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Physical and biological properties of albizzia waferboards modified with cross-linking agents
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40043
Chemically-modified low-density waferboards with cross-linking agents were produced using a fast-growing species of hardwood albizzia (Paraserienthes falcata Becker) as a raw materials and isocyanate resin as a glue adhesive. For the chemical modification, the vapor-phase formalization of the boards and the pad-dry-cure treatment of wafers with cross-linking agents were employed. The vapor-phase f...
S Yusuf, Y Imamura, M Takahashi, K Minato

Oxygen index levels and thermal analysis of wood treated with melamine-formaldehyde-boron combinations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30135
Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin was impregnated into scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens with aqueous solutions of 5, 10 and 20% concs. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) was added to MF resin at the concentration levels of 0.25, 1.00 and 4.70% to each level of resin concs. BA and BX mixture was prepared at the 5:1 (w/w) ratio considering resultant pH of solutions and better fire resistance. U...
M K Yalinkilic, W-Y Su, Z Demirci, E Baysal, M Takahashi, S Ishihara

Combined effects of the treatment of wood with formaldehyde
1978 - IRG/WP 3117
Treatment of fibrous materials with reagents in a vapor phase is neither new nor unique. Numerous examples exist in literature of vapor phase experiments on cellulose fibers and fabrics, and on wood. For many years the textile research and industry have used vapor phase processes for the treatment of textiles. The chemical modification of cellulose is based on different types of reactions e.g. est...
M Stevens, J Schalck

Thermotolerant mould growth in dehumidifier kilns in New Zealand
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10169
Growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variottii is common on wood dried in dehumidifier kilns that operate within a temperature range of 35-55°C. Aspergillus fumigatus causes an unacceptable blue / grey discolouration of the woods surface and prolonged exposure to spores during handling of mouldy wood can cause health problems amongst timber workers. A survey of dehumidifier kiln opera...
R N Wakeling, J G Van der Waals

Effects of a formaldehyde and sulphur dioxide treatment on decay and mechanical properties of aspen waferboard
1983 - IRG/WP 3242
Aspen wafers were sequentially treated under vacuum with formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide gas and pressed into waferboard bonded with powdered phenol formaldehyde resin. Decay resistance and strength properties were determined before and after simulated weathering. The water resistance of the phenol bonding system was lost in board made from the gas-treated wafers. This white rot fungus Coriolus ve...
E L Schmidt

Durability of surface preserved wood particle boards submitted to atmospherical influence
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40039
The worldwide problem of the continuously growing deficit of high quality natural wood material has caused the attempts of many research workers to find effective composites such as wood particle boards (WPBs) for replacing the massive wood for constructive purposes, depending on where the boards are exploited - in the open or under a shed, they are submitted to various climatic factors such as he...
L Valcheva

Treatment of wood with formaldehyde. Acid catalysis of the reaction between formaldehyde and wood
1980 - IRG/WP 3146
Formaldehyde reacts with the free OH-groups in wood forming cross-linking bonds. The reaction can be brought about without any catalyst but in that case the activation energy is very high and high temperatures and long reaction times are needed. Normally, the reaction is catalysed by different acids. Acid catalysts, however, tend to degrade the cellulose and the wood matrix causing reduction in th...
T Vihavainen, K Piispanen, P Mansikkamäki

Microscopical analysis of formaldehyde-acid modified wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3182
Cross-linking of wood with gaseous formaldehyde improves its hygroscopic and dimensional behaviour, and its resistance against micro-organisms. However, formaldehyde cross-linking reactions take place only in the presence of an acid catalyst, which results in losses in mechanical By optimization of a formaldehyde-sulfur dioxide vapour phase process the reaction conditions were established to limit...
M Stevens, N Parameswaran

Improving the weather resistance of glue-laminated jarrah and karri
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40017
Surface modification and dimensional stabilisation significantly increased the dry and wet shear strength of karri and jarrah lap-shear specimens (laminates) bonded with resorcinol formaldehyde. The combination of surface modification (sanding/sodium hydroxide treatment), and furfurylation produced the highest dry and wet shear strengths. Acetylated laminates had the lowest dry bond strength, but ...
J Balfas, P D Evans

Curing conditions for a low formaldehyde etherificated melamine resin
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40108
Waterbased methanol etherificated melamine formaldehyde resins have the potential to increase the resistance of impregnated wood against wood destroying fungi. Previous studies indicated that the resin with the lowest formaldehyde content tested showed the best results regarding fungal resistance, dimensional stability and formaldehyde emissions after curing. In the present paper the influence of ...
D Lukowsky, R-D Peek, A O Rapp

Biological resistance of wood treated with waterbased resins and drying oils in a mini-block test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40107
In recent years it was found that the resistance of wood against fungal degradation could be increased by impregnation with an etherificated melamine formaldehyde resin. Using this resin as a reference, a waterbased fatty acid modificated alkyd-resin and two drying-oils were assessed for their biological performance in a mini-block laboratory test. Although drying-oils, like linseed-oil, are often...
M Sailer, A O Rapp, R-D Peek

Evaluation of the biocide diffusion from treated wood in indoor air. Bibliographic study
1990 - IRG/WP 3584
Within the frame of the risk assessment of the wood preservation products for the Health, the treated wood risk particularly when it is installed in dwellings becomes most important. The European directive "Building materials" (89/106/CEE) mentions the basic requirements with the buildings must comply. Annexe l states in particular that "the building must be conceived and built in order not to bec...
A Pichard

In situ testing the influence of melamine resins on the enzymatic activity of basidiomycetes
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30194
Waterbased methanol etherificated melamine formaldehyde resins have the potential to increase the resistance of impregnated wood against wood destroying fungi. The mechanism of the increased wood durability is not clear yet. In the present paper the possible interference of melamine resins with wood degrading enzymes of Coniophora puteana and Trametes versicolor was investigated as a possible cont...
D Lukowsky, F Büschelberger, O Schmidt

Dimensational stabilisation of wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3171
A review is given of the studies on the dimensional stabilisation of wood which have been carried out in the laboratory 5.14 "Wood Technology" since 1967. All stabilisation methods known have first been compiled from the available literature. Practical studies were then started. Wood was treated with monomers (styrene, methyl metacrylate, isocyanate), formaldehyde, tannin and sugar. Despite a sati...
A Burmester

Selecting fumigants for treatment of internal decay in wood
1986 - IRG/WP 3370
A number of potential fumigants were screened with respect to their toxicity to decay fungi, (Poria carbonica, and Lentinus lepideus) and their sorption characteristics on Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) wood. Wafers of infected wood were exposed to different fumigant concentrations for various times then cultured to determine viability. The lethal concentration X time (ct) factor...
P A Cooper

Stability of bifenthrin in a commercial phenol-formaldehyde plywood glue
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30311
Liquid phenol formaldehyde (PF) glue mixes used for plywood manufacture are strongly alkaline. At this pH insecticidal additives may not be stable for long periods. In order to establish practical working life of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, in liquid PF glues the concentration of bifenthrin in the glue mix was measured under laboratory conditions over a 24 hour period. Glu...
M J Kennedy, P A Collins, R D Vella

Leaching performance, decay and termite resistance of wood treated with boron compounds incorporated with phenol-formaldehyde resin
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30503
A resol-type phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin was synthesized and designed to penetrate wood incorporated with boron compounds in order to immobilize boron in wood. The leaching performance, decay and termite resistance of treated wood was investigated. Three kinds of boron compounds, that is, boric acid (BA), borax (BX) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), were selected to mix with PF and tw...
Liping Yu, Jinzhen Cao

Properties of strand board bonded with ammonium pentaborate (APB) modified phenol formaldehyde resin
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40455
Ammonium pentaborate (APB) is combined with phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin in this study to develop a high-performance wood-based composite. The effect of APB and its combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the physical, mechanical properties as well as formaldehyde emission of strand board were tested and compared with disodium octaborate tetrahydrateand (DOT) and zinc borate (ZB). The resu...
Wei Gao, Jinzhen Cao

The Effects of Some Fire Retardant Chemicals on the Decay Resistance of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30536
The objective of this study was to determine the decay resistance of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) treated with 5% and 10% concentration of various fire retardant (FR) chemicals. Experimental panels were produced using by melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins having 10%, 15% and 20% of melamine content. MDF specimens were subjected to decay resistance test performed according to modified EN 11...
D Ustaömer, M Usta, Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz, E D Tomak

Effect of 4 Preservatives on Physical, Mechanical and Mold-Resistant Properties of Bamboo Oriented Strand Boards
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40483
This study investigated the effects of 4 preservative systems on physical, mechanical and mold-resistant properties of bamboo oriented strand board (OSB) panels bonded with urea formaldehyde resin. Preservative A (Zinc Borate), B (IPBC), C (AAC+Borate) and D (carbendazim + prochloraz) were incorporated with strands during blending at three loading levels. The results showed that the mechanical and...
Juwan Jin, Daochun Qin, Wanshu Wei, Kuan Fan

Fungal decay resistance and mechanical properties of plywood panels made from maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and bonded with cornstarch-quebracho tannin-phenol formaldehyde adhesive
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40490
The aim of this work is to demonstrate the performances of cornstarch-quebracho tannin-based resins designed as adhesive in the plywood production. In this way, the cornstarch and quebracho tannin was introduced in the classic adhesive formulation in order to supply a part of phenol-formaldehyde (PF). In order to evaluate the mechanical performances of optimal cornstarch-quebracho tannin-PF, plywo...
F Charrier, A Moubarik, A Allal, A Pizzi, B Charrier

Effect of borax-boric acid Treatment of simul (Bombax ceiba) Veneers on Glue-Bond Quality of Plywood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40525
The glue-bond quality of plywood made of treated simul (Bombax ceiba) veneers was investigated. The veneers were treated with cold and hot water solution of borax-boric acid (BB) of different concentrations and treatment durations. The plywoods were made at three different pressures in hot press using urea formaldehyde glue. The glue-bond strength of untreated plywood in dry shear-test was found t...
K Akhter, Md Abul Hashem, S Akhter

Multilayer hot-press drying and chemical modifying of poplar wood with urea-formaldehyde prepolymer
2011 - IRG/WP 10-40539
The objective of this study was to determine the technology of chemical modifying and multilayer hot-press drying on poplar wood. The chemicals were impregnated into cell lumen space by pulse-dipping machine to improve the dimension stability and mechanical property of timber. The timbers were compressed and dried by the multilayer hot-press drying to increase the density of timber. Results indica...
Guofeng Wu, Yifei Jiang, Sheng Yao, Junwen

Effect of P/F ratio, PF concentration and treating method on boron leaching from wood treated with PF modified boron compounds
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30559
In order to immobilize boron in wood, three kinds of resol-type phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin with different P/F ratios were synthesized in laboratory and incorporated with three types of boron compounds to treat wood. The used boron compounds included boric acid (BA), borax (BX) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT). The leaching test of boron from wood blocks was performed according to the...
Liping Yu, Jinzhen Cao

Biological and mechanical performances of particleboard panels made from maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) and glued with cornstarch-mimosa tannin-urea formaldehyde adhesive
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40542
The objective of this work was to demonstrate the utility of cornstarch-mimosa tannin-based resins designed for application as an adhesive in the particleboard production. Bond qualities of cornstarch-mimosa tannin- urea formaldehyde (UF) (10:4:86, weight ratios) resins and commercial UF resin were assessed by using an automatic bonding evaluation system, prior to production of particleboard panel...
A Moubarik, F Charrier, A Pizzi, A Allal, B Charrier

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