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Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy creosote were less decayed than poles treated with medium-heavy creosotes. Poles treated with a light creosote were most decayed.
Ö Bergman


Leaching of Active Components from Preservative Treated Timber. Stage 1: Semi-Field Testing
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20302
The project is aiming at finding realistic leaching rates from preservative-treated wood in use class 3 (above ground). The project focuses on developing a field trial method for investigating leaching. Panels are subjected to outdoor exposure under natural weather conditions at a test field at the Danish Technological Institute. The leachate is collected and monitored by chemical analysis of the active ingredients. The project is ongoing and the paper presents results from approximately 12 months’ of exposure. The study includes commercially available organic and inorganic fungicides using 4 different application methods: vacuum-pressure-, double-vacuum-, flow coat and supercritical treatment. Different test set-ups examine the influence of a number of different parameters. The results obtained from outdoor exposure will be compared with a laboratory test method (proposal of CEN/OECD, DOC TC38 WG 27 N039). The method investigated has proved to be useful in characterising the leaching behaviour from preservative-treated wood. The results from the present project are intended to serve as part of the basic documentation according to Directive 98/8/EC (The Biocidal Products Directive, BPD) for leaching of active ingredients in use class 3.
N Morsing, B Lindegaard


In ground contact field trial results of preservative treated incised and unincised spruce
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40076
Field trials of treated spruce stakes have been demonstrated that incising the stake before treatment improves the preservative uptake both for CCA and creosote. This results in a substantially extended service life for the incised stakes over the unincised stakes for preservative concentrations at commercial levels. After 24 years in ground contact the majority of incised spruce samples are sound and have provided data which indicates that the stakes treated with CCA or creosote to commercial standards could last for more than 41 years.
E D Suttie


Correlation between a laboratory bioassay and field trial conducted to determine the termiticidal effectiveness of bifenthrin
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20248
Details are given of a laboratory bioassay and field trial undertaken to determine the termiticidal effectiveness of the synthetic pyrethroid bifenthrin, when impregnated into Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood specimens. Results show a strong correlation between the laboratory and field methods of evaluation. Protection threshold limits obtained were the same for the two test species of termite employed, Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Lower and upper threshold limits obtained for M. darwiniensis in both the laboratory and field were 10 and 20 g/m3. The threshold limits for C. acinaciformis were not determined, but must be less than the lowest retentions tested (<2.5 g/m3 in the laboratory and <5 g/m3 in the field).
J W Creffield, K Watson


Performance of treated and untreated sawn fence posts of Scots pine and Norway spruce
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30247
Sawn fence posts are a rather important product and the objective of this trial was to assess their durability. In 1985 a field trial with treated and untreated fence posts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) was set out at the test field in Ultuna, Uppsala, Sweden. The posts had a dimension of 75 x 100 x 1400 mm3. The preservatives applied were a CCA, an ammoniacal copper and a creosote. In 1991 fence posts of the same species and size were set out at the test field in Simlångsdalen, Sweden and the preservatives used were a CCA and an ammoniacal copper quaternary compound. The assessment showed that all treated fence posts were attacked very little (mean rating 0 - 0.5) during the first 3 - 4 years at the two test sites. After 7 to 8 years the mean ratings were around 1.0 (slight decay). In Ultuna, after 13 years of exposure, the mean ratings are around 2.0 (moderate decay). The mean service life of untreated Scots pine was 10.2 years in Ultuna and 5.4 years in Simlångsdalen and for untreated Norway spruce 7.5 and 3.2 years, respectively.
Ö Bergman


Co-operative field trial. Background notes and questionnaire for field sites
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3733
The first co-operative field trial was designed to study the occurrence of soft-rot in CCA treated hardwoods. Generally speaking very similar results were obtained from the different field sites. In the early part of the trial considerable variability was evident with regard to the rate and type of attack which occurred in the untreated material. With the CCA treated timber the type of decay was predominantly soft-rot. It cannot be assumed that with alternative preservatives that the same mode of failure will be as dominant. In such cases the treated timber in different sites may well perform differently. On the other hand, the pattern of failure may be very similar between sites with variation in rates of decay being more evident due to differing distribution of the causal organisms. Tolerant soft-rot fungi tend to be ubiquitious but this is not necessarily the case with other groups. After consideration in the sub-group it was decided to study the variability between sites with regard to the performance of a range of preservatives in a limited number of wood species. A standard CCA preservative would also be included as a point of reference. The overall objective of the trial was very simply summarised as follows: "To identify the number and type of sites required to have confidence in approving a wood preservative". This overall objective has the great attraction that it takes into account all the possible objectives raised in the discussion. It offers the scope to provide data and material to study a whole range of problems and factors of interest to the members, and of international importance when assessing and predicting the performance of wood preservatives.
D J Dickinson


Supplementary experiment to the main trial (IRG/WP/367, 384) to determine the performance of preservative treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot
1977 - IRG/WP 3101
The field experiment being carried out by the IRG (described in document IRG/WP/367) is designed to obtain information on the performance of a preservative in different hardwoods in ground contact. A total of 57 timber species is being examined and 36 different field sites are involved representing a complete range of climatic conditions. IRG document WP/384 describes the treatment details of the trial. At the inception of the trial a decision was taken to limit the experiment by including only one preservative and this was chosen as a copper-chrome-arsenic type conforming to British Standard BS 4072 : 1974. The wisdom of that decision is now clear since, even with one preservative, there are more than 6000 stakes involved. At the IRG meetings in the last three years this experiment has been considered in the general discussion of soft rot in hardwoods, and the desire has been expressed to extend the scope to an evaluation of the performance of hardwoods treated with other preservatives. In this connection, creosote, copper-chrome-boron, copper-chrome-fluoride and PCP in fuel oil have been mentioned. In view of the length of time required to plan a co-operative trial up to the time of installing the stakes in the test plot it is apparent that the next stages of the work, involving detailed tests using other preservatives, will not be completed for some time. A programme was therefore planned by the authors to carry out a limited experiment on the lines of the first formal IRG field trial, but using CBC, PCP and creosote as the preservatives. By carrying out the treatments quickly it we hoped to be able to install the test stakes with a minimum of delay after the setting out the stakes in the main trial. It was decided to use three of the main experiment reference species. Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris and one additional hardwood Eucalyptus maculata. It was further decided to expose the treated stakes at two sites, in the UK and Australia.
F W Brooks, C R Coggins, D J Dickinson


Leaching of active components from preservative-treated timber - Ongoing research: Status after approx. 4 months’ out-door exposure
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20276
The Danish Technological Institute is together with manufacturers of active ingredients and formulators of wood preservatives running a project aiming at finding realistic leaching rates from preservative treated wood in hazard class 3 (above ground). The project is focussed on developing a field trial method for investigating leaching. According to BPD hazard assessment has to be carried out for biocide products and a part of that includes possible environmental impact of preservative treated wood. Leaching of active ingredients from treated wood has to be measured and assessed. Several organisations (CEN, OECD and others) are in progress of developing laboratory leaching test methods. In order to give more realistic data for leaching of active ingredients it is important to study natural exposure. According to recent publications (IRG/WP 01-50171), it appears to be a significant difference between natural leaching and laboratory leaching methods and a relative comparison is, therefore, needed. Data from close to practice applications are important in order to support products in the BPD. Furthermore, the results are needed to provide benchmarking data to allow other laboratory or accelerated leaching data to be put into perspective. The results from the project are intended to serve as part of the basic documentation for leaching of active ingredients in hazard class 3. Panels are exposed outdoors under natural conditions at the field trial at Danish Technological Institute and the leachate is collected and monitored by chemical analysis of the active ingredients. The project is ongoing and the paper presents results from approximately 6 months of exposure. The study includes commercially available organic and in-organic fungicides using 4 different application methods: pressure-, vacuum-, flow-coat- and supercritical treated wood. Different test set-ups are investigated and the results obtained from outdoor exposure will be compared with a laboratory test method (CEN/OECD). Furthermore, the laboratory method suggested by CEN/OECD is evaluated and suggestions for improvement are stated.
N Morsing


Collaborative field trial out-of-ground contact
1982 - IRG/WP 2179
At the 12th meeting of the IRG in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia it was decided after considerable discussion that the best way to proceed with the work of the subgroup was to centre it around a co-operative field trial based on the L-joint test detailed in IRG/WP/2157. At the same time it was agreed that interested laboratories would also conduct their own methods, particularly the German planner test and the French and Yugoslavian inoculation techniques. It has since been decided to concentrate the main part of the test within Europe using Pinus sylvestris joints from a common source and to provide chemicals to other laboratories interested in conducting a similar trial with their own wood species. In this way it is hoped to achieve a tightly controlled comparative test with the CEN countries and to allow greater international comparison. The test is to employ simulated joinery units treated with a good and poor preservative system and exposed out of doors. Periodically replicates will be examined destructively. The destructive examination will consist of a measure of the onset of increased permeability of the wood and the initiation of colonisation by wood destroying Basidiomycetes. It is proposed to use two levels of TnBTO in a model preservative and to apply the preservatives by dipping and by double vacuum.
D J Dickinson, A F Bravery, J K Carey


Surface retentions of PCP, TCMTB and MTC obtained during a field trial of antisapstain formulations
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20002
Formulations containing NaPCP or TCMTB and MTC were included as reference products in a recent field trial of antisapstain formulations in Queensland. Retentions of these actives on the surface of treated sawn Pinus elliottii were monitored by ultrasonic solvent extraction of excised samples and analytical determination by high performance liquid chromatography. Distribution of actives with depth and longitudinal position were monitored for the particular dipping/draining schedule employed, and related to dip concentration and time since dipping. The analytical data provide a direct measure of surface retention in terms of active ingredients per unit area, the assessment method preferred by WG II Sub-group 3 at IRG 23. Even if only applied to these reference treatments, such analysis would facilitate comparison between trials conducted using widely varying treatment regimes and conditions.
D E Ferlazzo, M D Needham, M J Kennedy


Settlement of fouling organisms on CCA-treated Scots pine in the marine environment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50094
As part of an EU project to investigate the effects of CCA loading on non-target marine fouling animals, exposure panels of Scots pine treated to 12, 24 and 48 kgm-3 CCA and untreated controls were submerged at seven coastal sites (Portsmouth, UK: Kristineberg, Sweden: La Tremblade (2 sites), France: Ria Formosa, Portugal: Sagres, Portugal: Athens, Greece). Inspections were made at 6 and 12 months and the fouling community on treated and untreated panels was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Over the course of the field trial patterns of fouling that were common at several of the sites were recorded. It was found that with increasing CCA loading there was a significant increase in the abundance of several species of calcareous organism. This effect was less pronounced or was absent with non-calcareous animals. There were no noticeable differences in fouling patterns between two formulations of CCA. SEM studies of the surface of CCA treated timber after 7 days submergence showed a higher biofilm accumulation than on untreated timber. The significance of these early stages of biofilm build-up will be discussed in relation to later biota settlement.
C J Brown, R A Eaton


A field trial of water repellents as anti-sapstain treatment additives
1987 - IRG/WP 3417
The assessment of water repellents as anti-sapstain treatment additives has been included in a recent FRI research programme investigating improved surface protection of New Zealand Pinus radiata. Laboratory work has shown variation in water repellent effectiveness with chemical type and subsequently a field trial was established to examine the performance of selected water repellent/anti-sapstain treatments. Three water repellents were tested in combination with either sodium pentachlorophenoxide plus borax, Busan 1009 (methylene bisthiocyanate plus 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole), or Mitrol PQ375 (copper-8-quinolinolate). Although inspection of treated wood packages after 3 months&apos; outside storage showed little variation in performance, inspections after 6 months showed that wood treated with formulations incorporating a paraffin wax emulsion was drier and usually showed less fungal degradation than wood treated with unamended anti-sapstain solutions.
J A Drysdale, D V Plackett


Performance of Tuff Brite C™ and other formulations against blue-stain, mold and brown-stain in freshly-sawn rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) in the humid tropics of Peninsular Malaysia
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30163
The relative anti-sapstain and anti-mold efficacies, including brown-stain development in freshly-sawn rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) in the Malaysian tropics, between selected water-based product concentrations of formulations Tuff Brite CTM without/with added Borax (at 1.5/0, 1/1.5, 1.5/1.5 and 2%/1.5%), PQ8TM without/with added Borax (at 2.5/0, 1.5/1.5, 2/1.5 and 2.5%/1.5%) and NeXgenTM/NeX-BriteTM combination (at 1/0.25, 1.5/0.25 and 2%/0.25%) were assessed visually. Rubberwood boards, dipped in these concentrations for 1 min. were subjected to an 8 weeks sapstain trial in a FRIM sawmill shed. Sodium pentachlorophenate/Borax combination (at 2/1.5 and 2%/2%) was the reference anti-sapstain chemical. The rough-sawn boards were rated for blue-stain and mold weekly, while both the planed and the internal faces of the boards, sawn lengthwise into two-halves, were rated for blue-and brown-stain only after 8 weeks. Results for the rough-sawn boards, planed boards and the internal faces of the boards revealed a generally consistent excellent performance of Tuff Brite CTM without/with Borax against blue-stain and mold in rubberwood, protection being marginally better than that of NaPCP/Borax. Over a range of concentrations, performance by the remaining fomulations PQ8TM without/with Borax and NeXgenTM/NeX-BriteTM were variable: rated satisfactory (generally <10% surface infected) and/or poor (31-50% of surface infected) against sapstain and/or mold. Against brown-stain development (i.e. to conserve the natural cream/yellow hue in rubberwood), Tuff Brite CTM without/withBorax also appeared to be relatively better (generally yellow-to-light brown hue) than the other formulations, but perhaps only marginally so than NaPCP/Borax (light blue as well as yellow-to-light brown hue observed).
A H H Wong, T L Woods


Laboratory Evaluation and Field Trial of Chlorothalonil and Copper-based Preservatives and Leaching Performance of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30279
Soil block test and field trial of some Chinese plantation wood species pine and poplar treated with chlorothalonil formulations and copper-based preservatives such as ACQ-B and copper citrate (CC) were conducted. The results of soil block test indicated that chlorothalonil formulations and ACQ-B as well as CC are very effective for controlling the 2 fungi species Corious versicolor and Poria placenta at different retention. There is no significant difference of weight loss among retention level range 2.54-23.1 kg/m3 of ACQ-B and CC in our test. The durability of wood treated with chlorothalonil oil formulation is better than that of treated with emulsion formulation. ACQ-B and CC treated wood at different retention level are effectively resistant to decay and termite after 36 monthr field trial at Guangzhou, south China. Leaching rate of copper of CC treated wood is much higher than that of CCA and ACQ-B treated wood by the 2 wood species Pinus massoniana and Eucalyptus urophylla according to AWPA standard M11-87.
Mingliang Jiang, Ping Wang, Chungen Piao, Zhaobang Li, Quan Lu, Lei Liu


Comparison of the in-ground performance of pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) and high temperature creosote (HTC)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30217
A long-term field trial was conducted in Australia to compare the in-ground performance of two oil-borne preservative formulations, conventional high temperature creosote (HTC) and a modified creosote formulation, pigment emulsified creosote (PEC). Three retentions (50, 100 and 200 kg/m³) were targeted for each formulation. An additional retention of PEC formulation (308 kg/m³), which contained 200 kg/m³ of creosote, was also included in the trial. Treated and untreated Eucalyptus regnans sapwood specimens were exposed horizontally below-ground to a range of economically important species of subterranean termites and wood decay fungi at two tropical and one semi-arid test sites. After 11 years of exposure, specimens treated with 200 kg/m3 of HTC and specimens treated with PEC containing 200 kg/m3 of creosote continue to perform well. Results of the field trial demonstrate that PEC will perform comparably to HTC on an equivalent creosote retention basis.
J W Creffield, H Greaves, N Chew, N K Nguyen


The potential application of rapid gas-chromatographic assay of microbial respiration to the monitoring of wood decay in field trial situations
1983 - IRG/WP 2196
Gas chromatographic detection of microbial activity (C02 production) within stakes in a field trial situation would appear to provide a sensitive, non-destructive and relatively rapid method for the quantitative assessment of preservative treatments. Most consistent results were obtained when stakes were removed from the soil, washed, saturated with water and incubated in sealed PVC tubes at 25°C for 24 h prior to assay of gas samples from the tubes. Each assay took 1.6 min to perform and stakes were returned to the field within 48 h. Microbial activity was readily detected in untreated Eucalyptus regnans stakes after 18 days field exposure. Stakes pressure impregnated with CCA, busan-30 or creosote displayed consistently low levels of activity to the present time (3 months after insertion).
M A Line


Stake test with ammoniacal copper in combination with different agents started in 1962
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30130
In 1962 a stake test was started with ammoniacal copper in combination with chromium, arsenic, pentachlorophenol, boron, salicylic acid, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, pyridine and tannin. Different concentrations of the copper component were used as well as the added agents. For each concentration and test site, ten stakes of Pinus sylvestris L. sapwood were treated. The stakes were set out at two test fields in Sweden, Simlångsdalen and Bogesund and also in a greenhouse. Today all stakes except five at Bogesund have been rejected. The prevailing type of decay in Bogesund is soft rot and in Simlångsdalen brown rot and soft rot. Ammoniacal copper alone at a copper retention of 1.9 kg/m3 gave an average service life of 23 years in Bogesund and 14 years in Simlångsdalen. When the copper retention was doubled to 3.8 kg/m3 the service lives were prolonged by 2-3 years in Bogesund and 8-9 years in Simlångsdalen. Most of the agents added to copper prolonged the service lives substantially in Simlångsdalen but only marginally, or not at all in Bogesund. The added agents which gave the longest service lives at both test fields were chromium plus arsenic and pentachlorophenol.
B Häger, Ö Bergman


Working plan: Second international collaborative field trial
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20056
This paper describes the scope, objectives, and approaches to be used in the second international collaborative field trial approved by the Scientific Programme Committee for partial funding in 1994. The trial is designed to develop a broad data base on causal mechanisms, interactions, and factor affecting the performance of treated wood in ground contact. The trial encompasses 12 different field test sites representing all continents except Antarctica. Preservatives were chosen to represent new technologies and include oilborne, waterborne copper-organic, and water-dispersible systems. CCA is used as the reference system. Task forces to research the following areas are described: accelerated soilbed testing, decay types/modes of failure, preservative depletion, abiotic factors, and copper tolerance.
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey


Inorganic preservative levels in soil under treated wood decks after 8 years natural exposure in Borås, Sweden
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50233
Inorganic preservative components (Cu, Cr and As) were measured to a depth of 150 mm under deck structures made with Scots pine lumber treated with several different wood preservatives and installed in Borås Sweden 8 years ago. Higher contaminant levels were observed mainly under the drip lines and in the top 50 mm of soil. Under CCA treated decks, soil arsenic concentrations increased from background levels of about 3.5 mg/kg to 6-15 mg/kg in this zone. Copper and chromium levels were only slightly elevated above backgrounds of about 10 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg respectively. Copper levels were also only slightly elevated under decks treated with Tanalith E, Impralit KDS and Wolmanit CX-S. The Wolmanit CX-8 treated wood had concentrations averaging about 45 mg/kg in the top soil layer under the drip line while the Kemwood ACQ treated deck had concentrations above 100 mg/g in this zone.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, M-L Edlund, J Jermer


Evaluation of wood preservatives for Nordic wood preservation class AB
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30297
In the Nordic countries there are restrictions in the use of wood preservatives based on chromium and arsenic. For above ground use, class AB according to the Nordic system, only copper based preservatives are allowed in Sweden. Thus several new preservatives, copper based or metal free are now used. They have been approved by the Nordic Wood Preservation Council after passing laboratory tests against pure cultures of basidiomycetes. Their long term effectiveness in practice is still in many cases unknown. To increase the knowledge about these new “class AB” preservatives a field trial was started in 1996 at SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute and another one in 1998 at The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Durability against wood destroying fungi, leaching of preservatives during exposure and loss off effect against basidiomycetes in pure cultures of brown rot fungi after exposure were tested. As references untreated Pinus sylvestris and CCA-treated wood were used. For the preservatives tested the leaching after 5 years was between 15 and 100 % of the original retention while the leaching from CCA was less than 15 % for copper, chromium and arsenic. The durability in ground exposure was very low for wood treated with metal free preservatives. The amount of copper in copper based preservatives has a great influence on the durability in field. In general, with a higher retention of copper, the better was the performance. Test of durability in pure cultures showed a dramatic loss of effect when samples have been exposed outdoor above ground for two years compared to samples maintained in a dark conditioning room.
M-L Edlund, J Jermer


Fungus cellar and antisapstain field trial studies of six triazole fungicides
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30077
The efficacy of six triazole fungicides was compared using a fungus cellar soil bed test, a rapid antisapstain laboratory trial and a 36 week antisapstain field trial. After 21 months in the fungus cellar the mean soundness of radiata pine treated with 1.5 kg/m³ of cyproconazole, azaconazole, hexaconazole, tebuconazole, propiconazole and flusilazole in combination with 1.0 kg/m³ didecydimethyl ammonium chloride was 18, 34, 37, 72, 80 and 80% respectively. Wood treated with 4.7 kg/m³ of CCA salt and 2.1 kg/m³ tributyltin oxide had mean soundness values of 62 and 73%. Antisapstain trials showed that of the triazoles tested hexaconazole and cyproconazole gave the best protection and at a concentration of 0.05% w/w, in combination with 0.04% w/w carbendazim and 0.5% w/w DDAC, 92% of boards had less than 5% surface degrade after 24 weeks (March-August). It was clear from the results that the spectrum of fungicidal activity of a given triazole varied considerably. For example tebuconazole performed relatively poorly against hyphomycete moulds and sapstain fungi such as Ceratocystis piceae on green timber but in a fungus cellar soil bed at a retention of 0.5 kg/m³ gave equivalent protection to 4.7 kg/m³ of CCA salt (NZTPC above ground specification) and 2.1 kg/m³ tributyltin oxide (2.5 times conc. in NZTPC spec.). Hexaconazole gave the best performance as an antisapstain but performed relatively poorly in the fungus cellar.
R N Wakeling, J G Van der Waals, R D Narayan, J B Foster, B E Patterson, P N Maynard


A 53-year old field trial to evaluate the performance of a range of chemical treatments on eucalypt poles
1989 - IRG/WP 3526
Hardwood pole stubs of Eucalyptus maculata, Eucalyptus pilularis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus paniculata were examined for termite attack and fungal decay after 53 years in ground contact. The trial compared eight different chemical treatments with untreated pole stubs of the four species investigated. Untreated Eucalyptus paniculata, a Class I durability species, performed particularly well, whilst treatment of Eucalyptus pilularis with zinc chloride/arsenic mixture afforded the best overall protection of the Class II and Class III durability species.
R S Johnstone, R A Eaton


A field trial to assess the potential of antisapstain chemicals for long-term protection of sawn radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3375
Seven chemical formulations were tested as antisapstain treatments for freshly sawn radiata pine sapwood (90x50 mm²). Each formulation was used with and without a water-repellent additive and was sprayed on to 1 m long boards. The boards were then stacked into "mini" packets and stored unprotected from the weather for 6 months. Haipen 50w (at 0.2 or 0.4% active) and NaPCP (1% active) plus 1.5% borax were the most effective formulations. The wax water repellent (1% Paracol 800A) did not appear to enhance the performance of any treatment, and with some treatments adversely affected fungicidal effectiveness. This requires further investigation.
J A Drysdale


Assessment of the biocontrol potential of a Trichoderma viride isolate in a field trial
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10252
A field trial has been set up near Dundee, to assess the biological control potential of a Trichoderma viride isolate T60. This isolate has been shown in laboratory tests to be particularly effective in protecting wood against certain basidiomycete decay fungi. Wood was treated with T60 spores using vacuum-pressure impregnation in a pilot preservation plant. Scots pine and Sitka spruce stakes were planted in the field site along with CCA-treated and untreated control samples and also in an accelerated decay facility employed to give a comparison to the field trial results. This paper presents the results of the first uplift (at 9 months) from both the field and fungal cellar. Preliminary results indicate that there is a noticeable reduction in the rate of sapstain colonisation in T60-treated stakes from the field site, in comparison to untreated stakes. The amount of soft rot decay in stakes treated with a biocontrol agent is significantly lower than that detected in untreated controls from the field site, however this reduction is not apparent in fungal cellar samples.
H F Brown, A Bruce


One year performance of graveyard stakes in the Northern Territory of Australia
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30398
This paper presents the one year progress performance of in ground graveyard stakes exposed to numerous termite species and decay fungi in tropical field conditions. The field study examines the efficacy of a new timber preservative formulation developed at the University of Melbourne, Australia. The biocides used in the formulation are fipronil (a phenyl pyrazole) and trimethyl borate. The predominant biological agent at the field site was the Australian subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis. Treated stake samples of the Australian softwood Pinus radiata D. Don were exposed.
B Ahmed, J Hann, S Przewloka, P Vinden, P Blackwell, P Plews


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