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Wood furfurylation process and properties of furfurylated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40289
The first processes for “furfurylation” of wood (wood modification with furfuryl alcohol) were developed several decades ago. Furfuryl alcohol is a renewable chemical since it is derived from furfural, which is produced from hydrolysed biomass waste. Over the last decade modernised processes for furfurylation of wood have been developed. These new processes are based on new catalytic systems a...
M Westin, S Lande, M Schneider

Prediction of Weight Percent Gain (WPG) of furfurylated wood by FT-NIR spectroscopy
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20295
Wood modification based on furfuryl alcohol improves several important wood properties, such as the resistance to fungal decay and insect attack, hardness, dimensional stability, bending strength and stiffness. The improvements of wood properties depend on the weight percent gain (WPG) due to furfurylation. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was used to calibrate PLS-regression ...
M Eikenes, P O Flæte, E Ystrøm Haartveit, S Lande

Effect of boron compounds-furfuryl alcohol treatment of wood on dimensional stability, termite resistance and boron leachability
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40195
Sapwood blocks of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Caribbean pitch pine (Pinus caribaea) measuring 20 (tangential) x 20 (radial) x 10 (longitudinal) mm were impregnated with furfuryl alcohol (FFA) by a vacuum-diffusion process followed by curing under heating. Boron compounds (boric acid, ammonium borate and ammonium biborate) were mixed in the impregnation solution of FFA. Anti- swelling...
S K Ozaki, M K Yalinkilic, Y Imamura, M F Souza

Biological resistance of furfuryl alcohol-treated wood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3703
Biological resistance of FFA (furfuryl alcohol)-treated wood was investigated in relation to the rise of ASE (anti-swelling efficiency) resulting from the treatment. Sapwood blocks of Japanese red pine, cedar and beech were vacuum-impregnated with various concentrations of aqueous FFA solutions to get the target levels of% (w/w) RL (resin loading). Air-dried blocks were kept in an oven at 120°C f...
J Y Ryu, Y Imamura, M Takahashi

Chemical reactions involved in furfurylation of solid wood - An investigation by ATR-IR spectroscopy
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40347
Wood modification with furfuryl alcohol (FA) has gained renewed interest during the last five to ten years because of advances in process technology and because of increased focus on the environmental hazards of traditional wood impregnation. The reaction mechanisms involved in the furfurylation process are not yet understood in detail. In the work presented here, the chemical reactions and their ...
T Mark Venås, L Garbrecht Thygesen, S Barsberg

Microwave curing of furfuryl alcohol modified wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40371
Furfurylated wood has shown to have promising properties for a wood modification agent during the last years. In this paper, an alternative curing method for furfuryl alcohol modified pine sapwood by means of microwave radiation was investigated. Different process parameters of microwave treatment such as output power, exposure time to microwave radiation, initial wood moisture content and evapor...
A Treu, E Larnøy, H Militz

Wood furfurylation process development. Part 1: Oscillating Pressure Method
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40376
Furfurylated wood (wood modified by furfuryl alcohol) has over the last years gained marked shares from both tropical wood and conventional preservative treated wood and this has, in turn, generated several research projects concerning process development. The impregnation of spruce is well known from literature to be a difficult task. Furthermore, the sapwood of Scandinavian-grown Scots pine is a...
E Larnøy, M Westin, B Källander, S Lande

Wood furfurylation process development. Part 2: Lowry impregnation trials
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40377
The objective was to evaluate whether Lowry-impregnation of Scots pine with FA100-mix, instead of the FA40-mix, would lead to similar or slightly higher WPGs and to investigate any potential changes in penetration pattern. The results indicate that the penetration was better, also penetrating the outer zone of the heartwood. Furthermore, it was possible to reduce the WPG-levels for pine down to 50...
M Westin, E Larnøy, S Lande

Variations of Furfuryl alcohol and Wolmanit CX-8 treatability of pine sapwood within and between trees
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40421
The variations on the ratio of filling (RoF) were investigated on Norwegian grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). The samples were taken from 10 different stands in south-east Norway, and treated with furfuryl alcohol and a copper-containing wood preservative. Both within tree variations, between tree variations and variations between stands were investigated for significant differences. Factors li...
E Larnøy, S Lande, G I Vestøl

Cantilever bending test of furfurylated poles
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40424
Ten, 8 m long poles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were treated with furfuryl alcohol to a WPG of approximately 40 %. A bending test was performed according to the principles in the draft European standard for wooden poles, prEN 14229 - Structural timber - Wood Poles for overhead lines. The bending strength and stiffness (MOE) for the poles tested were compared to an earlier study by the Swedish Wood Preservation Committee. In the latter study untreated, CCA-treated, ammoniacal Cu-PCP treated and creosoted poles were tested in bending. These types of poles were considered not to differ in strength and stiffness. The results of the furfurylated poles fit well with the results from the previous study. The bending strength and MOE values obtained are compared to the upper and lower 95-percentile values of the results from the previous study and all poles treated with furfuryl alcohol fit within this interval.Thus, this study indicates that a treatment with furfuryl alcohol does not result in a decrease of strength or stiffness. Further testing with a larger population of poles is necessary in order to get a statistically reliable result. In addition to further demonstration of the durability, the treatment process must be optimised to ensure full sapwood penetration and measures have to be taken to avoid the serious cracking observed in this trial before furfurylation can be considered for treatment of Pinus sylvestris poles.
R Ziethén, J Jermer, A Clang

Wood properties influencing the penetration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood with the wood modification agent furfuryl alcohol
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40470
The European standard EN 350-2 classifies Scots pine sapwood as class 1 (easy to treat). However large variations in sapwood penetration exist which affect a homogenous distribution of preservatives. Hence individual penetration schemes have to be developed and adjusted to the material most difficult to treat in order to provide adequate sapwood penetration. To ensure better economic process con...
K Zimmer, E Larnøy, G Koch

Treatability variation of scots pine heartwood from Northern Europe
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40563
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most common construction materials for general exterior applications in northern Europe. It has a wide natural geographical distribution, a good availability and it is low-priced compared to other materials. According to EN 350-2 Scots pine heartwood is considered being “untreatable” and having durability class 3. This means that its durability co...
G Behr, E Larnøy, C-T Bues

The impact of catalyst on the properties of furfurylated beech wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40748
European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is a major tree species of European forest that is underexploited because of its low dimensional stability and durability. Similarly to what has been developed with radiata pine, furfurylation might be the answer to optimize the utilization of local beech wood. Beech wood furfurylation process was studied using five different catalysts: maleic anhydride, maleic ...
P S Sejati, A Imbert, C Gérardin, S Dumarçay, E Fredon, E Masson, D Nandika, T Priadi, P Gérardin

Corrosion of fasteners in furfurylated wood – final report after 9 years exposure outdoors
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40810
The corrosion of some common fastener materials – mild steel, stainless steel, zinc-coated steel, brass and Sanbond Z (nickel, zinc and chromate) coated steel – has been evaluated after nine years exposure outdoors in untreated Scots pine and furfurylated beech and southern yellow pine (SYP). The furfurylation was carried out according to a process that resulted in approximately 40 % WPG (We...
J Jermer, B-L Andersson, J Schalnat

Dimensional stability and decay resistance of montmorillonite- furfuryl alcohol modified wood
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40856
Poplar (Populus cathayana) wood was impregnated successively by organo-montmorillonite (OMMT; in concentration of 2%) and furfuryl alcohol (FA, in concentrations of 15%, 30% and 50%) in a two-step method to prepare OMMT-FA modified wood. The modified wood samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Moreover, wood physical and a...
L Zhang, J Cao

Environmentally Friendly Wood Modification based on Tannin-Furfuryl alcohol - Effect on stabilisation, mechanical properties and decay durability
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40929
Furfurylation is a well-known wood modification technology. This paper studied the effect of tannin addition on the wood furfurylation. Three kinds of dicarboxylic acids, adipic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid, as well as glyoxal as a comparing agent, were used to catalyse the polymerisation of furanic or tannin-furanic solutions during wood modification. Impregnation of furanic or tannin-f...
M Mubarok, E Azadeh, F O Akong, S Dumarçay, A Pizzi, C Charbonnier-Gérardin, P Gérardin

Molecular dynamics investigation of wood modification with furfuryl alcohol
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40931
Molecular dynamics (MD) was applied to investigate and understand the structural characteristics and the interaction of cellulose and lignin with furfuryl alcohol for explaining the wood modification process. A single chain of cellulose polymer model and a softwood lignin model was considered to represent cellulose and lignin polymers. The obtained radial distribution function results revealed tha...
V Ponnuchamy, J Sandak, A Sandak

Novel bio-based tannin/furfurylic alcohol thermosets: application to wood preservation
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40959
This project is integrated within the overall context of sustainable development and targets the valorization the wood industry by-products such as polyphenolic extractives, and in particular tannins. The objective targets the use of the same polymer used for production of tannin-furanic foams, but here for wood preservation to avoid the utilization of biocides. The aims is to the design of copoly...
C Gérardin-Charbonnier, E Azadeh, A Pizzi, P Gerardin

Screening of lignin peroxidase from white-rot fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10274
Since lignin peroxidase was first found in the ligninolytic culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, it has been regarded as an enzyme responsible for the lignin biodegradation and studied comprehensively. As the results of these studies its unique characteristics have been revealed. On the other hand, the features of lignin peroxidase produced by other white-rot fungi have not been studied so much...
I Momohara

Effects of new fixative additives on leachability of boron wood preservatives
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30507
Borates are well known with their protective capacity against both fungi and insects with low mammalian toxicity and environmental acceptable. However, boron itself does not ensure the appropriate protection for wood in the exterior applications because of their easily depletion from the treated wood under wet conditions. In this study, the potential use of monoglyceride and polyvinyl alcohol prod...
A Mohareb, J Henry, E Wozniak, P Gérardin

Effects of polyvinyl alcohol on leachability and efficacy of boron wood preservatives against fungal decay and termites attack
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30526
In this study, the use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as boron fixative agent was investigated. Two levels of PVA (2.5 and 4%) were evaluated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) at three concentrations (1, 2 and 4% boric acid equivalent (BAE) using a double vacuum impregnation processes on Scots pine sapwood specimens. Leaching was performed according to a laboratory leaching procedure. Boron ...
A Mohareb, M F Thévenon, E Wozniak, P Gérardin

Physical properties of Pinus radiata veneers modified with hexamethoxymethyl melamine prepolymers
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40551
Prepolymers containing hexamethoxymethyl melamine and either sucrose (Suc-HMMM) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-HMMM) were prepared by acid catalysis under reaction conditions optimised with respect to stiffening effect when introduced into Pinus radiata veneers by vacuum impregnation and cured by hot pressing at 150C. Maximum increases in MOE were 20% for Suc-HMMM (50% WPG), 22% for PVA-HMMM (...
C Molloy, W Rae, S Connor, T Henderson, A Siraa

Biological properties of Pinus radiata veneers modified with hexamethoxymethyl melamine
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40552
An investigation of the effects on decay and termite resistance of a wood modification process involving prepolymers of hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) was conducted using LVL as a model engineered wood product. Dry Pinus radiata veneers were vacuum-impregnated with a wood modification formulation containing a mixture (P-H:S-H) of two separate prepolymerisation reactions containing polyvinyl al...
A Siraa, S Millward, C Molloy

Biocomposites based on PVA, cellulose nanofibrils and tannic acid
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40957
Biocomposite films based on a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with the addition of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) as a reinforcing component and with the addition of the biologically active tannic acid (TA) were prepared. The influence of different additions of CNF and TA in the polymer matrix PVA on the mechanical properties, improvement of hydrophobicity of the prepared films was studied. In all cases, the...
U Osolnik, V Vek, I Poljanšek, Poven