Your search resulted in 574 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Improved resistance of Scots pine and Spruce by application of an oil-heat treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40162
Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were subject to a heat treatment which was carried out in an oil-bath. The aim was to improve the dimensional stability of the treated wood and its resistance against fungi. The bath of vegetable oil provides a uniform heat transfer at temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C and protects the submersed wood from oxygen. Heat trea...
M Sailer, A O Rapp, H Leithoff
Fungal resistance of smoke-dried Cryptomeria japonica wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40118
Performance of smoke dried wood on fungal resistance was studied. The maximum temperature of the smoke seasoning was 80-90°C in the drying room and 70-80°C within the wood for 6 days during the treatment for 15 days. Decay resistance of smoke-dried Cryptomeria japonica wood was evaluated using a brown rot fungus, Tyromyces palustris. Weight losses of untreated wood, smoke-dried wood, and smoke-d...
K Yamamoto, I Momohara, T Nishimura
Properties of hot oil treated wood and the possible chemical reactions between wood and soybean oil during heat treatment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40304
Thermal treatment with hot oil as the heating media based on the original idea from oil-heat treatment in Germany was investigated. The treatment was mainly carried out at 200ºC and 220ºC for 2 hours and 4 hours, and the wood species were mainly spruce and fir. This paper focuses on the difference between soybean oil and palm oil and the possible chemical reactions between wood and soybean oil. ...
Jieying Wang, P A Cooper
Decay and termite durabilities of heat-treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40272
Decay and termite resistances of Plato-treated timbers were evaluated using a modified JIS decay test method, feeding test in a laboratory scale and a field exposure against Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) or Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. The results showed that no significant decay durability of the treated timbers although mass loss from decay slightly decreased in case of treated timbers. ...
S Doi, K Hanataa, E Kamonji, Yuuji Miyazaki
Investigation of the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) for thermal modification
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40275
In this study the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) was examined for thermal modification. Comparative experimental investigations were performed with silver fir and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) after thermal treatments. Besides properties, which characterize the quality of heat treatments, like dimensional stability and resistance against fungal attack, strength properties of the...
C Brischke, A O Rapp
Heat inactivation of mould fungi on wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40012
Heat treatments have been successfully used for eradication of dry rot. The effect of heat treatments at 40, 50 and 60°C for various time intervals on the inactivation of Penicillium brevicompactum was determined. The effect of heat on ungerminated spores and spores "pregerminated" for 24 hours was evaluated by plating on malt-extract agar. Although most ungerminated spores were inactivated after...
Biological resistance of steam-compressed wood pretreated with boric compounds
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30190
Wood compression under heating is aimed to enhance dimensional stability and surface hardness. Preservative treatment with an appropriate chemical is additionally required for the protection of wood against biological agents under hazardous service conditions. Boron pretreatment of compressed wood was targeted to a mutual benefit of increasing biological resistance of compressed wood as boron was ...
M K Yalinkilic, W Dwianto, Y Imamura, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi
Formosan Subterranean Termite Resistance to Heat Treatment of Scots Pine and Norway Spruce
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40264
New challenges to the durability of wood building materials have arisen in the U.S. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) now infests sizable portions of the U.S. south and their range is extending. Heat treatments offer a unique opportunity for wood-based composites because many of the process techniques already employ various thermal applications and could be easil...
W R Smith, A O Rapp, C R Welzbacher, J E Winandy
Assessment of the Envelope Effect of Three Hot Oil Treatments: Resistance to Decay by Coniophora puteana and Postia placenta
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40344
Timber of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) was treated in hot linseed oil, rapeseed oil and a proprietary resin derived from linseed oil. The samples were immersed in oil or resin under reduced pressure at temperatures of 180°C and 200°C. Very high uptakes of the oils or resin were recorded for pine, while spruce showed lower weight percent gains, below...
M J Spear, C A S Hill, S F Curling, D Jones, M D C Hale
Effects of heat treatments on decay resistance and material properties of ponderosa pine and yellow poplar
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40374
The potential for using heat treatment to improve the properties of North American fenestration species was evaluated on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L) treated using the ThermoWood process at various treatment temperatures and times. Soil block tests using Gloeophyllum trabeum, Postia placenta, or Trametes versicolor showed that durability was enh...
C Vidrine, C Freitag, J Nicholson, J J Morrell
Mold resistance of heat-treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40358
The resistance of heat-treated sugi sapwood against three mold fungi was evaluated. Wood specimens were first subjected to heat treatments at 180 and 220ºC for 2 and 4 hours. Mold growth on the surface of the specimens was measured 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the inoculation with the fungi in laboratory conditions. Laboratory decay tests were performed using two brown and white-rot fungi along with...
S N Kartal
Preliminary investigation of biological resistance, water absorption and swelling of thermally compressed pine wood panels
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40396
Wood can be modified by compressive, thermal and chemical treatments. Compression of wood under thermal conditions is resulted in densification of wood. This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of thermally compressed pine wood panels at either 5 or 7 MPa and at either 120 or 150?C for one hour. The process caused increases in density and decreases in thickness of the panels; however, lab...
Ö Ünsal, S N Kartal, Z Candan, R Arango, C A Clausen, F Green III
Termite resistance of some modified wood species
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40449
During the last few decades, researchers worldwide have investigated and developed new treatment techniques to improve intrinsic wood properties. Some of these techniques were introduced to the market recently and are gaining in importance.. Various wood properties of these new materials have been studied intensively. These include physical-mechanical properties (dimensional stability, moisture ...
H Militz, B C Peters, C J Fitzgerald
Influence of Heat Treatment Medium on Fungal Resistance of Beech Wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40643
Hydrothermal treatment of beech wood (Fagus orientalis) performed in acidic, neutral and alkaline buffered mediums in 160 and 180°C. White rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor) and brown rot fungi (Coniophora puteana) were used to determine the influence of heat treatment mediums on the behaviour of fungal resistance. White rot of wood digest lignin rather than cellulose; while brown rot digests the ce...
A Talaei, A Karimi, M-F Thévenon
Experiences with an industrial system for controlled thermal wood modification in pressurized unsaturated steam
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40678
Thermal wood modification in pressurized reactors has a long history, but these processes are to date industrially scarcely used, because of the relatively complicated process equipment, compared to the more common high-temperature processes in kilns at atmospheric pressure. However, based on our practical experience with the FirmoLin® process, supported by recent scientific findings, it is foun...
A review of the analytical methods used in determining the decay resistance of heat treated wood
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40690
Heat treatment as a wood process is increasingly used because of its non-biocide behaviour and its low environmental impact. This sort of treatment is based on biopolymer chemical degradation by heat transfer. This process improves mainly the dimensional stability and the decay resistance of wood. Wood becomes darker after this type of treatment and thus gives it an aesthetic appearance. These i...
K Candelier, M-F Thévenon, A Pétrissans, S Dumarçay, P Gérardin, M Pétrissans
Resistance of heat treated Ash wood under steam pressure: rot fungi, soil micro-organisms and termites
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40724
Thermal modification processes have been developed to increase the biological durability and dimensional stability of wood. The aim of this paper was to study the influence of ThermoWood® treatment intensity on wood decay resistance improvement against soil-inhabiting micro-organisms, brown/white rots and termite’s exposures. All of the tests were carried out in the laboratory with two differen...
K Candelier, S Hannouz, M-F Thévenon, D Guibal, P Gérardin, M Pétrissans, R Collet
Decay resistance variability of European wood species thermally modified by industrial process
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40807
Thermal modification is now considered as a new ecofriendly industrial wood modification process improving mainly the material decay resistance and its dimensional stability. Most industrial thermal treatment processes use convection heat transfer which induces sometimes heterogeneous treatment temperature propagation within the oven and lead to the heterogeneity in treatment efficiency. Thus, it ...
K Candelier, L Pignolet, S Lotte, A Guyot, E Cuny, B Bousseau, M-F Thévenon
Multiscale modification on water resistance and dimensional stability of Populus cathayana by alkali lignin combined with heat treatment
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40826
The aim of this study was to enhance the water resistance and dimensional stability of fast growing wood by alkali lignin combined with heat treatment. Poplar (Populus cathayana) samples were first impregnated with alkali lignin solution and then subjected to heat treatment at 140, 160, and 180°C respectively for 2h. Properties of leachability, moisture adsorption and water absorption, contact an...
H Zhou, J Li, E Ma
Selection of heat flux value for wood fire retardants testing using MLC
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40846
One of more crucial elements of investigating treated wood combustion properties with the use of a cone calorimeter is a proper selection of heat flux (HF). The HF level is directly reflected in time to ignition and a thermal degradation degree. The ignition of raw wood or of wood ineffectively protected against fire occurs at a low HF level, i.e. 10-20 kW/m2. By contrast, the ignition of wood whi...
B Mazela, W Perdoch, W Grześkowiak, A Batista
The development of a suitable fire retardant for Radiata pine and other species
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30744
The use of fire retardant chemicals, with the overarching aim of creating a safer environment is not a new one, however it is generally under-developed and is often afflicted with an image of environmental and health issues and misperceived high costs. There is an ever-increasing need and desire for effective fire retardancy in timbers to inhibit or suppress the combustion process. This is paramou...
B R Derham, M R Fortune
Evaluation of Decay Resistance for the Larch Wood Heat-treated with Superheated Steam
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40956
Heat-treatment of wood is a process that involves applying heat ranging 160–260°C to improve its physico-mechanical properties and resistance against wood rot fungi. The level of the changes in the wood properties by heat-treatment differs depending on the temperature and duration of heat-treatment, as well as the types of heat transfer media used for heat-treatment. The heat-treatment on wood ...
Y Park, S-M Yoon, H Kim, W-J Hwang
Proposal for further work on accelerated ageing
1988 - IRG/WP 2314
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi
Dimensional stability and decay resistance of hot-melt self-bonded particleboard by surface benzylated pine chips
1991 - IRG/WP 3652
Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc: Japanese red pine) particles were pretreated with 40% NaOH solution and benzylated with benzyl chloride, and the surface of particle was converted into meltable materials. Hot-melt self bonded particleboard having smooth and high glossiness surface was prepared by hot pressing at 150°C and 1.96 MPa without using any conventional adhesives. Dimensional sta...
M Kiguchi, K Yamamoto