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An evaluation of CCA, CCB and CCP preservatives using a "sandwich test"
1991 - IRG/WP 2370
The last two years has seen some important changes in standards and preservative types used in Scandinavia, which have led to a wider choice for specifiers. In order to identify those treatments suitable for replacement or reinforcement of decayed constructional timbers, it was felt necessary to modify the standard EN 113 test. Impregnated blocks were sandwiched between two untreated blocks, previ...
A P Koch, L B Sheard

Chemical Analysis of Southern Pine Pole Stubs Thirty-Nine Months Following Treatment with Three Methylisothiocyanate-Based Fumigants
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30349
Agricultural fumigants have been commercially used in the United States for over 20 years to control internal decay in utility poles and other wooden structures. Of the four fumigants which are currently used in the remedial treatment of utility poles, three are based on methylisothiocyanate (MITC) as being the principal fungitoxic component. Two of these MITC-based fumigants, liquid metham sodi...
R J Ziobro, J Fomenko, D J Herdman, J Guzzetta, T Pope

Preliminary field and laboratory findings regarding the efficacy of a novel anti-marine wood borer agent
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10380
Blocks of sapwood of Pinus nigra were treated by vacuum impregnation with Biocide A to retentions of 0.5, 1 and 2 kg m-3. Similar blocks were vacuum-pressure impregnated with CCA to retentions of 2, 24 and 38kg m-3. The blocks were exposed subtidally in Mourilyan Harbour (Queensland, Australia). After 5 and 10 months exposure, blocks were removed, examined for superficial signs of attack by wood b...
A Praël, S M Cragg, R A Eaton

Evaluation of the fire retardant efficacy and leach resistance of an amino resin fire retardant - Preliminary report
1983 - IRG/WP 3260
The Early Fire Hazard Indices of untreated Pinus radiata were determined by testing to Australian Standard 1530, Part 3 - 1976. Differences in the performance of heartwood and sapwood were noted, with heartwood samples giving higher Ignitability, Heat Evolved and Spread of Flame indices. The treatability of Pinus radiata with Pyrogard H was assessed, and backsawn sapwood treated more effectively t...
W D Gardner, P N Alexiou, P Lind, D Butler

Soil-bed studies. Part 2: The efficacy of wood preservative
1983 - IRG/WP 2205
Various methods of decay assessment were investigated. Three stages or phases of decay were identified which could be used to describe the efficacy of a preservative system or virulence of a soil-bed testing medium. These included the lag, decay, and senescent phase. Premature senescence could arise if wood samples became waterlogged. It was concluded that time to failure was unsuitable as a metho...
P Vinden, J F Levy, D J Dickinson

A laboratory bioassay on the termiticidal efficacy of a chlorothalonil formulation and a chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos formulation to Mastotermes darwiniensis Frogatt
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30004
Results of a laboratory bioassay on the efficacy of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) to the Australian subterranean termite Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt are given. Specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood were treated to three retentions of each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2 + 0.2, ...
J W Creffield, N Chew

Efficacy of linear chain carboxylic acid anhydrides as wood protection chemicals
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30295
This paper presents an assessment of the effectiveness of linear chain carboxylic acid anhydrides namely, acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric and hexanoic anhydride, in improving the decay resistance of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra Schneid) sapwood. Wood-anhydride bond formation was verified by the increase in sample weight and volume. A brown rot fungus [Coniophora puteana (Schum.:Fr)] was selec...
A N Papadopoulos, M D C Hale, C A S Hill

The efficacy of remedial treatments for controlling fungal decay in window millwork used in the United States
1987 - IRG/WP 3432
Conventional window millwork was subjected to basidiomycete decay by inoculation and sampled for active growth of the decay fungus before and eight months after remedial preservative treatment with fused disodium octaborate rods (IMPEL) at boric acid levels of 1.5 and 4.0 kg/m³ or liquid bifluoride injections (IMPROSOL) at 1 kg/m³. The elimination of decay fungus after remedial treatment was nea...
M G Dietz, E L Schmidt

Initial results and observations of a model system to assess the efficacy and environmetal impact of preservative treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-02
The development of a closed model system for the laboratory assessment of the efficacy and environmental impact of a chromated fluoride remedial treatment for creosoted distribution poles has been described (IRG/WP/2395-92). The model consists of a precipitation apparatus above a treated pole section positioned in a soil profile from which leachate was collected via a series of simulated field dra...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines

A collaborative test to determine the efficacy of polyurethane coatings on wood samples in the marine environment. 2nd Interim Report
1990 - IRG/WP 4161
The results of a collaborative international test to evaluate the performance of elastomeric polyurethane coatings of wooden test samples exposed in seawater at 13 sites around the world are reported. The samples have been exposed at sites with known infestations by molluscan and/or crustacean wood borers. Performance data for up to 4 years exposure at some sites is presented providing information...
R A Eaton

A technique for determinging the efficacy of wood preservatives for partially treated timber
1988 - IRG/WP 2322
A technique is described for determining the efficacy of wood preservatives either for certain wood species where a full penetration cannot be achieved by normal vacuum-pressure methods or for more permeable species to look at efficacy of treated zone in preventing decay of an untreated core. Both sapwood and heartwood planks of spruce (Picea abies) and pine (Pinus sylvestris) were treated by CCA ...
A J Nurmi

The efficacy of Sentry® as a treatment for the control of sapstain in pre-infected radiata pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30260
Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of Sentry® when used to control sapstain fungi on radiata pine branch billets stored under high fungal hazard conditions. Prior to antisapstain treatment, the billets were pre-infected with a mixed inoculum of staining fungi and held from zero to 10 days at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. This was done to produce billets with different degrees...
C Chittenden, J G van der Waals, B Kreber, R N Wakeling

Natural exposure weathering tests: Their role in the assessment of wood preservative efficacy
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20006
Previous work has demonstrated the potential and usefulness of natural ageing procedures in e evaluation of wood preservative efficacy. This results from the combination of physico-chemical influences and microbiological interactions with both substrate and wood preservative. In this paper, results are presented for a range of biocide types. Discussions are centred on the value of natural exposure...
G R Williams, J Brown

Efficacy of deltamethrin associated with TCMTB and MBT for the temporary protection of timbers immediately following their sawing, in tropical countries
1987 - IRG/WP 1321
K-Othrine bois 2.5 "sciage"Ò containing 2.5 g/l of deltamethrin, 50 g/l of TCMTB and 50 g/l of MBT used at a 6% dilution controls effectively during the drying process of the freshly sawn wood, the insects attacking wet wood, the staining fungi and the rots. The protection lasts 4 months. The efficacy trials carried in 1985 and 1986 in the CTFT ("Centre Technique Forestier Tropical") of Abidjan, ...
J S Duguet, V Dartigues

Accelerated decay tests to investigate postulated effects of tannins on CCA efficacy in wood
1988 - IRG/WP 3497
Five groups of blocks (10 x 10 x 5 mm³) viz., Pinus patula, Pinus patula impregnated to 4% (w/w) tannin; Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus grandis with natural tannins extracted; and extracted Eucalyptus grandis with tannins returned as above; were prepared. Blocks from each group were then treated to 0, 5, 10 and 15 kg/m³ CCA and challenged in four 15-week decay tests, viz., soil burial, and expos...
U L Scherer, A A W Baecker

Fungicidal efficacy of some dimethyldithiocarbamates, dymethylaminopropionitrile and some salts of S-substituted thioglycolic acid
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30180
Screening for fungicidal activity against Trametes versicolor and Coniophora puteana of the following compounds was performed: sodium N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate, dimethylalkylammonium (C12-C14) N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate, benzyldimethylalkylammonium (C12-C14) N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate, N,N-dimethylaminopropionitrile and ammonium, copper and zinc salts of N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamoylacetic acid....
M Petric, F Pohleven, M Humar, U Kolman

Long-term efficacy of wood dip-treated with multicomponent biocides
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30379
Biocides designed for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials need to provide long-term protection under conditions of high humidity. Specimens of kiln-dried southern pine and unseasoned southern pine, aspen, and Douglas-fir were dip-treated with borate-dimethylcocoamine (DMCA) supplemented with voriconazole, thiabendazole, or thujaplicin and evaluated at 4-week intervals for inhi...
C A Clausen, V W Yang

Observations on the performance of copper-based wood preservatives in fungal cellar (soil-bed) tests
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20047
Fungal cellar (soil-bed) tests are considered to be an important tool for the evaluation of the performance of ground contact wood preservatives. Facilities of this type have been established world wide although caution has been exercised in their introduction into standard testing methods for the approval of wood preservatives. This is the result of concerns over the variability in the biological...
G R Williams, D Rudolph, M E Hedley, J A Drysdale, R F Fox

Effect of treating process on efficacy of CCA in a laboratory decay test
1990 - IRG/WP 3628
Test samples of Pinus radiata sapwood measuring 40x40x500 mm³ were treated with a range of concentrations of the copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) formulation "Tanalith C" using Rueping (empty cell), Lowry (empty cell) and Bethell (full cell) treatment processes. Samples were then reduced to 40x40x7 mm³ test blocks and exposed to the decay fungus Coniophora puteana using an agar/block technique. Repl...
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, J G Van der Waals

A technique for assessing the preventive efficacy against decay fungi of preservative treatments applied to wood
1988 - IRG/WP 2309
A method is described in which test blocks with envelope preservative treatments can be challenged by selected test fungi previously established on an untreated feeder block. The progress of the test fungus through the treated zone is monitored using novel baits or sensors inserted in holes drilled into blocks to within predetermined distances of the face being challenged. Preliminary results show...
J K Carey, A F Bravery

The antifungal efficacy of Guayule resin
1987 - IRG/WP 3429
The Naval Research Laboratory is evaluating the non-rubber-producing portion of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) resin as a protectant for wood in terrestrial and marine service. This study phase, in collaboration with the universities of Arizona and Mississippi State, evaluates the resin's fungicidal worth. Resin-impregnated pine sapwood was exposed to brown rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeu...
J D Bultman, R L Gilbertson, T L Amburgey, J E Adaskaveg, S V Parikh, C A Bailey

Copper naphthenate-treated Southern Pine pole stubs in field exposure: - Part 1: Gradient & biodeterioration analysis 12 years after treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30242
Naphthenates have been used for the preservation of timber and cellulose since their original identification in Russia in the early 1880's as part of a series of petroleum characterizations. Later work in the development of copper naphthenate as a heavy-duty preservative for poles led to the development of various treating cycles similar to other oil-borne systems. Recent work concerning ...
H M Barnes, M H Freeman

Preservative-efficacy of boric acid-triethanol amine solution against wood-decay fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30050
Laboratory preservative-efficacy tests were conducted using boric acid-triethanol amine (BTEA) solution in accordance with the JIS A 9201 (1991) test method excluding the standard weathering process. Sapwood specimens of Picea jezoensis or Fagus crenata to achieve nominal retentions of 0.40-41.2 kg/m³ of boric acid were exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Coriolus versicolor, Serpula lacrymans or Cha...
S Doi, M Mori, Y Mineki

The Efficacy of Wood Preservative Treatments in Laboratory Soil-Bed Test
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20289
The efficacy of wood preservatives were determined in laboratory soil-bed test. Pine and alder wood samples (10 x 10 x 10 mm) were treated with CCA (1, 2%), ACQ-1900 (2, 3%), ACQ-2200 (1, 2%), Tanalith E 3491 (2, 2,8%), Wolmanit CX-8 (1, 2%). The leached and unleached samples were exposed 76 days at Simlångsdalen soil and determined mass loss. The results of this study showed that mass losses o...
A Temiz, T Nilsson, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer, S Yildiz

Efficacy of anhydrides as wood protection chemicals
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30162
Wood samples treated with anhydrides of various compositions have been examined for their decay resistance and moisture behaviour. For this purpose two brown rot fungi (Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum) and two white rot fungi (Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus sanguineus) were used in conventional and modified soil block tests. The modified soil block tests conformed to the method as ...
S C Forster, M D C Hale, G R Williams

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