durability principles or philosophy used throughout this durability chapter are to ...
Jieying Wang, Chun Ni, Jiahua Zhang
Above Ground Field Evaluation and GC-MS Analysis of Naturally Durable Wood Species
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10764
Nine wood species are being evaluated in above ground field studies in Mississippi and Wisconsin. Candidate naturally durable wood (NDW) species are being rated at yearly intervals for resistance to decay, cupping, and checking. Field ratings after 12 months exposure are presented. To date, Paulownia tomentosa (PAW) and southern yellow pine (SYP) are least durable and cedars are the most durable i...
G T Kirker, A B Blodgett, S T Lebow, C A Clausen
Use of the durable species Coast Redwood as a reference system for field testing of Wood Protection systems
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20486
Data is provided and discussed for a number of field exposure tests where the naturally durable wood species Coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens, was included along with untreated pine and standard preservative treatments. In general, there is potential for higher variability of results with this naturally durable species, but it does suggest that redwood can be a useful reference material for te...
A Zahora, A Preston, L Jin
Transferable Durability: Enhancing decay resistance of non-durable species with extractives from durable wood species
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10808
Extractive content and composition is a vital component of naturally durable woods; however, variability in extractives can limit their usefulness in the field. Two extractive-free, non-durable wood species were pressure treated with ethanol-toluene extractives from 8 durable wood species. Extracted Southern pine, Paulownia and unextracted Southern pine blocks were treated and challenged in soil b...
G T Kirker, A B Blodgett, S Lebow, C A Clausen
Microbial Community Analysis of Naturally Durable Wood in an Above Ground Field Test
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10826
This paper presents preliminary results of an above ground field test wherein eight naturally durable wood species were exposed concurrently at two sites in North America. Surface samples were taken at regular intervals from non-durable controls and compared to their more durable counterparts. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism was performed to characterize the microbial (bacteria, ...
G T Kirker, S V Diehl, P K Lebow
Unexpected natural decay resistance strategies of durable tropical woods Bocoa prouacencis, Vouacapoua americana, Inga alba and relationship with specific gravity and wood extractives
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10832
The study of decay resistance in wood is of interest for wood end-users but also for the global carbon balance since wood biodegradation is a key driver of forest ecosystem functioning through its impacts on carbon and nutrient cycling. We studied the specific gravity and wood extractive contents in order to understand decay resistance against soil microflora after 90 days exposure of sapwood and ...
N Amusant, M Migg, B Thibaut, J Beauchene
GC-MS Characterizations of Termiticidal Heartwood Extractives from Wood Species Utilized in Pakistan
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10857
Wood species that exhibit innate tolerance to wood destroying organisms such as termites are considered to be naturally durable. This durability can, in part, be due to the complex chemical compounds in the heartwood of naturally durable wood species. We examined the effects of varying concentrations of heartwood extractives on the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes from four wood spec...
M E Mankowski, B Boyd, B Hassan, G T Kirker
Laboratory evaluations of woods from Pakistan and their extractives against Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor
2016 - M Mankowski, B Hassan, A Bishell, G Kirker
Natural durable wood species are those which exhibit innate tolerance to wood decay organisms such as fungi and termites. The goal of this study was to evaluate 4 wood species (Dalbergia sissoo, Cedrus deodara, Morus alba and Pinus roxburghii) from Pakistan in order to determine their resistance to both a model brown (Postia placenta) and white (Trametes versicolor) rot fungus compared to a durabl...
M Mankowski, B Hassan, A Bishell, G Kirker
Coula edulis baill an unknown wood species as an alternative to the main durable wood species used in Gabon
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10945
The Congo Basin hosts an exceptional biodiversity of trees, flora and fauna. However, the immense natural heritage of the forests in this area is increasingly threatened by many anthropogenic factors, due to selective exploitation of certain wood species. In Gabon, whose ecosystem is representative of this area, the forest represents nearly 80% of the national territory. Only a minority of wood sp...
C S A Bopenga Bopenga, S Dumarçay, P Edou Engonga, P Gerardin
Future development of durability assessment of wood, according to typical usage of preservative-treated wood and naturally durable wood in Japan
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20675
A market of preserved wood products in Japan has two unique histories. First is the market shift to residential ground sills from utility poles and sleepers; the other is the stop of CCA treatment caused by the new effluent standard. In 2018, around 85% of preserved wood products used for residential ground sills were treated with non-CCA such as Cu-based agents. Since the market of treated wood h...
T Osawa, W Ohmura, H Kurisaki
Service trial of different materials exposed in jetties at Öresund. Progress report No. 5
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30764
This report contains results of the fifth inspection on the performance of different decking materials – preservative-treated wood, modified wood, natural durable wood, re-cycled plastics and wood-plastic composites (WPCs) - available on the market and exposed since 2013 (some since 2014 and 2016) by the City of Malmö in two jetties near the Øresund Bridge, south of central Malmö in Sweden. T...