Your search resulted in 680 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examinati...
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph
The accelerated field simulator (= fungal cellar)
1982 - IRG/WP 2170
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, H Greaves
A direct method for testing plywood and particle boards against fungal decay
1984 - IRG/WP 2214
A method directly inspired from the French standard testing method of the resistance of particle boards against fungal decay (AFNOR N° 51.295 May 1980) is described. But in that experimentation, the infestation is localized and realized in non sterile conditions. Small blocks of Fagus sylvatica (60 x 20 x 10 mm³) used as " inoculates " are infested with basidiomycetes, in Kolle flask for 4 to 6 ...
L N Trong
Preventive action against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on the effects of natural and artificial infection of wood by Basidiomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 2160
Bending creep test of plywoods under long term exposure to fungal attack
1981 - IRG/WP 2163
Bending creep test and decay test were coupled in order to evaluate the durability of structural plywoods and preservative efficacy. Experimental blocks, 5.0 x 1.2 cm² section x 35.0 cm length, were impregnated with distilled water and inoculated with mycelial fragments of test fungus. Polyethylene bags stretched with metal frame were used as decay chambers. The chambers containing inoculated blo...
An attempt to develop a direct and reliable method for testing the preventive action of preservation treatments of wood against fungal decay
1980 - IRG/WP 2139
In wood preservation there are two classical ways for assessing the reliability of preventive treatments against wood decay: the laboratory tests in which the various parameters are evaluated independently and the field tests or service tests in which those parameters are acting together in the natural environment. One has always tried to build bridges between the two types of experiments and to e...
Assessment of wood decay in small-scale unsterile soil-bed tests
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20111
This study is concerned with the investigation of wood decay in small-scale unsterile soil-bed tests. Tests were performed with untreated heartwood samples from five hardwood species of different natural durability classes ranging from highly perishable to very resistant. Our results confirmed the critical role of soil moisture content on wood decay. The highest decay rates were observed at moistu...
L Machek, A M Derksen, R Sierra-Alvarez
Laboratory testing of wood natural durability - In soil-bed assays
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20141
Laboratory methods for assessing wood decay resistance are being investigated in the framework of an ongoing European research project. This paper summarizes the main results obtained for soil-bed tests based on the European prestandard ENV 807-Test 2. The data suggest that this testing methodology is suitable for evaluating the natural durability of timber species in soil-contact under conditions...
R Sierra-Alvarez, I Le Bayon, J K Carey, I Stephan, J Van Acker, M Grinda, G Kleist, H Militz, R-D Peek
Artificial weathering exposure as an alternative for standard ageing according to EN 84 (leaching) and EN 73 (evaporation)
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20254
In order to verify potential weaknesses of wood preservatives fungal tests are carried out after ageing of wood preservative treated test blocks. The European standard EN 599 as a framework for efficacy assessment of wood preservatives includes the use of two ageing methods prior to fungal testing, namely a leaching method (EN 84) and an evaporation method (EN 73). The European research project "F...
J Van Acker, M Grinda, D J Dickinson
Imaging fungal deterioration of wood using x-ray microtomography
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10240
Nondestructive tomographic images of solid Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood and SYP during deterioration by wood decay fungi were obtained by using a new class of synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (CMT). The CMT images will provide information about spatial relationship between degrading fungi and wood structures. Wood samples were scanned with synchrotron-generated X-rays at high resoluti...
B Illman, B A Dowd
Fungal decay of acrylate treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30357
Natural durability of wood species is variable. Chemical wood preservatives, such as biocides are necessary for extension of their service life. Many methods have been developed to increase the resistance of wood and wood products against wood-destroying organisms during the last years. The most frequently used methods are chemical and thermal modification of wood. In wood modification the basic c...
Z Tiralova, L Reinprecht
In situ testing the influence of melamine resins on the enzymatic activity of basidiomycetes
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30194
Waterbased methanol etherificated melamine formaldehyde resins have the potential to increase the resistance of impregnated wood against wood destroying fungi. The mechanism of the increased wood durability is not clear yet. In the present paper the possible interference of melamine resins with wood degrading enzymes of Coniophora puteana and Trametes versicolor was investigated as a possible cont...
D Lukowsky, F Büschelberger, O Schmidt
Physiological properties of fungal test strains according to the European Standard EN 113
1986 - IRG/WP 2258
For the discussion of the European standard EN 113 the EMPA's procedure of culturing the test fungi and the corresponding virulence of the test fungi as well as the wood moisture content at the end of the test are shown. It is mainly shown that within the standard the choice of the solvent may not be left at the test lab if reproducible results shall be obtained. The different solvents in...
E Graf, B Zgraggen, P Manser
A comparison of fungal strains used in the bioassay of wood preservatives
1984 - IRG/WP 2220
Previously published data are presented relating to a number of strains of wood-destroying basidiomycetes (Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor, Gloeophyllum abietinum, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus, Poria placenta, Fibroporia vaillantii and Serpula lacrymans) commonly used as test fungi in the bioassay of wood preservatives. The data, which has not been statis...
J Wazny, H Greaves
Resistance of board materials against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on Kolle flask tests method and direct test method
1985 - IRG/WP 2243
Two sets of plywood (Aucoumea klaineana Pierre) 7 and 11 ply, treated by two preservatives, and untreated, were tested by two methods: 1. Kolle flask test method on malt-agar substrate according to the French standard NF B 51.295; 2. A direct test method in non sterile conditions according to DocNo: IRG/WP/2214. The exposure time far both methods was 12 weeks. After exposure, the degree of attack ...
G R Y Déon, L N Trong
Moisture dynamics of WPC as basis for biological durability
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40520
The largest market for wood-polymer composites (WPCs) is currently decking. Although many products are commercially available, a proper standard for the assessment of the biological durability of WPC does not exist. Recommended standards for testing resistance against basidiomycetes should be completed with a method to bring the specimens in a worst case situation, obtaining a moisture level high ...
N Defoirdt, J Van Acker, J Van den Bulcke
Durability testing of coconut shell according to ENV 807
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10761
Coconut shell was tested in the laboratory according to the European standard ENV 807 with three different soil types: compost soil, brown rot/soft rot rich soil and white rot/soft rot rich soil. Mass losses between 14 and 16 % were achieved with all three soils, indicating that the decay type is of little importance in the degradation process. Somewhat higher mass losses, 19-22 % were obtained fo...
J Jermer, A H H Wong, K Segerholm, T Nilsson
A comparative study and evaluation of methodologies used for determining wood preservative penetration
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20475
A series of methods for determining penetration of wood preservatives into the wood structure have been developed for either quality control (QC) or research and development purposes. QC methods range from monitoring the solution uptake, applying colour indicators or sampling specific wood samples followed by wood acid digestion/atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or solvent extraction/chromatogr...
R Craciun, R Moeller, J Wittenzellner, T Jakob, J Habicht
Evaluation of fungal infestation and decay in a simulated use class 3 situation (block test) after some years of exposure
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20487
The so named “block test” was designed as part of the assessment methodology for testing the behaviour of natural and modified wood used under use class 3 (EN 335-2) conditions. The test was developed to expose the wood close to the ground to an environment with high humidity and high biological activity, but not in soil contact. The present study describes the evaluation of fungal infestatio...
A Gellerich, K Röhl, S Adamopoulos, H Militz
Quasi-in-situ durability tests on oak timber bridges
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20510
This study aims on developing a method for determination of wood durability on samples taken from real structures in service. Therefore quasi-in-situ durability tests have been conducted exemplarily on timber bridges made from English oak (Quercus robur L.). Drilling cores were found to be a feasible alternative to standard specimens for laboratory durability tests against pure cultures of Basidio...
C Brischke, C J Behnen, M-T Lenz, K Brandt, E Melcher
Predicting the Rate of Decay, and the Potential for Misinterpretation of Proper Scientific Method
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20525
Predicting the rate of fungal attack in wood-based materials and its effect on properties remains the holy grail of wood products pathologists; however, achieving this goal is difficult because of the many variables associated with the process. This paper reviews some of the more important aspects of the decay process in relation to test methodology and then discusses how data are sometimes used b...
B S Goodell, J J Morrell
Moisture induced risk and fungal development in various field test set-ups in and above ground
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20577
A high number of studies on the decay performance of wood in outdoor exposure have been conducted in the past. However, no testing methodology for wooden components exposed above ground reflecting the variety of different loads has been established so far. Many test protocols were modified in different ways throughout the years and results were often published in an encoded or incomplete way. This...
L Meyer-Veltrup, C Brischke
Evaluation of field test data
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20594
The resistance against fungal decay and insect attack of wood can be highly variable, between boards and even within boards. The variability in durability is not always an issue, but for high demanding applications information about its reliability is required. This comprises the variability of outdoor performance. Durability testing in laboratory and outdoor exposures can provide a good basis to ...
F Bongers, C Brischke, J Van den Bulcke, W Gard, I De Windt, H Militz
Estimation of wood degradation determined by visual inspection, mechanical testing and DNA characterisation – report after 3 years of exposure
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30700
The influence of two separate treatments, thermal modification and alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ, Silvanolin©) treatment, on fungal decay, visual disfigurement, deterioration in mechanical properties and fungal community structure was assessed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and compared with the performance of two naturally more resistant tree species native to North America: Douglas fir (Pseud...
N Thaler, T Martinović, M Bajc, D Finžgar, H Kraigher, A Sinha, J J Morrell, M Humar
Bio-deterioration of Southern Pine Stakes at Geographically Different Testing Sites
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20609
Southern pine (SP) sapwood is commonly used in preparing the standardized stakes for performance testing as referenced in the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) Book of Standards. For example, the standardized above ground test methods E16/E18 and the standardized ground contact test method E7 all use sapwood of SP as the preferred wood species for preservative performance test. In this...
Jun Zhang, J Horton