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Non-enzymatic Gloeophyllum trabeum decay mechanisms: Further study
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10395
Information will be presented on the mechanisms involved in, and potential application of, non-enzymatic wood decay by brown rot decay fungi. Specifically, the hypothesized role of low molecular weight phenolate derivatives will be discussed in relation to non-enzymatic degradation of wood. The mechanism of binding of iron by cellulose, and binding and reduction of iron by fungal derivatives and m...
B Goodell, J Jellison


Wood degradation mechanisms by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10229
A mechanism for the degradation of wood by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum is outlined. The mechanism includes the function of redox-cycling, low molecular weight phenolic derivatives which sequester and reduce iron in acidic environments. The role of oxalate for the sequestration of iron (hydr)oxides and the pH dependent transfer of iron to the G. trabeum phenolic chelators, as well as ...
B Goodell, J Jellison


Inhibition of termite feeding by fungal siderophores
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1558
Siderophores are iron-chelating extracellular fungal metabolites which may be involved in initiating wood decay. A purified siderophore extract isolated from the brown-rot decay fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fr.) Murr. (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae) was found to deter feeding by Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). This fungus has prev...
J K Grace, B Goodell, W E Jones, V Chandhoke, J Jellison


Oxalate production and calcium oxalate accumulation by Gloeophyllum trabeum in buffered cultures
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10075
Most basidiomycetous fungi produce oxalic acid as a result of their metabolic activities and nutrient procurement. There is currently a renewed interest in the role that oxalic acid may play in the decomposition of wood by basidiomycete fungi. It has been observed that although most wood degrading fungi have the capacity to produce oxalic acid, not all of these organisms express this capacity equa...
J H Connolly, J Jellison


Bordered Pit Imaging
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10773
New findings about bordered pits will be presented using the latest microscopy techniques. Three-dimensional imagery at the nanolevel is used, and short 3-D movies will shown as part of the discussion on this topic to reveal new features that have not previously been reported in pits. The implications for both microorganism penetration through lignified cells as well as preservative penetration i...
D Mascheck, B Goodell, H Militz, M Lessard, J Jellison


A comparison of inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and neutron activity analysis for the determination of concentrations in wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10048
As wood decays the ionic composition changes, with increases often being seen in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and sometimes K. The concentration of eight cations in red spruce sapwood and heartwood samples was determined independently by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA) as part of an effort to standardize our analytical procedures and c...
J Jellison, J Connolly, K C Smith, W T Shortle


Statistical evaluation of 'micro-bending' samples for classification of wood attacking fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1544
Micro-specimens from both hardwood and softwood were exposed to selected species of field isolated fungi. The strength reduction and weight loss caused by these fungi were determined. A statistical procedure was then developed to classify the fungi into brown-, white-rot, or non-decay fungal categories based on these data. The procedure reveals the extent of hazard a fungus poses to wood members. ...
B Goodell, Jing Liu, A Homola, J Jellison, J Shottafer


Detection of a brown-rot fungus using serological assays
1986 - IRG/WP 1305
Polyclonal antisera produced to Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke were used in two tests to qualitatively assay for the fungus. Fungal hyphae were fixed to slides and fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques used to visualize the hyphae under the microscope. Fluorescence of non-Poria fungi, when present, could be reduced but not eliminated by cross-absorbing the sera with these fungi. The antisera was also u...
B Goodell, J Jellison


Immuno-electron microscopic localization of extracellular metabolites in spruce wood decayed by brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1990 - IRG/WP 1441
Degradation by Postia placenta in spruce and birch wood was shown to occur not only in the wood cell wall but also in the middle lamellae region. Middle lamellae was often found to be degraded along the centerline so that cells could separate along this line. Extracellular membrane structures were found surrounding the hyphae and this matrix labelled positively with antisera produced to Postia pla...
Y S Kim, B Goodell, J Jellison


Detection of wood decay fungi in wood using a PCR-based analysis
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10279
We have developed a DNA-based assay to reliably detect brown rot and white rot fungi in wood at different stages of decay. DNA, isolated by a series of CTAB and organic extractions, was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using published universal primers and basidiomycete-specific primers derived from ribosomal DNA sequences. We have surveyed 7 species of brown rot fungi, 7 species of whit...
C Jasalavich, A Ostrofsky, J Jellison


Chelator production and cellobiose dehydrogenase activity of wood inhabiting fungi
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10363
Multiple components have been postulated to be involved in the Fenton-based biological degradation of wood by brown rot fungi. Chelators have been implicated in essential iron reduction steps. Cellobiose dehydrogenase activity and quinone reducing activity have also been implicated in brown rot biodegradation. When biochelator production by three white rot fungi, three brown rot fungi and three wo...
Weihong Qi, J Jellison


Differences in pH, electrical resistance, cation composition and NIR spectra of red spruce wood during early stages of brown rot degradation
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10449
Red spruce sapwood was exposed to degradation by the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Postia placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Serpula lacrymans for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks using a modified soil block assay design. Average weight losses over time ranged from 0-8.9% during this time period. Detectable changes in pH, electrical resistance and cation compostion were observed in the wood as early as 1 ...
J Jellison, S Kelley, B Goodell, D Hui, A Ostrofsky


Fungal siderophores and their rôle in wood biodegradation
1990 - IRG/WP 1442
Iron and other metals such as manganese, play an important role in the metabolic functions of fungi that cause wood deterioration. These transition metals are also found in, or associated with, the extracellular fungal enzymes shown to be directly involved in the decay process. Recently our research group was able to show that siderophores (low molecular weight biological chelators) are produced b...
J Jellison, B Goodell, F Fekete, V Chandhoke


Regulation of hyphal sheath formation iron-chelator production by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Postia placenta
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10074
Hyphal sheath formation and iron-chelator production by liquid cultures of the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Postia placenta were monitored over time. The effects of incubation at various temperatures, pH's and concentrations of iron, manganese and nitrogen were determined. Hyphal sheath production was observed microscopically and quantified with JAVA video analysis. The hyphal...
Y Chen, J Jellison


The effect of a chelator mediated fenton system on activation of TMP fibres and decolorization of synthesized dyes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50223
The purpose of this work is to improve our current knowledge of the non-enzymatic mechanisms involved in the brown rot degradation of wood, but also to study the potential applications of a chelator-mediated Fenton system in activation of wood fibers and decolorization of synthesized dyes. In this work, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spin-trapping techniques were used to study the generation of hyd...
Yuhui Qian, B Goodell, J Jellison


Investigations into the biology of Meruliporia incrassata
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10508
The dry rot fungus Meruliporia incrassata (Berk. and Curt.) Murr. is a highly destructive brown rot wood decay fungus and is a significant pest of wooden structures. The fungus, know commonly as ‘Poria’, is characterized in culture by strand mycelium and skin-like surface mycelium. In structural environments it is found to produce prominent water conducting rhizomorphs, is a copious spore prod...
J Jellison, C Howell, B Goodell, S L Quarles


Immunolocalization of extracellular metabolites from Poria placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1361
Polyclonal antisera produced to Poria placenta extracellular metabolites was used in immuno-fluoresence microscopy and immuno-gold TEM studies. In the fluorescence work, labelling of Poria placenta hyphae in wet fixed wood material was observed but not in infected wood which was oven dried prior to sectioning and immunolabelling. TEM studies provided better resolution, with gold labelling detected...
B Goodell, G F Daniel, J Jellison, T Nilsson


Cation analysis of wood degraded by white and brown rot fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1552
Changes in the concentrations and composition of cations within wood colonized by the brown-rot fungi Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum and the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Phanaerochaete chrysosporium were analyzed using plasma emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In degraded poplar wood significant decreases in pH and electrical resistance readings were observed as...
J Jellison, K C Smith, W T Shortle


The role of oxygen and oxygen radicals in one-electron oxidation reactions mediated by low-molecular weight chelators isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum.markup
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10086
The KTBA assay for determination of one-electron oxidation activity was used to assay reactions of low-molecular weight chelators isolated from the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. The assay, performed either under air or nitrogen showed that molecular oxygen was an important factor in chelator-mediated oxidation reactions. A reduction in oxidative activity was observed when superoxide dismu...
Jun Lu, B Goodell, Jiang Liu, A Enoki, J Jellison, H Tanaka, F Fekete


The action of siderophores isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum on the structure and crystallinity of cellulose compounds
1991 - IRG/WP 1479
Low molecular weight, high affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) were isolated from the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. The compounds were shown to be inducible by iron starvation and could be purified by ultra-filtration, ethyl acetate extraction, column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated compounds were shown by analytical and immunological techniques to be produced...
J Jellison, V Chandhoke, B Goodell, F Fekete, N Hayashi, M Ishihara, K Yamamoto


Production of monoclonal antibodies to fungal metabolites
1986 - IRG/WP 1306
The role of fungal extracellular enzymes in wood biodegradation is incompletely understood. Our lab is beginning a project utilizing monoclonal antibodies to characterize extracellular metabolites of the brown rot fungus Poria placenta Fr. (Cooke). Monoclonal antibody technology takes advantage of the ability of antibody secreting spleen cells from immunized mice to fuse in the presence of polyeth...
J Jellison, B Goodell


Biological variability in the oxalate/oxalate decarboxylase system among five isolates of the wood-degrading fungus Meruliporia incrassate
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10573
The “dry-rot” wood decay fungus Meruliporia incrassata has recently attracted attention, primarily in the western coastal United States, as a particularly destructive pest of building material. Recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has accepted a voluntary withdrawal of the historically effective chromated-copper arsenate (CCA) as a preservative for wood used in residential se...
C Howell, J Jellison


Exposure of CCA and ACZA treated parallel strand lumber to marine borer attack in northeastern and southeastern waters of the United States of America
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30400
Southern pine and Douglas fir Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) panels were treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) or ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), respectively and exposed in a marine environment in Massachusetts (northeastern USA coast) for 7 years. Similarly treated panels were also exposed to a site on the Atlantic coast Florida (southeastern USA) for the same period. In the northe...
B Goodell, P Merrick, J Jellison, Y Qian


The use of X-ray diffraction for analyzing biomodification of crystalline cellulose by wood decay fungi
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10622
X-ray diffraction (XRD) is based on the creation of an interference pattern by x-rays when they encounter a regularly spaced matrix. In wood, this process has been used to determine, among other things, the average width of the cellulose microcrystals, the percent of crystalline cellulose within the wood, and can be used to examine the changes in these parameters during degradation. Enhanced under...
C Howell, A C Steenkjær Hastrup, J Jellison


Gypsum effects on ‘dry rot’ wood degradation as a function of environment
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10624
‘Dry rot’ fungi are a unique group of brown rot fungi that can degrade wood away from ground contact where other fungi fail to colonize. Successfully occupying this niche is partially due to efficient water and nutrient transport, but mobilizing elements, notably calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe), from adjacent building materials has also been implicated in their success. Here we report a series of t...
J Schilling, J Jellison


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