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The biostatic effect of copper on decay of fire retardant-treated mining timber
1991 - IRG/WP 1507
Blocks of Eucalyptus grandis were treated with 20kg/m³ ammonium sulphate as fire retardant and challenged with Coriolus versicolor. Replicates were soil buried. A second set of blocks was treated with retardant and copper at 6.6 kg/m³ (ie 1% w/w), and challenged similarly. After 8 weeks weight losses produced by Coriolus versicolor in untreated, retardant treated and copper supplemented blocks were 45, 25, and 0% respectively, and corresponding weight losses in soil were 27, 25 and 10%. These results, and electronmicroscopical observations, showed conclusively that Eucalyptus grandis treated with fire retardant was rapidly decayed, and that copper inhibited such decay.
G D Shelver, E A Shelver, A A W Baecker


Fire resistance of Alder wood treated with some chemicals. Part II. Effect of Other Chemicals on the Combustion Properties
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40235
Samples from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey) Yalt.) were impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88 with boron compounds (boric acid, borax, sodium perborate), vinyl monomers (styrene, methyl methacrylate), Tanalith-CBC, Phosphoric acid, Vacsol, Immersol, Polyethylene glycole (PEG-400) and their mixed solutions of chemicals in order to determine their combustion properties. The results indicated that inorganic boron compounds with aqueous solutions were very effective as fire retardant and reduced burning of some vinyl monomers at some extent such as styrene and methylmetacrylate when used as a secondary treatment chemical polimerized later on wood structure and phosphoric acid was also showed fire-reterdancy. Further studies are suggested on boron-vinyl monomers, and boric acid+borax with different concentrations by physical and chemical interactions in terms of fire reterdancy.
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz


Chapter 6 - Preservatives of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-06
Almost all currently available oil-borne, water-borne and compound types of preservatives suitable for the preservation of bamboo or wood have been described along with their classifications, applications, formulations, merits and demerits, history of invention or discovery and development. The preservatives suitable for wood are also considered suitable for bamboo.
A K Lahiry


Bending Properties of FRT OSB
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40600
Fire retardant treated (FRT) oriented strandboard (OSB) and plywood of different widths were tested in static bending to determine width effects. Results were consistent with previous width effect studies and showed that increasing specimen width results in a decrease in sample MOR properties among all the sample groups tested in this study. Increasing sample width for OSB samples leads to more consistent MOR and MOE values. FRT plywood has a better width factor value than the two OSB sample groups tested in this study.
J M Hill, H M Barnes, S Q Shi


Evaluation of the fire retardant efficacy and leach resistance of an amino resin fire retardant - Preliminary report
1983 - IRG/WP 3260
The Early Fire Hazard Indices of untreated Pinus radiata were determined by testing to Australian Standard 1530, Part 3 - 1976. Differences in the performance of heartwood and sapwood were noted, with heartwood samples giving higher Ignitability, Heat Evolved and Spread of Flame indices. The treatability of Pinus radiata with Pyrogard H was assessed, and backsawn sapwood treated more effectively than all other combinations of direction of cut and sapwood/heartwood. Treatment of kiln dried DAR Pinus radiata with Pyrogard H did not produce dimensional changes of practical significance. This factor, plus a high concentration gradient of retardant in the treated timber, make it an ideal treatment for fully machined and profiled Pinus radiata. The leach resistance of the retardant was assessed. A greater percentage of phosphorus than nitrogen was leached, but the retardant remaining after leaching conferred similar protection to the unleached material at equivalent rententions. Pyrogard H is an effective leach resistant fire retardant for Pinus radiata.
W D Gardner, P N Alexiou, P Lind, D Butler


Serviceability modeling-Predicting and extending the useful service life of FRT-plywood roof sheathing
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20210
One of the most, if not the most, efficient methods of extending our existing forest resource is to prolong the service life of wood currently in-service by using those existing structures to meet our future needs (Hamilton and Winandy 1998). It is currently estimated that over 7 x 109 m3 (3 trillion bd. ft) of wood is currently in service within the United States of America (PATH 1999). Research programs throughout North America are increasingly focusing on understanding and defining the salient issues of wood durability and by maintaining and extending the serviceability of these existing wood structures. This report presents the findings and implications of a major 10-year research program carried on at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory. This research program developed serviceability models for fire-retardant (FR)-treated plywood roof sheathing exposed to elevated in-service temperatures and experiencing thermal degrade. FR-treated plywood roof sheathing is often required by U.S. Building Codes in roof systems for multifamily dwellings having common property walls. This 10-year research program found many important facts. Qualitatively, the mechanism of thermal degrade in FR-treated plywood was acid-hydrolysis. The magnitude of strength loss could be cumulatively related to FR chemistry, thermal exposure during pre-treatment, treatment, and post-treatment processing and in-service exposure. The effects of FR chemistry could be mitigated by use of pH buffers. The strength effects were similar for many levels of plywood quality. Quantitatively, a kinetics-based approach could be used to predict strength loss based on its time-temperature history. This research program then developed models with which to assess current condition, predict future hazard based on past service life, and then predict residual serviceability of untreated and FR-treated plywood used as structural roof sheathing. Each of these findings is briefly described in this report. There are many opportunities for extending the useful service life of wood by better maintenance, remedial treatment, or enhanced serviceability assessment to predict both residual strength and residual utility. Results of research programs such as this can be used to extend service-life by providing the engineer with a estimate of residual serviceability and thereby avoiding premature removal. Many of the concepts employed in the development of these FR-plywood serviceability models are directly applicable to the development of predictive durability models for wood as affected by decay. When such a durability-based service-life model is developed, that serviceability model will aid building code officials, regulators, contractors, and engineers in determining replacement time schedules for wood undergoing biological attack.
J E Winandy


Serial techniques for producing fire-retardant wood products
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30127
A series of techniques including fire-retarders denoted by WFR-1, WFR-2. WFR and their applications in producing fire-retardant wood (WFR wood), fire-retardant plywood (WFR plywood), fire-retardant particleboard (WFR particleboard) and fire-retardant MDF (WFR MDF) were investigated The fire retarders were low toxic, decay resistant and less leachable. The treated wood and WFR panels were of excellent fire resistance and good physic-mechanical properties. Besides formaldehyde released from WFR panels was very low.
Zhu Jia Qi, Liu Yan Ji, Gao Chao Ying


Distribution of fire retardant chemicals in kempas (Koompassia malaccensis)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40037
Samples of Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) heartwood were treated by vacuumpressure impregnation with solutions of monammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, ammonium sulphate or a borax-boric acid mixture. A commercial saltbased fire retardant formulation was also used. After slow air drying, the treated wood samples were sub-divided and zonal analysis carried out in order to determine the gradients of chemical retention form surface to core. Steep gradients of fire retardant chemicals were found irrespective of formulation. In a pyrolysis study, the amount of residue after pyrolysis at 550°C was proportional to the retention gradients of the fire retardant chemicals being greatest in the surface zones and least in the core of the samples.
A R A Malek, R J Murphy


Fire retardant treated wood and plywood: A comparative study Part III. Combustion properties of treated wood and plywood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40236
The fire retardant treated and untreated plywood and alder wood samples were prepared with the aim to investigate the effects of the way of treatment on the combustion properties. Alder wood was used for the preparation of plywood. Boric acid and borax were used as fire retardant. The plywood samples were impregnated by using three different methods; first group samples were impregnated by soaking of individual veneer before manufacturing plywood. The second group samples were impregnated by adding boron compounds into the glue mixture and third plywood group samples were vacuum impregnated according to ASTM D 1413-88. In addition, the solid alder wood samples were impregnated with same fire retardant solutions for control purpose according to ASTM D 1413-88. The results showed that the most effective way of the treatment was the impregnation of plywood panels treated with boric acid and significantly reduced burning of plywood and solid wood samples.
S Çolak, A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Çolakoglu


Surface color and roughness characteristics of medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels treated with fire retardants
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40420
The objective of this study was to determine surface characteristics and color change properties of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) treated by fire retardants (FR) with 10% concentration. Experimental panels were made using by melamine ureaformaldehyde (MUF) adhesive having 10%, 15%, 20% of melamine. The surface properties of the samples were determined using a fine stylus technique. Three roughness parameters, namely average roughness (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) were determined from the surface of the samples. Color change properties of MDF samples were evaluated to CIE L*a*b* methods by a spectrophotometer (Minolta CM-2600d). It was found that the surface roughness values of the FR treated MDF panels were higher than those of control panels. The highest surface roughness values obtained from MDF panels treated with MAF+BA+NPB, MAF+BA+BX, the lowest values obtained from MDF panels treated with MAF+AL. Also surface roughness of the MDF panels improved with increasing melamine additive rate in the MUF adhesive. According to CIEL*a*b method, color change properties of the samples showed variation as function of chemicals type. Especially, while the highest color change(?E) were determined for MDF samples treated with MINPB and MAF+BA+NPB, the lowest color change (?E) were obtained from MDF samples treated with MAF+AL, MIN.
D Ustaömer, M Usta, S Hiziroglu


Extensive review of fire-retardant wood composites researches
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40471
The increased demand for public safety has led to greater interest in fire retardant materials in the recently years. Legislation relating to safety in the home, in work locations, on transport facilities and in public places continues to produce new regulation. There is average 524 thousand structure fires occurred every year in US, 3757 civilian in death, about 20 thousand civilian in juries, direct dollar loss is more than 10 billon. The fire damage of US is large because US’s wood structural building more than that of China, but increased use of composite wood products in China, which improve wood utilization and provide markets for small-diameter materials, can potentially increase the risk of property damage and loss of life in fires, therefore, protecting home and business from fire is a critical facing all over the world. Fire safety involves prevention, containment, detection, and evacuation. It is basically for fire prevention to prevent the ignition of combustible materials by controlling either the source of heat or the combustible materials. Statutory requirements pertaining to fire safety are specified in the building code and fire code, which includes material requirements such as combustibility, flame spread, and fire endurance, and building requirements such as area and height limitations, firestops, and draftstops, doors and other exits, automatic sprinklers, and fire detectors. The paper discussed the Damage in fire and cost of protection in US, Thermally degradation and fire performance of wood, Chemicals of fire-retardant wood, Flame-Retardant Treatment of wood and composites, the mechanic properties and loss in strength of treated wood and composite, fire properties of treated wood and composite, the standards about fire retardant, developing of Fire Retardant Wood Composites.
Zhilin Chen, Zhiyong Cai, Feng Fu


Progress in Fire-Retardant Research on Wood and Wood-Based Composites: a China Perspective
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40476
The fire retardant research on wood and wood-based composites, which was carried out in China in the past two decades, was reviewed with 55 references. While many kinds of fire retardants for wood and wood-based composites have been studied, the mainstream is still the compound or the mixture containing phosphorus, nitrogen and boron elements, which can be used in the form of water solution in the impregnation of solid wood. The fire-retardant treatment methods for wood panels are either pretreatment of veneers, fibres, particles and strands before hot pressing, or the impregnation of waterproof panels by fire-retardant solution. Though attempts have been done in lab to mix fire retardants with the glue, it has proved to be very difficult to spray glue with effective amount of fire retardants smoothly in the real manufacturing of fire-retardant panels. Fire retarding mechanism of phosphorus-nitrogen-boron fire retardants have been investigated systematically. The results indicated that for a proper fire-retardant formulation phosphorus-nitrogen compounds and boron compound are highly synergistic, that the catalytic charring effect of a fire retardant on wood is a key factor to its fire-retardant efficiency, and that a chemical fire-retardant mechanism for boric acid was proposed. The fire-retardant research on wood plastic composites has attracted more attention in recent years, however, most results are basically preliminary because of the difficulty for choosing or setting up a suitable fire retardant system that is effective to both of wood and plastics. Research on smoke suppression of wood was also discussed which was even more preliminary and innovative efforts are needed.
Wang Qingwen, Wang Fengqiang, Hu Yunchu, Li Jian


Mould growth on wood-based materials – a comparative study
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20455
Ten different wood-based materials - preservative-treated wood, fire retardant-treated wood, modified wood, WPCs and untreated references of pine sapwood and spruce - were tested for mould growth according to SP method 2899 during 42 days at 90% RH and 22°C. Even though the results must be interpreted carefully, they indicate significant differences in mould resistance between the materials tested. Sapwood of pine, thermally treated wood and furfurylated wood had the highest ratings of mould growth at the specific climatic conditions selected for this study. All other treatments seemed to retard mould growth and the least mould growth appeared on WPC samples prepared of fibres treated with an isothiazolone type preservative. Further studies at different climates and at fluctuating climates are required in order to get a better understanding of the resistance to mould growth of the materials tested.
P Johansson, J Jermer


The Effects of Some Fire Retardant Chemicals on the Decay Resistance of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30536
The objective of this study was to determine the decay resistance of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) treated with 5% and 10% concentration of various fire retardant (FR) chemicals. Experimental panels were produced using by melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins having 10%, 15% and 20% of melamine content. MDF specimens were subjected to decay resistance test performed according to modified EN 113 standard method using white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. It was found that the weight loss (%) of MDF specimens treated with chemicals were lower than those of control panels. Especially, the best results were obtained from MDF specimens treated with zinc borate (ZB). Furthermore, decay resistance of the MDF specimens improved with increasing melamine content in the MUF resin and increasing chemical concentration.
D Ustaömer, M Usta, Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz, E D Tomak


Fire performance of the wood treated with retardant
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40591
To prepare the eco-friendly fire retardant wood, Japanese red pine (Pinus Densiflora), hemlock (Tsuga Heterophylla), and radiate pine (Pinus Radiata) were treated with inorganic chemicals, such as sodium silicate, ammonium phosphate, and ammonium boric acid. Different combination and concentration of those chemicals were injected by pressure treatment methods. The electron-beam treatment was used to increase the chemical penetration into the wood. The fire performance of the fire retardant was investigated. The penetration of chemicals into the wood was enhanced after irradiation of 200 kGy of electron beam. Ignition time of the treated wood was the most effectively retarded by sodium silicate, ammonium phosphate, and ammonium boric acid. The most effective chemical combination was found at 50% sodium silicate and 3% ammonium boric acid; which showed 3-grade flammability defined in the KS F ISO 5660-1 standards.
Jong In Kim, Mi-ran kang, Sang bum Park, Dong won Son


Effects of nano-wollastonite impregnation on fire resistance and dimensional stability of Poplar wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40595
The fire-retardant properties of Nano-Wollastonite (NW) in poplar wood (Populus nigra) were determined in this study. Some physical properties such as water absorption, volumetric swelling and Anti-Swelling Efficiency (ASE) were also measured. Specimens were prepared according to the ISO 11925 standard for the fire-retarding properties, and ASTM D4446-2002 standard for the physical properties. Impregnation of wood specimens with nano-wollastonite was carried out using the Ruping Method (empty-cell process) with a concentration of 10%. Three fire-retarding properties were measured; weight loss, ignition point and fire endurance. The results showed that fire-retarding properties increased in the NW-treated specimens. In addition, the NW-impregnated specimens gained higher dimensional stability. However, the water absorption also increased.
A Karimi, A Haghighi Poshtir, H Reza Taghiyari, Y Hamzeh, A Akbar Enayati


Mould growth on wood-based materials – a simulated in-service study
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20503
Ten different wood-based materials including preservative-treated wood, fire retardant-treated wood, modified wood, WPCs and untreated references of pine sapwood and spruce were placed in three different environments (an attic and two crawl spaces) for a period of 26 months. Mould growth was analysed at five to seven month intervals in an effort to map the growth development. The relative humidity and temperature were logged continuously. The results obtained from testing in the two crawl spaces generally corresponded well with a previous laboratory study. None of the materials tested could completely withstand mould growth during the 26 months’ exposure time. Most promising results were obtained with the preservative-treated WPC and the least promising with the modified wood materials. For the latter, poor mould resistance is of major concern.
G Bok, P Johansson, J Jermer


Wood-leather panels – A biological, fire retardant building material
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40615
The poor flame retardant properties of wood-based products are among the severest obstacles, hindering its use in the commercial building sector. Recently, some attempts to improve the fire properties, relying on inflammable salts or reactive halogen compounds, have been presented, although they either cause problems with machining or embody harmful compounds (halogen derivates). In this paper, the fire retardant properties of a novel material, wood-leather panels, are determined by the use of flame tests in a furnace according to ÖNORM EN ISO 1363:2011. The specimens were evaluated according to integrity and surface temperature. For the test specimens, wet white (WW) and wet blue (WB) leather shavings, with varying contents were used. The main finding is that both, panels containing WW and WB leather shavings, show properties superior to current flame-retardant medium density fibre boards, MDF B1,s2-d0. An optimum was found here at a leather content of 50%. In order to describe this behaviour towards fire in further detail, the calorific value of the material as well as the thermal conductivity were determined. As the leather panels produce a foam-like structure during the fire treatment, it is assumed, that this is caused by the exhaust of gases, leading to decreased temperature flow through the specimen, resulting in the observed properties. It can be concluded that the panels show superior fire retardant properties, compared to commonly available flame retardant material. Therefore further research in this field is proposed, with the aim to produce a certified product.
S Wieland, U Stöckl, T Grünewald, S Ostrowski, A Petutschnigg


Effect of electron beam irradiation on the fire retardant penetration into wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40642
Electron beam processing which can fast and easy change the nature of the material has received considerable attention recently. Studies using electron beam has been conducted in various fields and it has been applied in many industrial sectors. Electron beam has higher energy than other electromagnetic waves. It has excellent object permeability. It affects degradation of intermolecular cross-linking between molecules or atoms bond formation, polymerization. High permeability of the electron beam has applied to improve penetration of fire retardant into wood. Changes in the characteristics of the wood, retention of the retardant on different electron beam dose, leaching resistance of treated wood were examined. Scanning electron microscopy EDS analysis has been conducted to investigate the chemical elements and to calculate the distribution of each component.
Dong won Son, Jong Sin Lee, Mee Ran Kang, Sang Bum Park


Laboratory investigation of fire protection coatings for creosote-treated timber railroad bridges
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30639
As the incidence of timber railroad bridge fires increases, so has the need to develop protective measures to reduce the risk from accidental ignitions primarily caused by hot metal objects. Of the six barrier treatments evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to protect timbers from fires sourced with ignition from hot metal objects only one intumescent coating provided adequate fire protection. The intumescent barrier treatment also met environmental, performance (e.g. bond durability) and application criteria set forth in this study. These criteria also dictated the development of a flammability test, called the hot metal test that is compatible with the fire scenario specific to this study. The hot metal test evaluates protective materials on creosote-treated timber against ignition of gases generated by an 1100ᴼC heat source.
C A Clausen, R H White, J P Wacker, S T Lebow, M A Dietenberger, S L Zelinka, N M Stark


Fire resistance of wood treated with potassium carbonate and silanes
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30657
This paper reports on the effect that organosilicon compounds and potassium carbonate and urea (PCU) have on wood flammability. The study focus on reducing wood flammability by promoting char formation through manipulation of the condensed phase decomposition chemistry. Potassium carbonate is known as an effective fire retardant, however it is easily leached out from wood and increases its hygroscopicity. The aim of the research was to assess the ability of selected organosilicon compounds to reduce potassium carbonate leachability from the treated wood. The study was performed through the mini fire tube (MFT) method, where fireproofing properties of the treated wood were evaluated. Pine sapwood treated with PCU at the retention of ca. 160kg/m3 showed 6% of wood mass loss as a result of combustion in MFT. The fireproofness effect has been reduced due to the ageing procedure and displayed 60% of wood mass loss. It has been shown that some selected silanes or their blends with siloxanes, superficialy applied on treated wood, allowed to retain PCU in wood and maintain its fireproofness. Wood mass loss resulting from sample’s combustion was significantly reduced (ML<10%). AEAPTMOS, VTMOS and a mixture of alkylalkoxysilanes turned out to be most effective agents limiting potassium carbonate leachability and maintaining wood fireproofness.
B Mazela, M Broda, W Perdoch


Experimental Measurements of Fire Retardants on Plywood at Fire Test
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40709
The use and development of wood composite materials increased in the past few years. However, in Brazil there are some restrictions on these products regarding their use, since it could be considered a potential risk at a fire situation. Thus, becomes evident the need for researches aiming to fit these in safety standards. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of two new fire retardant products produced by a Brazilian industry. Tests were performed in plywood panels of Pinus spp previously immersed, varying the products concentrations and compared with untreated samples. The test used to evaluate the flame spread in a panel was the modified Schlyter test. The product in question was proved efficient, before and after shutting off the burner. Comparing with the panels without treatment, there was a decrease of 400% of the height of the flame spread on the treated ones.
G C A Martins, L A Marcolin, J M Vidal, C Calil Jr


Fire retardant treated wood products – Properties and uses
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30701
Wood is combustible, but can still perform very well in fire, especially for load bearing structures. However, visible wood surface may not fulfil the fire requirements in building codes and fire retardant treatments may be an option. The highest reaction to fire classification for combustible products may then be reached. However, the excellent fire performance of the virgin fire retardant treated, FRT, wood products may degrade over time, especially in outdoor applications. Two cases of long term durability of FRT wood products exist and standard procedures are available for limited hygroscopicity and maintained fire performance after weathering. Structural degradation may also occur, but is relevant only for load-bearing uses. Recommendations on end uses and suggestions for further research are included.
B Östman, L Tsantaridis


Decay Resistance of MDF Manufactured with Huntite- Hydromagnesite and Zinc borate
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30710
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of some mineral based fire retardants on decay resistance of Medium density fiberboard (MDF). Two mineral based chemicals containing (Huntite/Hydromagnesite) and zinc borate (ZB) were used at two different concentrations for panel manufacturing. Decay test of samples was performed according to EN 113 standard method. At the end of the test, it was found that weight losses of the MDF samples manufactured with mineral based chemicals were clearly lower than weight loss of control samples. Results indicated that the weight loss values changed depending on chemical types and chemical concentrations. Decay resistance of the MDF samples improved with increasing chemical concentrations. The better results were achieved with MDF samples manufactured with huntite/hydromagnesite. Additionally, the combinations of these minerals with zinc borate provided synergic effects. As a conclusion, it was seen that huntite and hydromagnesite minerals have notably effects on decay resistance of MDF panels and can be successfully evaluated as protective chemicals for wood and wood based panels.
U E Başer, D Ustaömer, Ö Özgenç


Effects of wood protecting biofinish and linseed oil on fire behaviour and leachability of the fire retardant
2018 - IRG/WP 18-30728
A wood protecting biofinish is based on a protective and decorative fungal-based coating and a linseed oil impregnation (called Xyhlo biofinish). This biofinish enables the long-term use of wood in outdoor applications without using toxic chemicals. The fire resistant properties of materials used in buildings are very important. Since Xyhlo biofinish is relatively new, only little information is available about its fire behaviour. In this study wood treated with biofinish was therefore provided with an extra treatment consisting of a halogen-free phosphate-based fire retardant to improve the fire resistance. A concerning aspect of the used fire retardant is the ability of leaching. Therefore, the leachability of the fire retardant and the effects of the biofinish on the leachability of the added fire retardant were studied. Pine wood impregnated with linseed oil and coated with biofinish provided with a phosphate-based fire retardant was tested on fire behaviour in a Single Burning Item test and a Small Flame test. Also, the effects of two types of biofinishes (biofinish A and B) on the leachability of the phosphate-based fire retardant were tested in a leachability test based on ENV 1250-2 and EN84. Results showed that wood treated with linseed oil and biofinish supplemented with a phosphate-based fire retardant meets the requirements of the European fire class B-s3, d0 (difficult inflammable). Effects of a biofinish on the leachability of the used fire retardant depends on the type of biofinish treatment. The application of biofinish B on wood impregnated with linseed oil and fire retardant diminishes leaching of the fire retardant in a watery environment. To develop a 100% leach resistant biofinish on wood that is classified as fire class B, improvements of biofinish B, the usage of non-water-soluble fire retardants and fire retardant fixation should be explored.
S Rensink, E J van Niewenhuijzen, M F Sailer


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