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Laboratory decay test of Burmese in and kanyin treated with three wood preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 3210
Laboratory decay tests were performed on samples of In (Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.) and Kanyin (Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. and Dipterocarpus turbinatus Gaertn f.) pressure treated with three wood preservatives - copper arsenic additive (CAA - a variation of ammoniacal copper arsenate), Arquad C-33 (a waterborne quaternary ammonium formulation), and tributyltin acetate (TBTA) dissolved in eth...
J N R Ruddick, R S Smith, A Byrne


Respiration methods used to follow the decay of wood and the toximetric evaluation of wood preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 249
When wood is attacked and decayed by fungi, wood substance and oxygen (02) are consumed, while carbon dioxide (CO2), water and heat are liberated. Early in the 1960's workers from England, Canada and Sweden began studying CO2 evolution, with respect to decay and its control using chemical preservatives, while in Germany and the USA O2 utilization was being similarly examined. Oxygen consu...
R S Smith


The biological natural durability of timber in ground contact
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20051
The BRE ground contact field trials for the determination of the biological natural durability of different timber species have recently been reviewed. The data obtained from these trials have been used to appraise the different ways in which natural durability may be expressed. It is concluded that the use of the mean as a method of assigning the timber to one of five durability classes may be ac...
G A Smith, R J Orsler


Appendix to Document No: IRG/WP/1243
1984 - IRG/WP 1244
A Bruce, B King, C Bruce, G M Smith


Working Group II: Sub-group: Methods of testing anti-stain chemicals for protecting sawn lumber during storage, transit
1978 - IRG/WP 2121
R Smith


A laboratory soil-block decay evaluation of plywoods edge-treated with preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 2174
Preservative-treated plywood used under conditions or severe decay hazard frequently has its original, or cut edges, protected by the application of a field-cut preservative. This study uses a laboratory test method to compare the efficacy of four commercial preservative treatments against two commonly occurring brown-rot fungi. The results are not meant to indicate the service life of such treate...
R S Smith, A Byrne


Assessment of contamination of soil and water at a CCA treatment plant: A demonstration project
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50067
Soil, sludge, dust and water samples were collected at a copper/chromium/arsenic wood preservation plant. Contamination of soil, sludge, dust and surface water with copper, chromium and arsenic was detected. Levels of contamination were sufficiently high to require remediation. Contamination originated from preservative solution dripping from recently treated wood. Migration of contaminants was vi...
P N Durrant, D C R Sinclair, G M Smith


Three dimensional computer representations of growth of microbial populations in wood
1984 - IRG/WP 1243
Creosoted distribution poles inoculated with either Lentinus lepideus, biological control organisms including Triochoderma or combinations of both were extensively sampled to monitor the spread of organisms. A computer program which enabled the results to be portrayed in a three dimensional graphic form was developed and is illustrated. Results showed that computer mapping of this type usefully en...
A Bruce, B King, C Bruce, G M Smith


Effects of boron treatments on partially decayed oak and pitch pine heartwood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30106
This paper reports results of borate based preservative treatment and leaching experiments on partially decayed oak and pitch pine heartwood. Previous experiments have shown little damage is caused to sound timber of these types when treated with Polybor and Boracol 20 preservatives. This experiment was carried out to assess the suitability of selected borate based preservatives for use in histori...
S McCutcheon, G M Smith, J W Palfreyman, P Durrant


Retention and distribution of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) in pressurised sap-displaced UK grown spruce and pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3366
Increment cores were taken from UK grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima Ait), Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr), and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) distribution poles treated by pressurised sap-displacement using a 1.8% copper, chrome, arsenic (CCA) solution. Each increment core was sectioned radially and the copper, chrome, and arsenic ...
P D Evans, G M Smith, B King


Controlled fixation technology
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-12
Controlled fixation techniques have been developed and adopted in a number of countries where chromium containing preservatives are predominantly used. The purpose of this technology is to reduce both on-site pollution and holding requirements for freshly treated timber. The fixation mechanism is complex and the time taken to complete the reaction is dependent upon a number of factors. A number of...
M Connell, W J Baldwin, T Smith


The use of a physical field model to study the effects of remedially treated timber on the growth of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and rye (Secale cereale), and the accumulation of toxic preservative constituents in Lolium perenne
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-02
Low cost laboratory model systems can be used to give relatively rapid indications of the environmental effects of preservative treated timber in soil contact. This paper details the effects of remedially treated timber on the growth of crops of Lolium perenne and Secale cereale seeded on soilbeds of different texture in close proximity to remedially treated creosoted pole sections. Lolium perenne...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines


Assessment of dehydrogenase activity, fluoride content and total chromium content of soil profiles exposed to preservative treated wood within a model system
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10015
The development and prospective use of a closed model system to facilitate study of a number of indicators of environmental impact of wood preservatives laboratory conditions has been described (IRG/WP/2395-92). Chemical analysis of leachate samples collected from drained soil profiles containing creosoted pole sections remedially treated with a chromated fluoride preservative indicated small incr...
G M Smith, D C R Sinclair, A Bruce, H J Staines


Corrosion of zinc-coated nails used with preservative-treated western red cedar shakes in service
1982 - IRG/WP 3197
The corrosion of metal fasteners used with certain wood species and with preservative-treated woods can be a serious problem. The chemical reactivity of western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) extractives to iron and copper is well documented and wood preservative treatments containing copper, chromium, and/or ammonium hydroxide can be expected to similarly attack some metals. This problem is compo...
R S Smith, E L Johnson, A J Cserjesi


Initial results and observations of a model system to assess the efficacy and environmetal impact of preservative treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-02
The development of a closed model system for the laboratory assessment of the efficacy and environmental impact of a chromated fluoride remedial treatment for creosoted distribution poles has been described (IRG/WP/2395-92). The model consists of a precipitation apparatus above a treated pole section positioned in a soil profile from which leachate was collected via a series of simulated field dra...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines


A comparison of inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and neutron activity analysis for the determination of concentrations in wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10048
As wood decays the ionic composition changes, with increases often being seen in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and sometimes K. The concentration of eight cations in red spruce sapwood and heartwood samples was determined independently by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA) as part of an effort to standardize our analytical procedures and c...
J Jellison, J Connolly, K C Smith, W T Shortle


Hygroscopicity of decayed wood - Implications for weight loss determinations
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20085
Hygroscopicity changes were observed in red maple blocks subjected to brown rot, white rot and soft rot. Brown rot reduced hygroscopicity, soft rot increased hygroscopicity, and white rot showed only a very slight increase in hygroscopicity. The effect of these changes on weight loss tests is a slight overestimation of weight loss for brown rot and a slight underestimation for soft rot and white r...
S E Anagnost, W B Smith


The use of propionic acid to prevent Pinus patula biodeterioration during outside chip storage in Zululand
1989 - IRG/WP 3531
Pinus patula SCHIEDE ET DEPPE IN SCHLD. ET CHAM. is susceptible to biodeterioration during outside chip storage (OCS), reducing pulp quality and tear and burst indices of resulting paper. Accelerated laboratory trials showed that chips treated with 2% (w/v) propionic acid and stored for 17 weeks, produced pulp of quality indistinguishable from fresh untreated chips. Pulp tests during field trials ...
S Ismail, E J Smith, A A W Baecker


The suitability of high pressure sap-displacement for the retention of UK grown spruce and pine
1990 - IRG/WP 3595
The concentration and radial distribution of copper, chrome, arsenic (CCA), and the moisture content and depth of radial checking in UK grown, field exposed spruce and pine poles treated by high pressure sap-displacement are examined. The concentration of CCA elements in samples obtained from increment cores is similar in Norway spruce, Scots pine and Corsican pine but is significantly lower in Si...
P D Evans, S D Hainey, A Bruce, G M Smith, B King


Soluble nutrient influences on toxicity and permanence of CCA preservatives in wood
1980 - IRG/WP 3144
The influence of soluble carbohydrate and nitrogenous components concentrated at evaporative surfaces of wood on the toxicity and permanence of CCA preservatives has been examined using soil-burial techniques. Nutrient concentrations in lime (Tilia vulgaris Hayne) have been shown to be associated with reduction of toxic limits of preservatives to an extent in which a 100% increase in preservative ...
B King, G M Smith, A Bruce


Aspects of leaching
1976 - IRG/WP 267
With respect to Document No: IRG/WP/246, and the recommendation that an economic leaching test can be based on a non-changing volume of water (500 ml/block), I would like to relate our experiences with this suggestion. Following 14 days of continuous immersion in de-ionized water it was found that blocks treated with moderate and above concentrations of a preservative gave no problems, but those b...
R S Smith


The effect of composition on the effectiveness and fixation of CCA and copper/chrome preservatives. Part 1: Effectiveness. Part 2: Selective absorption and fixation
1973 - IRG/WP 324
A preliminary study of a wide range of copper-chrome-arsenic formulations indicates that the most effective are in the region, CuSO4 · 5H2O - 35 to 45 per cent; K2Cr2O7 - 40 per cent and above; As2O5 · 2H2O - 25 to 15 per cent or less. Effectiveness appears to depend more on the copper content than the copper - arsenic. Observations on selective absorption and leaching suggest that the chromium ...
D N R Smith, A I Williams


Development of a model system to assess the efficacy and environmental impact of a chromated fluoride remedial treatment for creosoted distribution poles
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2395
A closed model system was designed to facilitate a controlled study of the leachability and environmental fate of a remedial preservative under laboratory conditions. The elements of the model include a precipitation apparatus above a treated pole section which is positioned in a representative soil profile supporting a sward of perennial ryegrass. The model will allow detailed examination of the ...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, B King


Diffusion of chromium and fluoride in Rentex treated creosoted pole sections
1991 - IRG/WP 3659
A chromated fluoride preservative was applied by injection to the groundline regions of creosoted distribution pole sections and these were erected at a filed site in Scotland. Wood samples were recovered for chemical analysis at one week, two, five and twelve months after treatment. Small sample mass and destructive nature of the analysis necessitated modification of an alkali fusion technique to...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, B King, H J Staines


A methodology for the life-cycle assessment of treated timber products
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-01
Using case studies of CCA-treated motorway fenceposts and creosote-treated electricity transmission poles, the paper suggests an approach to evaluation of the overall environmental impact of treated timber products, utilising the emerging systems analysis method of life-cycle assessment (LCA). The development and application of LCA methodologies to date is reviewed and the key features identified....
S R Smith, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson


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