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Raising of the grain and deformation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) treated with water-borne preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 3456
In Sweden partial impregnation to 10 mm depth of the pine sapwood (class B in the Nordic preservation standard) of joineries was introduced during the seventies. To avoid product quality problems, organic solvent-based systems have been used. However, the Swedish industry today has problems with organic solvents, mainly for environmental reasons. We have studied raising of the grain and deformation of pine impregnated with water-based systems to 10 mm depth of the sapwood. Pine treated with water and the so-called Royal-process has been compared with pine treated with a commercial white spirit-based preservative. For the water-impregnated material we have received approximately the same results as for the Royal-impregnated products. The Royal-process is used in Sweden for windows. Our conclusion is that water-based preservatives could be used for treatment of joinery without product quality problems.
G Hägglund, T Sebring


End grain sealants for wood preservation studies
1985 - IRG/WP 3341
The results of tests with possible end grain sealants for wood preservation studies are reported. The epoxy resins used gave satisfactory performance on wet or dry Sitka spruce and have been used with success for diffusion treatment studies.
R J Murphy, N A Summers


The influence of formulation on the behaviour of LOSP's during industrial impregnation of spruce
1986 - IRG/WP 3387
Evidence is presented that the comparative behaviour of two LOSP formulations during impregnation treatment of spruce cannot be predicted purely on the basis of their physical characteristics (viscosity, surface tension and contact angle) nor on the extent of their 'passive' penetration into pine sapwood.
L D A Saunders, D M Zuvencko


A new model for wetting and drying of wood end-grain – with implications for durability and service-life
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20477
New experimental data for wetting and drying of wood end-grain, Sandberg (2009), imply that traditional models for moisture transport are not at all applicable. A new model is developed to consider the phenomenological behaviour of water transport in and out of end-grain, using the pore water pressure and sorption scanning properties. Modelling results are compared to experimental results and the consequences for durability are discussed.
L-O Nilsson, K Sandberg


The effect of rate of pressure application on preservative uptake along and across the grain of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp and constant pressure times
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20292
This study was particularly design to determine the preservative uptake at different ramp (rate of increase in pressure) and constant pressure times on longitudinal, tangential and radial penetrations of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) which grown indigeneously in Turkey. The samples of 2 cm cubes of kiln-dried wood (nominated to 12% moisture content) were treated at different ramp times varied from very fast to very slow rates of pressure (bar) per time (seconds) at 5, 15, 30, 60, and 90 sec. and the maximum pressure of 4 bars -in the treating vessel to refusal- was applied at the constant pressure time for 5 min. The preservative uptake was determined as the percentage of void volume filled (VVF%) for either flow directions at each ramp time. The results showed that the VVF% was, as expected, markedly greater in the longitudinal flow direction than both in the tangential and radial flow directions. In comparison to the VVF% laterally, it was greater in tangential direction than in radial direction in either treatment schedules. In this issue, although the trend seemed to be the similar between the flow directions, quite different patterns were observed within each direction for penetration and ramp times. Accordingly, conclusions were listed separately for each flow direction.
I Usta


End grain sealing by polymer impregnation
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3708
The solution and dispersion characteristics of several hydrophobic derivatives of cellulose have been studied and the abilities of these polymers to afford effective end grain sealing of Corsican pine have been examined. Both solution and dispersion treatments with ethyl cellulose imparted good water repellency and end grain sealing to wood samples, however, the disperse systems possessed lower viscosities. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of treated samples and polymer radiolabelling/autoradiography studies indicated pit-membrane pore filtration of polymer particles close to the end grain. A range of esters (C2-C18 side chains) of Hydroxypropyl Cellulose have been prepared and characterised (FTIR, NMR). The acetyl, propyl and butyl esters formed coherent, flexible films. The C6, C9, C10 and C11 esters were essentially gums. However, the C18 (stearoyl) ester was found to form strong, wax like films, due to pronounced ester side-chain interactions. A number of the polymers were applied to Corsican pine test samples. Water repellent ability was found to strongly parallel the ability of the derivatives to form coherent polymer films. The C18 (stearoyl) ester exhibited impressive end grain sealing; outperforming all other systems tested at equivalent application levels. This work indicates that hydrophobic polymers that readily form strong films from solution or dispersion afford enhanced end grain sealing as compared to materials that simply produce a hydrophobic effect.
J M Lawther, W B Banks, D G Anderson, J A Cornfield


Influence of Grain Direction on Penetration, Retention, and Leaching of CCA(C) in Sapwood and Heartwood of Kenyan-Grown Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40383
Penetration, retention, and leaching of CCA (C) in relation to grain orientation were tested in small (50mm x 50mm x 200mm) sapwood and heartwood samples of Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii. In both sapwood and heartwood of the two species, the results showed a consistent pattern: Transverse > Radial > Tangential. Whereas penetration, retention, and leaching were significantly high in the transverse grain direction for both species, magnitudes recorded for radial and tangential grain orientations were low. However, radial conductivity appeared to be consistently better that tangential conductivity of the preservative. Compared to the results for sapwood, penetration, retention, and leaching were significantly lower in heartwood samples of both species. It was noted that in heartwood samples of both species, percent leaching of the preservative was higher than in sapwood samples, irrespective of grain orientation. That was attributed to the high lignin contents in heartwood of E. saligna and A. mearnsii interfering with the fixation of CCA elements. High penetration of the preservative in the transverse grain direction is because of higher conductivity through large interconnecting vessels in the two species. Radial and tangential conduction relied on low volumes of parenchyma cells (rays) and small vessel and fibre pits. Low fluid conductivity in heartwood is mainly due to anatomical, physical and chemical changes that accompany transformation of sapwood to heartwood, hence low void spaces for preservative penetration. From the results, it becomes apparent that different treatment schedules must be worked out for effective treatment of posts and poles of E. saligna and A. mearnsii (where only an outer sapwood envelope treatment is required), and for sawn material with transverse, radial, and tangential faces exposed, in which case treatment would have to be evenly balanced.
R Venkatasamy


Influence of Grain Direction on Penetration, Retention, and Leaching of CCA(C) in Sapwood and Heartwood of Kenyan-Grown Cupressus lusitanica and Pinus patula
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40384
The influence of grain orientation on penetration, retention, and leaching of CCA (C) was tested on small samples of sapwood and heartwood of Cupressus lusitanica and Pinus patula. Samples measuring 50mm x 50mm, and 200mm in the longitudinal axis were sealed to expose only transverse, or radial, or tangential faces, pressure treated with 6% CCA (C), and penetration, retention and leaching of the preservative measured. Generally, the normal trend of Transverse > Radial > Tangential was observed for penetration, retention and leaching in sapwood and heartwood of both species, and in the three grain directions. Penetration in sapwood samples of both C. lusitanica and P. patula were higher than in heartwood samples, being significantly higher in the transverse grain direction. Both retention and leaching reflected on the depth of penetration of the preservative in samples. Retention was generally lower in the three grain orientations in both sapwood and heartwood of C. lusitanica samples. However, it was noted that retention in the radial and tangential grain directions in sapwood and heartwood of both species were not significantly different. Leaching followed the same patterns as for penetration and retention, that is lower in both sapwood and heartwood samples of C. lusitanica, being high in the transverse grain direction in sapwood and heartwood of both species, low in the radial, and lowest in the tangential grain directions. However, leaching in the radial and tangential grain orientations in heartwood samples of both species were fairly similar. Generally, P. patula samples achieved higher penetration and retention, but amounts of the preservative leached out were also higher. The results of the work clearly shows that sapwood, heartwood, and grain orientation all influence penetration, retention, and leaching of CCA (C) in two species of softwoods tested, and that is likely to be the case with most softwoods. The implications on treatment schedules have to be considered.
R Venkatasamy


Effects of Murgul Copper Process flue gases (SO2) on compression strength parallel to the grain of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40404
In this study was investigated the effect on the compression strength parallel to the grain as mechanical properties of Fagus orientalis Lipsky. wood exposed to SO2 gas and non-exposed. In the experiments the two of four (total) were obtained from Artvin-Ortaköy region and the other two from Artvin-Murgul region. The compression strength parallel to the grain was calculated at the compare of trees are taken from two distinct region. The obtained data of SO2 exposed specimens were compared with non-exposed ones. According to the obtained data of this study suggestions were given. At the end of study no effect of SO2 gas has been determined on the compression strength parallel to the grain of Fagus orientalis Lipsky. wood.
N Ay, E Topaloglu, A Uncu


Wood protection by nano silver against white rot
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30554
This research was done with the aim of investigation on the natural durability of poplar (populous deltoides) in natural situation and treated with nano silver against the white rot. Testing samples was treated with the method of modified soaking and nano silver in 3 treating level of 0,200 and 400ppm. In this study effect of coriolus versicolor fungus (identificated as white rot) on populous deltoides in natural and treated situation was analyzed. In conducting mentioned evaluation, kolleschal method according to DIN 52176 and B.S. 838:1961 was used in completely randomized block design. Specimens were contaminated with cultured fungus for 14 weeks(22ºc,%75relative humidity).after this period weight reduction, compressive strength(parallel to grain), impact strength were measured. Results have shown that the effect of treated nano silver on durability of populous deltoides was positive and the average of weight reduction of control sample and 200ppm was measured more than 400ppm,so that according to Findlay 1967 classify this type was promoted from completely non durability to Slightly durability. Comparisons of averages have shown that the effect of treated nano silver on compressive strength (parallel to grain), in both moods after and before effect of fungus was positive and leads to its increase. Comparison of average results in impact strength test shown that there was no significant difference in non contaminated samples and at the treating level of 0 (control),200ppm and 400ppm at the level of 5%,but there was significant difference between contaminated samples and at the treating level of 400ppm had more average strength in comparison to200ppm and control.
V Tazakor Rezai, A Usefi, M Soltani


Study on the Effect of Combined Nanosilver-Hygrothermal Treatment on Wood Properties
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40581
In this study, the impregnation process with nanosilver solution, before hygrothermal treatment was carried out to investigate its effect on some physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Russian imported spruce (Picea abies). Wood specimens were impregnated with nanosilver solution (400ppm) in an impregnation tank under pressure of 0.25 Mpa, for 20 minutes. Hygrothermal treatment was carried out at the temperatures of 120, 150 and 180ºC for 1, 3 and hours. One group of specimens was only hygrothermally treated and considered as controls. Values of volumetric swelling after 24 hours soaking in water, bending strength, impact load resistance and compressive strength parallel to the grain were measured. The results showed that by increasing the temperature of hygrothermal treatment volumetric swelling and mechanical properties of specimens were decreased. The duration of treatment has no significant effects on mechanical properties. Also, in wood specimens which were impregnated with nanosilver solution and treated at 180ºC, volumetric swelling were lower than controls, without any significant decrease in mechanical properties. On the whole, it could be said that with nano silver impregnation of wood, hygrothermal treatment can be carried out at higher temperature (180ºC) to achieve better dimensional stability with no more decrease in mechanical properties.
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, A Karimi, B Jamnani, M Ebrahimi


Study on the Effect of Combined Nanosilver-Hygrothermal Treatment on Wood Properties
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40581
In this study, the impregnation process with nanosilver solution, before hygrothermal treatment was carried out to investigate its effect on some physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and imported Russian spruce (Picea abies). Wood specimens were impregnated with nanosilver solution (400ppm) in an impregnation tank under pressure of 0.25 Mpa, for 20 minutes. Hygrothermal treatment was carried out at the temperatures of 120, 150 and 180ºC for 1, 3 and 5 hours. One group of specimens was only hygrothermally treated and considered as controls. Values of volumetric swelling after 24 hours soaking in water, bending strength, impact load resistance and compressive strength parallel to the grain were measured. The results showed that by increasing of the hygrothermal treatment temperature, volumetric swelling and mechanical properties of specimens were decreased. The duration of treatment had no significant effect on mechanical properties. Also, in wood specimens which were impregnated with nanosilver solution and treated at 180ºC, volumetric swelling were lower than controls, without any significant decrease in mechanical properties. On the whole, it could be said with nano silver impregnation of wood, hygrothermal treatment can be carried out at higher temperature (180ºC) to achieve better dimensional stability with no more decrease in mechanical properties.
G Rassam, H Reza Taghiyari, A Karimi, B Jamnani, M Ebrahimi


Combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D impregnation on properties of southern yellow pine wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40637
In this study, samples of southern yellow pine sapwood were first thermally modified and then treated by the alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) wood preservative. Two heating temperature (180℃ and 220℃) and two concentrations of ACQ-D solution (0.9% and 1.35%) were used in the experiments. The combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D on leaching performance, mechanical properties and mold resistance of the treated wood were then investigated. The results of the experiments indicated that thermal modification increased the percentage of copper leaching and decreased the MOR and MOE of wood, and also it affected the compression strength parallel to grain. After the ACQ-D impregnation, the bending properties of thermally modified wood got lowered to some extent. The anti-mold experiment indicated that the ACQ-D impregnation could improve the mold resistance of thermally modified wood.
Wang Wang, Yuan Zhu, Jinzhen Cao


Investigation of Nanocopper-Hygrothermally Treated Wood Properties
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40644
Nanometals with high thermal conductivity can be considered as modifiers, especially in thermal modification of wood. This study was aimed to investigate some physical and mechanical properties of nanocopper impregnated Iranian beach (Fagus orientalis Lipsky), which was hygrothermally treated. For this purpose, nanocopper solution (400 ppm) was used for impregnation process. Hygrothermal treatment was carried out at temperatures of 120, 150 and 180ºC for 1, 3 and 5 hours. Volumetric swelling after 24 hours soaking in water (Vol. S24h), moduli of rupture and elasticity (MOR and MOE), compressive strength parallel to the grain (Cs║) and hardness values (H) of specimens were determined. The minimum volumetric swelling of specimens was obtained in nanocopper impregnated specimens at the treatment temperature of 180ºC and duration of 5 hours. MOR, MOE and hardness values were decreased with more increase in temperature. The best values for these properties were obtained in nanocopper impregnated specimens, which were hygrothermally treated at temperature of 120ᵒC for 1 hour. Compressive strength values were decreased by increasing of temperature and duration of hygrothermal treatment and the maximum values of this property were seen in non-impregnated specimens, which were treated at the temperature of 120ᵒC for 1 hour. It was revealed that at temperature of 180ᵒC and duration of 5 hours, there were no significant differences in mechanical properties of nanocopper impregnated and non-impregnated specimens. These results showed that by nanocopper impregnation of wood, hygrothermal treatment could be carried out at higher temperature and longer duration to obtain a wood product with appropriate properties.
G Rassam, B Jamnani, A Faraji Heris