Your search resulted in 35 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Extracellular substance from the white rot basidiomycete Irpex lacteus involved in wood degradation
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1571
Cellulases, phenol oxidase, and a substance that both produced and reduced H2O2 were isolated from cultures containing wood or glucose on which the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus was growing. The rate of wood degradation by the fungus with different amounts of glucose in the medium was measured. More of the substance that produced and reduced H2O2 was found extracellularly in cultures containing w...
H Tanaka, T Hirano, G Fuse, A Enoki
The involvement of extracellular substances for the generation of hydroxyl radical during wood degradation by white-rot fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10218
The activities of one-electron oxidation, hydroxyl radical generation, and phenol oxidase during the incubation of cultures of four white-rot fungi containing either glucose or wood were periodically measured. Further, their degradation activities against wood were examined during the course of cultivation. The generation of hydroxyl radical was correlated to the activity of wood degradation and i...
H Tanaka, S Itakura, A Enoki
Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi ha...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
The influence of crystalline and amorphous cellulose on extracellular hydrogen peroxide production by brown-rot fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1482
The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been suggested to play a key role in the degradation of wood by wood-rotting fungi. The production of extracellular hydrogen peroxide was studied by a quantitative method which detects the oxidation of the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) by H2O2 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in liquid culture medium. The carbon sources u...
A-C Ritschkoff, L Viikari
Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigati...
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr
Extracellular layers of wood decay fungi and copper tolerance
1983 - IRG/WP 1180
Extracellular layers around the hyphae of brown, white and soft rot fungi have been examined using electron microscopy. These layers were isolated for identification. Particular interest was directed towards the extracellular layers of copper-tolerant soft rot fungi....
D M Francis, L E Leightley
Lignin degradation by wood-degrading fungi
1986 - IRG/WP 1310
The wood-degrading white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, has been the subject of intensive research in recent years and, based upon isolation of the extracelluar enzyme ligninase, major advances have now been made toward elucidating the mechanism by which this fungus degrades lignin. From these developments, a model emerges which could explain the process by which wood-degrading fungi in g...
P J Harvey, H E Schoemaker, J M Palmer
The distribution of introduced acetyl groups and a linseed oil model substance in wood examined by microautoradiography and ESEM
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40169
Microautoradiography, a photographic method that shows the localization of substances labelled with radioactive isotope, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) were combined to enhance sensitivity, resolution and reliability for examination of the distribution of introduced substances in wood. The preparation of microautoradiographs is less complicated when investigated with ESEM an...
Soft rot studies on CCA treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1981 - IRG/WP 1132
Initial results found for sixty CCA treated eucalypt poles, from a soft-rot survey are discussed. Retentions of CCA within above and below ground pole samples were variable. The variation was attributed mostly to biodegradation and effect of soil environment, rather than leaching. Bacterial decay was found in many poles and was severe in some cases. Although found in the presence of soft-rot decay...
L E Leightley
Immunolocalization of extracellular metabolites from Tyromyces palustris
1991 - IRG/WP 1491
Polyclonal antisera produced to extracellular metabolites from the brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris was used in immunogold TEM studies. Gold labelling was detected in the fungal cell wall and extracellular slime layer but little or sporadic labelling was noted within the cytoplasm of the fungal hyphae. Gold particles were also found within the wood cell wall of Pinus densiflora decayed by Tyro...
Yoon Soo Kim
SEM investigation of the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECM) by some wood inhabiting and wood decay fungi when grown in wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10193
Previous reports have illustrated the involvement of extracellular mucilage (ECM) in wood decay by Basidiomycetes. Its production is investigated in a range of stain, mould and soft rot fungi in Corsican pine, Scots pine and European beech. Fungi examined were: Chaetomium globosum, Ceratocystis coerulescens, Trichoderma harzianum, Ophiostoma piceae, Mucor sp. and Penicillium. sp. The samples were ...
A R Abu, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
Reaction of osmium tetroxide with a diphenolic compound as a model substance for demethylated lignin
1986 - IRG/WP 1303
By using caffeic acid as a model substance for diphenolic moieties of demethylated lignin it was found that electron dense particles called by the authors "osmiophilic particles" in former papers are reaction products of OsO4 with the model substance. By these products it is possible to indicate the enzymatic demethylation of lignin taking place during wood decay. The appearance of the electron de...
K Messner, E Srebotnik
The effect of tunicamycin on production and secretion of extracellular carbohydrate-degrading enzymes by Postia placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1342
The extracellular carbohydrate-degrading enzymes of wood-decay fungi are usually heavily glycosylated and therefore stable under most denaturing conditions. It is unlikely that wood decay can be prevented by simply inactivating these enzymes. Tunicamycin, an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lysosuperificus, prevents the glycosylation of glycoproteins and can interfere with the secretion of thes...
J A Micales, T L Highley
SEM investigation of the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECM) by some wood inhabiting and wood decay fungi when grown on inert surfaces
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10194
A range of wood inhabiting and wood decay fungi have been studied for their production of extracellular mucilage when grown on inert surfaces, for comparison with their growth on wood. The species tested were: Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor, Chaetomium globosum, Trichoderma harzianum, Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ophiostoma piceae, Mucor sp. and Penicillium sp. They were grown on plastic me...
A R Abu, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson
Utilization of nitrogenous substance by Serpula lacrymans
1989 - IRG/WP 1397
When Serpula lacrymans degrades wood, the fungus is considered to have to assimilate nitrogen, which is not abundant in the wood, from the third material. The strands/mycelium has grown into the soil under the floor of the wooden house damaged by the dry rot fungus. The authors analyzed the soil samples collected from the ground under the floors of the dryrotted houses. The samples which were coll...
S Doi, I Togashi
Proposed model for the penetration and decay of wood by the hyphal sheath of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1989 - IRG/WP 1391
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of Pinus sp. decayed by the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta confirmed the existence of extracellular membranous structures previously described by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These structures appear to be an integral part of the hyphal sheath and assume a variety of forms including lamellar sheets, fibrils, and vesicles. These structures were observe...
F Green III, M J Larsen, L L Murmanis, T L Highley
The EWPMG proposal for the environmental risk assessment of wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-09
This paper reviews the protocol prepared by the European Wood Preservative Manufacturer's Group, which could be used by an applicant for product approval under the Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC, to produce a risk assessment for an active substance or product in the Product Type 8 Wood Preservatives, in support of the application. The background and scope of the protocol are reviewed...
E F Baines
Extracellular hydrogen peroxide producing and hydrogen peroxide reducing compounds of wood decay fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1516
Extracellular H2O2-producing and H2O2-reducing compounds were isolated from wood-containing cultures of all the white-rot and brown-rot fungi and Ascomycetes which well degraded wood, but were not detected in the culture of the fungi which degraded little wood. The compounds are glycopeptides with a low molecular weight, require H2O2 for one-electron oxidation, catalyze the redox reaction between ...
A Enoki, G Fuse, H Tanaka
Control of sapwood-inhabiting fungi by fractionated extracellular metabolites from Coniophora puteana
1991 - IRG/WP 1494
The objective of this study was to test the fractionated metabolites released by Coniophora puteana for their antagonistic activity against the sapstain fungi Ceratocystis coerulescens and Aureobasidum pullulans, and the molds Asperigillus niger and Penicillium spp. The acetone-soluble fraction obtained from the culture filtrate prepared from Coniophora puteana grown on 6% malt extract agar inhibi...
S C Croan, T L Highley
Immuno-electron microscopic localization of extracellular metabolites in spruce wood decayed by brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1990 - IRG/WP 1441
Degradation by Postia placenta in spruce and birch wood was shown to occur not only in the wood cell wall but also in the middle lamellae region. Middle lamellae was often found to be degraded along the centerline so that cells could separate along this line. Extracellular membrane structures were found surrounding the hyphae and this matrix labelled positively with antisera produced to Postia pla...
Y S Kim, B Goodell, J Jellison
Effects of cyproconazole and copper sulphate on the length of the hyphal growth unit (HGU) of the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10473
Wood decay basidiomycetes have been shown to produce appreciable quantities of extracellular mucilaginous materials (ECMM). The relationship between ECMM and total biomass production has been investigated in the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (CTB 863 A). Differences in the amount of ECMM produced by the fungus proportionally to the total biomass, were observed under a range of physiological...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
Cytoplasmic and extracellular localization of manganese II dependent peroxidase(s) in white rot fungi during degradation of woody materials
1989 - IRG/WP 1416
The manner by which lignin is degraded in-situ in natural substrates by white rot fungi still remains a controversial issue particularly the distribution and role(s) played by lignin degrading enzymes (i.e. manganese II peroxidase and lignin peroxidase). In the present study, use was made of anti-manganese II peroxidase and immunolabelling techniques in conjunction with transmission electron micro...
G F Daniel, B Pettersson, T Nilsson, J Volc
Investigation of extracellular mucilaginous material in some wood decay fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10188
The external morphology of the extracellular mucilagenous material (ECM) produced by Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana during colonization of Scots pine and beech was studies using SEM. Specimens were examined in the frozen hydrated, freeze-dried and critical point dried state. All technics produced artefacts but the ECM was best preserved when examined the frozen hydated state. Critical ...
A R Abu, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
Extracellular hydrogen peroxide-producing and one-electron oxidation system of brown-rot fungi
1990 - IRG/WP 1445
Wood-component-degrading compounds involved in the initial degradation of the cellulose and lignin in wood were isolated from wood-containing culture of brown-rot fungi, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Tyromyces palustris and partially purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 and DEAE-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography. The compounds were glycoproteins. The molecular weights of the glycoproteins as...
A Enoki, S Yoshioka, H Tanaka, G Fuse
Extracellular mucilage (ECM) in wood decay basidiomycetes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10439
The ability of wood decay basidiomycetes to produce extracellular mucilage (ECM) and its relationship with total biomass production is being investigated. Growth and ECM production by the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum (FPRL 108 N) and the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (CTB 863 A) was assessed in liquid culture under different conditions and in the presence of the fungicide cyprocona...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy