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Eco-tax - A new threat for wood preservation? The Belgian experience
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-32
At the end of January 1993, a bill was put for Belgian Parliament related to the introduction called "Eco-taxes" on a series of products, such as packaging for drinks (especially on PVC-bottles), non-returnable articles (shavers, small cameras), batteries, pesticides for non-agricultural use and paper.
G Van Steertegem, F De Jaeger


The role of communication in the field of environment protection: A case study "Wood Protection"
1990 - IRG/WP 3574
L Wöss


Quelques observations biologiques sur la conduite des essais de protection des bois immerges en milieu marin
1976 - IRG/WP 421
P Deschamps


Generic code of good practices for wood protection facilities. Part 1: Wood protection (antisapstain) facilities
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50003
In general, the potential of high toxicity (aquatic and human) of wood protection (antisapstain) chemicals dictates the need to protect the environment and humans from its harmful effects. This document is a compendium of recommendations for the design and operating practices of wood protection facilities. The suggested recommendations focus on achieving the objectives of protecting the environment and workers in a wood protection facility from harmful exposure to wood protection chemicals.
G Das, V N P Mathur


Determination of fixation properties by bioassays - A proposal for the assessment of safety indexes in wood protection
1990 - IRG/WP 3566
In the determination of environmental effects of chemicals tests with fishes, daphnia and algae have proved to be practicable. With respect to wood protection such bioassays are suitable to control effects of treated timber against aquatic organisms. By using the fish-acute-toxicity-test the development of a laboratory test method is described for the checking of the fixation rate of a copper-chromium wood preservative. By this the importance of the observation of a proper fixation period is demonstrated for the use of treated wood in water contact. Estimating ecotoxicological effects of leachable compounds using sensitive bioindicators allows a differentiated determination of environmental risks of impregnated timber. The comparison with the toxic effects of the compounds of a wood preservative are a first step in the assessment of safety indexes in wood protection.
H-W Wegen


FIPRONIL - une nouvelle molécule insecticide Rhône Poulenc pou le PCO et la protection du bois [FIPRONIL - A new insecticide from Rhône Poulenc for PCO and wood preservation]
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-16
We will explain here after the advantages and key points of the new insecticide "FIPRONIL" from Rhône Poulenc Agrochemicals. We will have a look from the physical and chemical properties to the possible uses in PCO and wood preservation, including toxicology, efficacy and the main beneficial impacts on the environment. FIPRONIL, a new solution against undesirable and damageable insects, from cockroaches and termites up to woodworms, highly active with very low dose rates.
M G E J Van Maanen


Role of wood preservation in bioconservation and protection of environment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50082
In order to meet a revolutionary task of bioconservation and protection of environment through preservation of less important and nondurable timbers from tropical zones, 170 timber species from Bangladesh were screened. Air-dried (12% MC) 170 different species of timbers, full cell pressure impregnated with 5% CCB solution revealed satisfactory treatability of all timbers for long-term indoor uses. Out of 170 species, 17 (10%) were fruit trees, 5 (2.94%) were medicinal plants and 2 (1.18%) were endangered species, was earmarked as restricted use but rest 146 (85.88%) species were freely usable. Researches included 8 (4.70%) extremely strong (ES), 99 (58.24%) very strong (VS), 45 (26.47%) strong (S) and 18 (10.59%) weak (W) timber species all of which are considered to be useful if properly preservative treated and designed for different purposes based on their strength groups.
A K Lahiry


Research on wood protection at the Princes Risborough Laboratory 1975 & 1976
1977 - IRG/WP 3109
This paper is the latest of a 2-yearly series presenting a summarised account of the Laboratory's work in wood preservatives and related fields. The topics dealt with include: environmental studies on the usage of copper-chrome-arsenic and organic solvent preservatives; development of National and International Standards; recent developments in the preservation of external doors and windows including remedial treatment of incipient decay in-situ; preservation of motorway fencing; distribution of house longhorn beetle; formulation of insecticides; permanence of preservatives and protection by finishes and coatings. A full list of publications for the period is appended.
J M Baker, R A Laidlaw, E R Miller, J G Savory


A report on the development of "Technical Recommendations Document for the Canadian wood preservation and protection facilities"
1987 - IRG/WP 3447
The wood preservation and wood protection industry uses chemicals which are similar. However, because the methods of applications of preservatives are different in wood preservation (pressure treatment) and wood protection (surface treatment) plants, their problems need to be resolved separately. As a part of a federal strategy to protect the environment and human health from potentially toxic commercial chemicals in use in Canada, Environment Canada (EC) decided to develop Technical Recommendations (TR) documents for the Canadian Wood Protection and Preservation facilities. These TR documents define design and operational measures which will protect the environment and worker health. The measures are based on current knowledge of existing technology and current knowledge of physical, chemical and biological properties of the preservative chemicals. A significant amount of background information has been included in the TR documents in order to provide readers with the factual basis which supports the suggested designs and recommended operational practices. Although the recommendations are specific, the focus is on achieving the objectives of protecting the environment and workers from harmful exposure to preservative chemicals. Site-specific circumstances may require the modification of certain recommendations in order to best achieve these objectives.
G Das, V N P Mathur


Dutch work programme for environmental measures in wood preserving industry
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-30
Since the carly eighties, it has emerged that somewhat severe environmental problems exist in a significant number of wood-impregnating plants. Regular, structural emissions of such materials as hydrocarbons, and e.g. substances defined as requiring urgent attention, occur into the air, soil and water, including groundwater. This has been established by various investigations and an orientative industrial sector study conducted by order of V.R.O.M. (Dutch Ministry of Housing, Town, Physical Planning and the Environment) together with the Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs. In addition, the Regional Inspectorates for the Environment conducted a systematic enforcement action in 1986 under the name "Houtverduurzamingsslag" (operation woodpreservation). The results of this study also illustrated the seriousness of the environmental problems within this branch of industry. As a result, this was sufficient cause to initiate consultations with VHN, the Association of Wood-Impregnation of certain environmental aspects of the wood-impregnation branch. Representatives of water quality management bodies, VNG (the Association of Dutch Municipal Authorities) and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs were also involved in the discussions. In consultation with the above discussion partners, an integrated package of environmental regulations has been developed for wood-impregnation plants that use the vacuum-pressure process. An agreement was also reached on a work programme. The wood-impregnating industry associated in VHN will comply with the priorities and time schedule for implementing the measures described in the Environmental Regulations. The authorities responsible may implement the Environmental Regulations when reviewing the industrial licences they grant under the Hinderwet (Dutch Public Nuisance Act) for companies in this sector. The Environmental Regulations aim at minimizing the environmental effects arrising from industrial processes and storage activities where the plant is situated. Implementation of the measures described in the Environmental Regulations will result in working methods that are acceptable with respect to the environmental aspects. The Environmental Regulations are included in Annex 1, entitled "Environmental Regulations for Timber Impregnating Companies".
P Pasveer, H Militz, W J Homan


Information from the COIPM wood group. (With Appendix: Préserver les matériaux en milieu marin sauvegarder l'environment marin telles sont la vocation et la mission du C.O.I.P.M.)
1989 - IRG/WP 4156
During the last COIPM Meeting, up to date information on cooperative work to test the resistance of plastic wrapping for pilings were submitted and discussed. In 1986 untreated wood samples wrapped with shrinkable polyolefin sleeves were submerged in 9 stations, situated in temperate and tropical waters. After 1 or 2 years of immersion the samples showed no sign of penetration by marine borers and the surface of wraps was intact. The samples showed moderate to extensive fouling on their surface The control samples in Mediterranean Sea were destroyed within a year. The degree of attack by marine borers and the characteristics of the sites (temperature, salinity, pH) are reported in Tab.1. A study on the biodegradation of waterlogged archeological woods from a 2,500 year old shipwrech was presented. The shipwrech, probably a Greek merchant boat, was detected many years ago near the Isola del Giglio in Tyrrhenian Sea and partly brouht up. The wood samples recovered belong to the ship-planking and to some tools and instrumets, even musical instruments such as flutes. The woods show a severe marine borer attack. At the moment the wood specimens are preserved in water with a fungicide solution. The various decay patterns of the cell wall were illustrated by photos and dias. This study is carried out by Wood Institute of Florence in collaboration with the Archaeological Museum and includes the identification of wood species (three sofwoods and ten hardwoods), their biodegradation and the conservation treatments. A classification on the wood natural resistance against marine borers in Mediterranean Sea and in temperate waters was discussed. This classification was prepared by the Chairman for the Working Group 2 "Natural durability" of CEN/TC 38.
A Gambetta


Wood preservation in Canada - Regulation and Registration
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-02
The Canadian wood preservation industry is at a critical juncture now as a number of initiatives converge on the industry over the next few years. Issues facing the industry include: Re-evaluation of the conventional wood preservative chemicals - inorganic arsenicals, creosote and pentachlorophenol targeted for July 2001. Delayed registration of new actives as a result of re-evaluation activity and priority. ?Implementation of the Environment Canada "Strategic Options" recommendations for preservative components considered "toxic" under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, including hexavalent chromium, arsenic, PAH contaminated wastes, benzene hexachloride, dioxins and furans. Updating of the Technical Recommendation Documents for the design and operation of wood treating plants (now complete). The backgrounds, implementation, interactions and impacts of these initiatives on the Canadian Wood Preservation Industry are discussed.
P A Cooper


Information on a project about the conditions of admissibility of wood-protecting agents in connection with environmental protection in Poland
1974 - IRG/WP 57
Wood-protecting agents are compounds acting toxically on fungi and insects. If handled improperly or carelessly, they may exert an action harmful to health and safety of men. This action is concerning: a) workers employed at the production of wood-protecting agents; b) workers employed at the impregnation, or at the transport and handling of impregnated wood; c) inhabitants of buildings with impregnated wooden elements, or which have been treated against fungi. At the suggestion of the Scientific and Technical Committee for Wood Protection, medical institutes started investigations concerning the influence of wood-protecting agents on human health. A draft has been worked out on the terms of admissibility for the use of these agents. The toxicological specification of a wood-preserving agent has to include the results of the following tests: 1) Determination of hypertoxicity LD50 per os for rats; 2) Determination of toxicity LD50 per coeliacus for rats; 3) Determination of irritant action on the eye mucosa and the skin of the rabbit; 4) Determination of allergenic action on the skin of the guinea pig; 5) Determination of injuring action by histopathological method; 6) Determination of toxicity LD50 by inhalation after 4 hours by rats, given the content of the active substance in mg in 1 litre of air; 7) Determination of the quantity of wood-protecting agents in the air, by means of the cabin method, and their disappearance. The above mentioned determinations are to be carried out according to methods generally accepted for toxicological tests. In certain cases, they have to be adapted to the requirements of the wood-protecting agents tests. As a fundamental criterior for the evaluation of wood-protecting agents in relation to toxical noxiousness we take the toxicity per os of the whole compound, expressed in mg per kg of weight of the living experimental animal (LD50). The other determinations are of complementary character, and in the case of unfavourable results, they cause the agent to be classified at a lower class than having been classified by the fundamental criterion LD50 alone. A classification of 5 degrees has been worked out for the wood-protecting agents, based on the classification of Hodge-Sterner: Degree I: hypertoxic agent (LD50: below 50 mg/kg); Degree II: toxic agent (LD50: 51-150 mg/kg); Degree III: noxious agent (LD50: 151-500 mg/kg); Degree IV: less noxious agent (LD50: 501-5000 mg/kg); Degree V: practical not noxious agent (LD50: above 5000 mg/kg). In accordance with the accepted criteria the toxicity of some wood-protecting agents is as follows: 1) Arsenic compounds - Degree I of toxicity; 2) Sodium fluoride - Degree II of toxicity; 3) Sodium fluoride + chromium salts - Degree II of toxicity; 4) Fluoride/borates + chromium salts - Degree II of toxicity; 5) Zinc fluosilicate - Degree III of toxicity; 6) Bifluorides - Degree III of toxicity; 7) Borax, boric acid - Degree V of toxicity. In Poland the use of wood-protecting agents of the Degree I of toxicity is prohibited. It is planned to withdraw from use progressively wood-protecting agents having higher degrees of toxicity. The present draft and the suggested classification are of preliminary character. They are being submitted for further investigation and discussion to the authorities concerned with health protection and environmental protection.
J Wazny


Short-term protection of palm wood against moulds and decay fungi by environment-friendly organic acids
2015 - IRG/WP 15-10843
Felled palm trunks are susceptible to fungi as long as their moisture content is above fibre saturation. During this period, it has to be protected against moulds and decay fungi. The study tested environmental-friendly organic acids for their protecting efficiency. Small samples of Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) wood were treated with weak organic acids and subsequently infected by moulds and wood-decay fungi. Short dipping of the samples in solutions of 5% acetic acid and propionic acid, respectively, protected all samples for two months from colonization by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., and by a natural infection. Boric acid (4%) used in practice for protection was ineffective. Decay tests with the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, the brown-rot species Coniophora puteana and the soft-rot fungus Chaetomium globosum showed that both acids prevented most samples from fungal colonization and reduced decay considerably during two months.
M Bahmani, O Schmidt


Hibernation or spring awakening? – The research on wood durability and protection in marine environment
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10929
Wooden structures in marine applications are exposed to severe degradation conditions caused by mechanical loads and wood degrading organisms. The present paper presents the use of wood in marine environments in Europe from a wood protection perspective and gives an overview over relevant research topics. It compiles the most relevant literature with an emphasis on new wood protection methods and discusses the need for research and potential solutions. Traditionally, wood has been extensively utilized in many marine applications due to wood’s great flexibility in design, low costs and easy repair. The use of wood in marine environments has diminished during the last decades, mainly because of restrictions on the use of effective wood preservatives against marine wood borers. Potential effects caused by migration of different wood borer species into new regions due to global warming are discussed. Although there is a strong need for developing new protection systems for wood in marine applications, the research in this field has been scarce for many years. New attempts to protect wood used in marine environments in Europe have mainly focused on wood modification and the use of mechanical barriers to prevent colonization of marine wood borers. The importance of understanding the mechanisms of settlement, boring and digestion of the degrading organisms is a key for developing effective systems for protecting wood in marine environments. Furthermore, the paper presents a research initiative on wood protection in marine environments which has recently been started in Norway.
A Treu, K Zimmer, C Brischke, E Larnøy, L R Gobakken, F Aloui, S M Cragg, P-O Flæte, M Humar, M Westin


Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility in soils, bioaccumulation and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Unless required in special circumstances, the assessment does not apply to birds and mammals as the normal use of preservative treated wood is not expected to involve any noteworthy exposure of these groups. Approval of wood preservatives will be based on a general assessment of the environmental risk associated with the normal use of wood treated with the preservative in a realistic worst case situation. The assessment may address other aspects such as disposal and total life cycle.
J Larsen


Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destructive examination of replicate treated and untreated units, after increasing time intervals, rating comparative performance in terms of wood permeability increase and the progress of microbial colonisation.
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory


Granitgard used as a partial and perimeter barrier in the protection of buildings against subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10114
The graded granite subterranean termite physical barrier, commercially marketed as Granitgard, has a Certificate of National Accreditation issued by the Australian Building Codes Board, and is included in Australian Standards. After several years in developing the specifications and installation techniques for Granitgard, it may be used to protect almost all footing designs. Granitgard can be simply placed around slab penetrations and buildings perimeters to provide a durable, long-life subterranean termite barrier. This paper discusses the development of partial and perimeter applications of Granitgard around buildings, and the advantages of using a termite barrier that removes the need for costly and dangerous chemical retreatments.
D M Ewart, J R J French


The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of raw material use (kg), energy consumption (MJ), emissions (COx, NOX, SOx, etc.) and final waste (in kg). The critical point in an LCA is the definition of comparable "functional units" for similar products made of different materials with different service lifes. As the LCA method has often proved to be very complex, lime-consuming, expensive and difficult to interpret and translate into practically usefull results, alternative methods are developed. Three methods are described and compared on the basis of various examples. It is hoped that this may be of use as a starting point for further discussion on the suitability of applying the LCA on (preservative treated) timber products.
P Esser, J Cramer


IRG - wood preservation - annual report 1999; wood preservation in Slovak Republic
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40192
This report gives basic information about wood preservation in Slovak Republic, related to the wood preservation research and education, to the most important wood-destroying organisms, to the wood preserving industry, and also to the problems of standards, market and environment.
L Reinprecht


Bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in rainbow trout and zebra fish muscles
1986 - IRG/WP 3372
The bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in Rainbow Trout and Zebra fish has been evaluated by partition coefficient n-octanol/water determination at ph 7 and measured in vivo according to the OECD guidelines and the European directive 79/831/EEC. The obtained results confirm the low bioaccumulation potential of this product in aquatic organims.
J C Palla, M Dion


Modélisation sur maquette du rejet accidentel d'un gaz toxique et inflammable dans l'atmosphere - Emission de type "bouffée d'oxyde d'éthyléne [Water model simulation of toxic and flammable gases in the environment on industrial sites - Puff of ethylen oxide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3576
M Milhe


Abstracts of papers prepared for the Symposium “Environment and wood preservation”
2001 - IRG/WP 01-60135
IRG Secretariat


Organic solvent preservatives. Essays on the ecotoxicology of new formulations
1991 - IRG/WP 3642
The knowledge on the ecotoxicological profile of wood preservatives become more and more important. The acute toxicity against aquatic organisms was examined for oil-borne preservatives, based on combinations of new fungicides (Tebuconazole, Propiconazole, Dichlofluanid) and insecticides (Permethrin, Cyfluthrin). These tests were conducted with fish, daphnia and algae. In principle the different formulations showed similar effects. The results of active ingredients and solvents confirmed the high sensitiveness of daphnia as test organisms. Criteria for hazards for the environment are presented and discussed.
H-W Wegen


Developments in the protection of wood and wood-based products
1980 - IRG/WP 340
Technology is playing an increasingly important role in the field of wood protection. This current review highlights how modern techniques have provided greater insight into the biological and physical processes affecting the durability of wood and wood-based products. Emphasis is also given to developments in preservative testing methodology and to the encouraging changes towards both the correct use of timber and the improvement of Standards and Codes of Practice. A final section, on recent technical developments in wood preservation, considers subjects ranging from an evaluation of new specific biocides to methods of increasing the permeability of refractory timber species.
J M Baker


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