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The preliminary characterization of ß-1,4-xylanase of the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
1990 - IRG/WP 1447
The extracellular ß-1,4-xylanase of the brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, was isolated from crude extract by chromatofocusing method (PBE 94 column chromatography). The isoelectric point was estimated to 4.2-4.8 by cromatofocusing and 4.5 by isoelectric focusing (IEF). The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to 37,000 dalton by SDS-PAGE. The optimal temperature for the crude extrac...
A-C Ritschkoff, M Rättö, L Viikari

Dimensional stability and decay resistance of hot-melt self-bonded particleboard by surface benzylated pine chips
1991 - IRG/WP 3652
Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc: Japanese red pine) particles were pretreated with 40% NaOH solution and benzylated with benzyl chloride, and the surface of particle was converted into meltable materials. Hot-melt self bonded particleboard having smooth and high glossiness surface was prepared by hot pressing at 150°C and 1.96 MPa without using any conventional adhesives. Dimensional sta...
M Kiguchi, K Yamamoto

Effects of acetylation on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiberboard
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40059
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated kenaf fiber, Phenol formaldehyde resin content level, and three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of high density non wood composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species were also ...
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Rowell

A practical method to evaluate the dimensional stability of wood and wood products
1990 - IRG/WP 2342
This paper presents a new simple method to evaluate wood and wood products for their resistance to swelling and to assess wood preservatives for their ability to dimensionally stabilize treated wood exposed to water. Permeable wood of various dimensions and treated with different preserving chemicals have been measured for swelling in the radial and tangential direction during immersion in liquid ...
J P Hösli

Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no...
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley

A new ground-contact wide-spectrum organic wood preservative: DNBP
1986 - IRG/WP 3358
A new organic wood preservative, which 25 years field tests have proved to be of efficiency and effectiveness comparable to CCA wood preservatives for ground-contact applications, is presented. Physical and chemical tests, supporting the long term field test results as well as indicating the characteristics of this preservative, are also presented....
W E Conradie, A Pizzi

Report of the meeting of the refractory timbers sub-group, Lappeenranta, Finland on 25 May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 3561
The first meeting of this sub-group took place on Thursday 25 May and considered the following agenda: 1) Papers presented to the meeting "Performance of treated spruce in Canadian field test sites" by J.P.Hösli and E.E.Doyle, IRG/WP/3506 and "Performance of CCA treated spruce and pine in unsterilized soil" by A.J.Nurmi. 2) Future work areas for the sub-group 3) Membership of the sub-group 4) Cir...
R J Murphy

Water-repellent additive for CCA
1991 - IRG/WP 3655
Hickson have developed a water repellent additive for incorporation into copper-chromium-arsenate timber treatment solutions. The water repellent emulsion shows good stability in the treatment solution, is easily incorporated and applied in a single stage treatment. No modifications to the additive is safe to treatment schedule are usually needed and use. Weathering of the treated wood is substant...
P Warburton, R F Fox, J A Cornfield

An investigation into the stability of TBTO in LOSP-treated radiata pine
1987 - IRG/WP 3459
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and reverse phase paper chromatography were used to characterise the organotin compounds found in radiata pine treated with bis (tri-n-butyl) tin oxide (TBTO). Preliminary results indicate that the preservative is remarkably unstable in wood after light organic solvent preservative (LOSP) treatment. Significant decomposition of TBTO occurs in a matter ...
K J Archer, R Meder

Localization of oxalate decarboxylase in the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10161
Oxalate decarboxylase, the enzyme that breaks oxalic acid down into formic acid and carbon dioxide, was recently detected in mycelial extracts of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta. Differential centrifugation was used to demonstrate that the enzyme is loosely associated with the hyphal surface. Enzyme activity can be removed by washing the hyphae with a low pH buffer. Only low levels of activit...
J A Micales

Treatment of particleboard with isocyanate resin to impart improved dimensional stability and water repellency
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40178
Standard particleboard panels (for interior use) of 16 mm nominal thickness were cut into samples measuring 6.4 mm x 78 mm2. The samples were divided into 4 end matched batches. Two batches were treated with isocyanate resin and cured. The other 2 batches were left untreated. One of the treated batched and 1 of the untreated batches were edge sealed with epoxy resin prior to isocyanate resin appli...
K M Filcock, P Vinden

Effect of double-vacuum and vacuum-pressure impregnation with water-borne preservatives on the dimensional characteristics of spruce
1990 - IRG/WP 3613
Air-dried planed spruce (Picea abies) samples were treated with a water-borne preservative (micro-emulsion) and one oil-borne type both containing azaconazole and deltamethrin. Each set of samples contained equal number of specimens with different growth ring orientation, heartwood content and density. In addition to the preservative retention and the penetration of a.i., the swelling of the sampl...
J Van Acker, M Stevens, G Rustenburg

Lignin degradation by wood-degrading fungi
1986 - IRG/WP 1310
The wood-degrading white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, has been the subject of intensive research in recent years and, based upon isolation of the extracelluar enzyme ligninase, major advances have now been made toward elucidating the mechanism by which this fungus degrades lignin. From these developments, a model emerges which could explain the process by which wood-degrading fungi in g...
P J Harvey, H E Schoemaker, J M Palmer

Towards a colour assay of wood degradation
1982 - IRG/WP 2180
A colour assay for the enzyme catalase is described. Since the activity of this enzyme has previously been shown to be correlated with degree of wood degradation as determined by other methods, this assay may provide a rapid quantitative indicator of superficial and internal wood decay....
M A Line

Effects of the addition of polyethylene glycol to the CCA-C preservative treatment
1985 - IRG/WP 3337
A modification of the CCA-C wood preservative system for utility poles has been investigated to see if spur penetration into the poles is assisted during climbing. Addition of polyethylene glycol to the CCA system has been shown to accomplish this purpose. This paper addresses the effects of the addition of polyethylene glycol to other physical properties germane to utility poles....
W P Trumble, E E Messina

Biological degradation resistance of pine wood treated with dimethylol compounds
1989 - IRG/WP 3528
The study reports the increase of dimensional stability and biological degradation resistance of pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L) after impregnation with dimethyloldibydroxyethyleneurea. Decay resistance was determined according to BS 838:961. Nearly complete protection against Coniophora puteana, (Schum.ex Fr. Karst) weight loss of 2-3% was shown when modification, expressed as weight gain, exceede...
C L Videlov

Heat treatment of wood strands for OSB production: Effect on the mechanical properties, water absorption and dimensional stability
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40238
The effect of heat treatment on the mechanical and physical properties of commercial OSB strands was evaluated. Heat treatment was applied under inert atmospheric conditions to wood strands. The aim of this study was to examine the heat treatment parameters to achieve significant reduction of thickness swelling (upon exposure to moisture in service) without causing excessive reductions in stren...
G J Goroyias, M D C Hale

Dimensional stability, biological resistance, and mechanical properties of phenol-resin-treated particleboard
1990 - IRG/WP 3622
Particleboards were treated with a low molecular-weight phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and their enhanced properties were evaluated. Besides dipping of particles in aqeous solutions of resin, and spraying of resin solutions before spray of the conventional phenol-formaldehyde resin for adhesive binder, one step treatment by spraying of the mixture of the low molecular-weight resin and the adhesive...
Y Imamura, H Kajita

N-tritylmorpholine as a potential marine wood protectant against teredinids and pholads - A preliminary evaluation
1983 - IRG/WP 497
The molluscicide, N-tritylmorpholine, is effective in eradicating certain fresh water snails, the intermediate hosts in the transmission of schistosomiasis in man. This preliminary study shows that N-tritylmorpholine is also active against wood-boring marine mollusks. Fine sapwood impregnated with this morpholino compound was not damaged by teredinids or pholads while exposed at two marine sites i...
J D Bultman, K K Parrish

Stability and performance of tributyltin compounds
1984 - IRG/WP 3275
Based on the critical examinations of the disputable permanence of tributyltin compounds in wood, this paper deals with a number of examinations of the relative evaporation, thermal stability and oxidation stability of some TBT-compounds. While thermal and oxidative stability is high for all TBT-species, the relative evaporation at elevated temperature is highly variable, and lowest for the TBT-es...
F Imsgard, B Jensen, H A B Landsiedel, H Plum

Biodegradation of acetylated southern pine and aspen composition boards
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40020
This objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated wood fiber, Phenol-formaldehyde resin content level, two wood fiber species, three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistence of high density composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species...
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Powell

Acetylation of lignocellulosic materials
1989 - IRG/WP 3516
A simplified procedure for the acetylation of lignocellulosic materials has been developed. The acetylation is done with a limited amount of liquid acetic anhydride without the addition of a catalyst or an organic co-solvent. Dimensional stability and biological resistance are both much improved by the acetylation. Equilibrium moisture content in acetylated material is considerably lower than in u...
P Larsson, A-M Tillman

The effect of high temperature and long pressing time on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of OSB
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40237
The exterior use of OSB is restricted because when it is exposed to wet conditions swelling, loss of internal bond strength (IB) and decay occur. In this study an alternative process of pressing which results in the production of dimensionally stable and a more decay resistant strandboard was investigated. Boards were pressed at elevated temperatures for prolonged pressing cycles and their physi...
G J Goroyias, M D C Hale

Physiologic response of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to exposure to triazole fungicides
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10066
Triazoles are increasingly important fungicides which are employed for a variety of applications included wood protection. Several recent studies suggest that white rot fungi are more tolerant of triazole compounds than other wood degrading fungi. Cultural studies using a white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and 0.2 or 0.8 ppm of tebuconazole or propiconazole suggested that mycelial dry ...
J J Morrell, R K Velicheti

Effects of Trichoderma harzianum on enzyme activity and oxalic acid production of Gloeophyllum trabeum in ponderosa pine sapwood blocks
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1550
The effect of a bioprotectant, Trichoderma harzianum, on the activity of Gloeophyllum trabeum was investigated using a wood wafer sandwich method. Wood weight loss was greatest with Gloeophyllum trabeum exposed wafers, intermediate with those exposed to both the bioprotectant and decay fungus, and lowest with the bioprotectant exposed wafers. Extracts of wood wafers after 2, 4, or 6 weeks of funga...
C M Sexton, J J Morrell

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