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Improved preservative penetration of spruce after pre-treatment with selected fungi. I. Fungal pre-treatment of pole sections
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40117
European spruce logs were pre-treated with either Phanaerochete chrysosporium, Dichomitus squalens, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma aureoviride for incubation periods of between 1-4 weeks prior to pressure treatment with creosote in a commercial treatment plant and analysed for strength and creosote uptake (see part II Tucker et al.). A method to pre-treat logs was optimised. The pole sections ...
B Rosner, K Messner, E J B Tucker, A Bruce


Influence of storage on mould susceptibility of wood at relative humidity values lower than 100%
1989 - IRG/WP 1413
It is well known that wood material changes with time because of different environmental influences. The effects of such changes on the subsequent mould susceptibility are less known. In this paper we report on increased mould susceptibility of pine wood after storage. Mould growth was detected by indirect methods....
J Bjurman


Evaluating the natural durability of a number of lesser known species of Ghanaian hardwoods using a short term laboratory assay
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10540
Resistance of a number of Ghanaian hardwoods to attack by the crustacean Limnoria quadripunctata was assessed by measuring the production of faecal pellets under forced feeding conditions over a two week period. Small sticks of commercially available, lesser known timber species, were leached in seawater for one week then placed in a cell culture chamber with one animal and 4 ml of seawater. At in...
J R Williams, S M Cragg, L M S Borges, B Shayler


Preliminary screening of diffusion formulations for the control of soft rot
1978 - IRG/WP 2104
We have an urgent need in Australia to develop in situ remedial treatments for the present population of in-service transmission poles. For various reasons we have opted for formulations which can be applied as bandage treatments and thus we are primarily concerned with assaying diffusable toxicants. Two basic approaches have been made: an assay of the formulation's toxicity; and a combin...
H Greaves


A behavioral assay for measuring feeding deterrency of a slow-acting biocide, A-9248, against the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1988 - IRG/WP 1366
Concentration-dependent feeding deterrency of a slow-acting compound, A-9248 (diiodomethyl para-tolyl sulfone) was studied in a choice test against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. A-9248 was a feeding deterrent at concentrations ³8,000 ppm. Initially, Coptotermes formosanus fed on wood treated with 1,000-6,000 ppm A-9248 but learned to avoid the treatment as a r...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


Towards a colour assay of wood degradation
1982 - IRG/WP 2180
A colour assay for the enzyme catalase is described. Since the activity of this enzyme has previously been shown to be correlated with degree of wood degradation as determined by other methods, this assay may provide a rapid quantitative indicator of superficial and internal wood decay....
M A Line


A rapid colorimetric assay for mold spore germination using XTT tetrazolium salt
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20462
A rapid colorimetric assay was developed to quantitate metabolic activity in mold spores during germination using 2,3-Bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[9phenyl-amino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT). The assay was used to demonstrate inhibition of spore germination following exposure to different biocides and variability in the inhibition of spore germination of different mold specie...
C A Clausen, V W Yang


ATP assay for the determination of mould activity on wood at different moisture conditions
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2397
To determine fungal responses to fungicides and environmental conditions and for detection of microbial activity in wood, sensitive and objective methods are needed. We have developed a suitable assay based on analysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by using the luciferin-luciferase reaction. With the aid of this assay the activity of Penicillium brevicompactum on wood at different RH levels was ...
J Bjurman


An appraisal of methods for environmental testing of leachates from salt-treated wood; part 1
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50115
The magnitude and diversity of leaching tests with salt-treated wood, performed by institutes as well as industry, strongly appeal for harmonisation towards one single method. That procedure should be well-defined, cost- and time-effective and moreover be extended with a clear detection and interpretation scheme. The paper(s) presented here tend to evaluate 2 existing leaching methods, the ENV 12...
G M F Van Eetvelde, M Stevens, F Mahieu, H-W Wegen, A Platen


Oxalic acid quantification, oxaloacetase assay and ESI localization of P, C, and Fe from the brown rot fungus Postia placenta
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10063
The mechanism by which brown-rot fungi initiate depolymerization of holocellulose in wood remains unknown. Recently, oxalic acid (OA) has received considerable attention in cellulose breakdown by brown-rot fungi. The OA could serve as a proton donor for hydrolytic or an electron donor for oxidative (Fenton's reaction-H2O2/Fe2+) cleavages of cellulose. The acid may originate via oxaloaceta...
C R Jordan, W V Dashek, T L Highley


Early detection of brown-rot decay in southern yellow pine using immunodiagnostic procedures
1990 - IRG/WP 2356
Immunodiagnostic procedures have been used to detect incipient decay of southern yellow pine by six common brown-rot fungi. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised to liquid culture fractions of the six fungi. The antibodies, after preadsorption to sawdust, were tested in particle agglutination assays, immuno-dot blot, and ELISA for their·ability to detect the decay organisms when they were grow...
C A Clausen, F Green III, T L Highley


Comparing the resistance of a number of lesser known species of tropical hardwoods to the marine borer Limnoria using a short term laboratory assay
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10500
Naturally durable species of timber are used as an alternative to preservative treated timber for marine structures, but many species have not been evaluated for their potential for use in this environment. EN 275 specifies a 5-year test period - too long a period for screening tests to be economically viable. In this study, durability was assessed by measuring the production of faecal pellets by ...
L M S Borges, S M Cragg, J R Williams


The biological effectiveness of wood modified with heptadecenylsuccinic anhydride against two brown rot fungi: Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3705
A modified soil block test was carried out using wood samples reacted with heptadecenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). This modification gave good resistance to decay brought about by the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum during the twelve week exposure period. Results indicated that there was a good correlation between increased loading of modifying reagent and an increase in ...
C Codd, W B Banks, J A Cornfield, G R Williams


Preliminary evaluations of a small wafer assay for screening potential biological control agents
1989 - IRG/WP 2332
Screening potential biological agents for controlling wood decay fungi poses a dilemma. The ideal test would eliminate as many variables as possible. Most tests utilize pure cultures of the test organism on an artificial media which in no way resembles wood. The use of sawdust improves this approach, but the sawdust increases fungal access to the lignocellulose matrix, potentially inflating the im...
C M Freitag, J J Morrell


Estimation of mycelial biomass by determination of the ergosterol content of wood decayed by Coniophora puteana and Fomes fomentarius
1989 - IRG/WP 1415
The mycelial biomass of fungi decomposing wood materials may be estimated by the use of an ergosterol assay technique.ln decay tests, essentially according to EN 113, estimates made by HPLC analyses on wood decayed by Coniophora puteana and Fomes fomentarius show the increase in biomass in the wood blocks. The ergosterol contents were correlated with dry weight loss determinations. Degradation of ...
K Nilsson, J Bjurman


Comparison of two laboratory methods for screening potential anti-sapstain chemicals
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10036
Two methods were used to screen a number of potential anti-sapstain chemicals in the laboratory. In one method miniature boards of freshly felled Scots pine sapwood were dip treated with the candidate chemical, sprayed with a suspension of stainers or moulds and incubated for five weeks. In the other method antibiotic assay discs were treated with precise quantities of chemical, plated out on malt...
S M Gray, D J Dickinson


The potential application of rapid gas-chromatographic assay of microbial respiration to the monitoring of wood decay in field trial situations
1983 - IRG/WP 2196
Gas chromatographic detection of microbial activity (C02 production) within stakes in a field trial situation would appear to provide a sensitive, non-destructive and relatively rapid method for the quantitative assessment of preservative treatments. Most consistent results were obtained when stakes were removed from the soil, washed, saturated with water and incubated in sealed PVC tubes at 25°C...
M A Line


Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10267
The degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by laccase was investigated. Laccase catalyzed oxidation of phenanthrene, solubilized in the surfactant Tween 20, exhibited an absolute requirement for the mediator compound 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. When Tween 80 was used as the solubilizing agent, the oxidation rates were more than six times higher as compared to Tween 20. Using the thiobar...
S Böhmer, E Srebotnik, K Messner


Effect of fungal degradation on the chemical composition of acetylated beech wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40267
This study investigated the impact of fungal attack on the chemical composition of acetylated wood. Beech wood acetylated to different degrees was exposed to decay by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor under solid-state fermentation conditions. Laboratory soil-bed assays were also conducted to study the degradation of acetylated wood by soft rot fungi and other soil-inhabiting microorganisms...
H Militz, Dong-won Son, L Gómez-Hernández, R Sierra-Alvarez


A method and apparatus for rapid assessment of termite barriers.
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20366
This paper describes an apparatus for rapid assessment of barriers to subterranean termite foraging. The method and apparatus arose from the development of a novel physical termite barrier. The barrier had to be flexible, resilient, able to be applied as a liquid and be neither toxic nor repellent. This posed a special problem as existing laboratory assessment techniques did not offer a sufficient...
D McG Ewart


Effect of Cinnamomum kanehirae Extractives on the Compositions of the Fermentation Broth of Antrodia cinnamomea
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10632
The fruiting body of Antrodia cinnamomea, called niu-chang-chih, is well known and highly prized in Taiwan as a folk medicine. This fungus is endemic to Taiwan and the growth of which is restricted to the inner heartwood cavities of another endemic tree species, Cinnamomum kanehirae. The fungal basidiomes have been used for treating food and drug poisoning, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypertension, ...
Ruo-Yun Yeh, Yuan-Min Shen , Shang-Tzen Chang


Ecotoxicity of furfurylated wood – Effect of leachate on aquatic bacteria
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50250
Environmental concern regarding the use of toxic preservatives such as CCA (chromated copper arsenate) has been put forward. In the EU, USA and Japan, CCA is now phased out for residential use and for use in water contact. Several ecotoxicological studies of wood treated with conventional preservatives were carried out in the late 1990s. In these studies it was concluded that the main impact is to...
A Pilgård, M Westin


Durability and fungal colonisation patterns in wood samples after six years in soil contact evaluated with qPCR, microscopy, TGA, chitin- and ergosterol assays
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20402
There is a need to establish new objective and sensitive methods for early detection and quantification of decay fungi in wood materials. Molecular methods have proven to be a useful tool within wood protection issues, however, this field is still poorly explored and so far relatively few have used these methods within the field of wood deterioration. Among the techniques used in the indirect quan...
A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, I Børja, C Björdal


A rapid microscale assay for determining growth of wood inhabiting fungi against Lactobacillus metabolites
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20412
Lactobacillus sp. are well known for their ability to produce secondary metabolites with potent inhibitory activity against a wide range of bacterial species and there is increasing evidence to support their antifungal activity. These metabolites are often screened in laboratories using microscale 96-well plate optical density assays. The objective of this study was to develop an optical density a...
D O’Callahan, T Singh, I McDonald


Methods for Studying Penetration Depth of Wood Protection Products
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20432
EN 152 is an accepted standard in Europe for measuring how deep a wood protection product penetrates into the surface of treated pine wood. The method has provided consumers with a wide assortment of products that meet the specifications outlined in the standard. Because the test takes 8 or more months to carry out, artificial ageing procedures have evolved in order to standardize and speed up the...
K Hansen, L Sites, D D Nicholas


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