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A study on biological properties of small black sawer beetle (Monochamus sotor L.)
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1525
The biological properties of the small black sawer beetle (SBSB), which is mainly destructive insect species for fire-damaged timbers in Da Xing An Ling region in China have been researched. Their main properties are: 1. The SBSB occures one generation one year in this region and their larvae overwinter in xylem. 2. The pupation starts in in late May and peak occures in early June. 3. The emergenc...
Lu Wenda, Shao Jing Wen, Li Jian, Men Fan rong


Preventing fungal attack of freshly sawn lumber using cinnamon extracts
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30432
The potential for using cinnamon oil as an anti-mold and stain compound was investigated on ponderosa pine sapwood. Cinnamon oil was highly effective when used in ethanol, but its activity declined when it was mixed with only water. Attempts to enhance water solubility with surfactants improved solution stability, but had no apparent effect on biological activity. Further studies with other co-so...
Shujun Li, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Laboratory and Pilot Evaluation of Chlorothalonil Formulations for Mold and Stain Control on some Wood Species
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30317
Laboratory and pilot test of the efficacy of several fungicides such as chlorothalonil and carbendazim for control of mold and sap- stain on bamboo and slash pine and rubberwood were conducted in this paper. The result indicates that: -- Clorothalonil/carbendazim are more effective for controlling mold and stain than that of carbendazim alone in laboratory test. --Higher concentration at 0.1-0.2...
Mingliang Jiang, Zhaobang Li


Laboratory Evaluation and Field Trial of Chlorothalonil and Copper-based Preservatives and Leaching Performance of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30279
Soil block test and field trial of some Chinese plantation wood species pine and poplar treated with chlorothalonil formulations and copper-based preservatives such as ACQ-B and copper citrate (CC) were conducted. The results of soil block test indicated that chlorothalonil formulations and ACQ-B as well as CC are very effective for controlling the 2 fungi species Corious versicolor and Poria plac...
Mingliang Jiang, Ping Wang, Chungen Piao, Zhaobang Li, Quan Lu, Lei Liu


Do CCA treated support stakes cause increased arsenic level in crops?
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50204
Trial of using CCA-C treated eucalypts stakes for supporting banana plants in Guangdong Province, China, began in 1998 and later it was expanded as a demonstration program of a joint International Tropical Timber Organization–Chinese Government timber preservation project in 2000. The greatest concern was whether the crop would be contaminated by the preservatives, arsenic in particular. Data fr...
Li Zhaobang, Su Haitao, Liang Linqing


A study on insect pests and preservation of fire-damaged timbers in Da Xing An Ling forest region
1991 - IRG/WP 1499
Investigated insect pest of timbers of Da Xing An Ling forest region by means of sampling inspection. Meanwhile we had researched insects pest situation, regularity occurred and biological nature for fire damaged timbers attacked in the log yard. The results showed that the mainly insect species are small black-marmorated longicorn (Monochamus sutor L). We had eagaged in various small tests of tim...
Lu Wenda, Li Jian, Shao Jing Wen, Liu Yixing, Cui Yongzhi


Effect of wood decay on the proportional limit of thin wood samples stressed in the bending mode
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20334
When using bending stiffness as a measure of wood decay it is advantageous to repeatedly test individual samples after they are exposed to decay fungi for varying periods of time. In order to obtain reliable results, variation in modulus of elasticity (MOE) values of the test samples that are repeatable bent to a given deflection must be considered. In this study it was shown that sound 3mm thick ...
G Li, D Nicholas, T Schultz


End Coating Masson Pine Grown in South China to Prevent the Development of Blue Stain
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30428
One end (randomly selected) of logs of mason pine (Pinus massoniana) were coated with a wax-type end coating called ANCHORSEAL® immediately after tree cutting. The logs were then stored in summer weather in Guangxi, China. During the storage, at week 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12, five logs of mason pine were sawn into lumber or veneer for the visual observation and measurement of blue stain at the coa...
Zhao Youke, Qin Li, Huang Rongfeng, Lu Jianxiong


Measurement of wood decay by dynamic MOE in an accelerated soil contact test
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20390
Current laboratory and field testing of preservatives involves various techniques to determine the extent of fungal attack, including visual inspection, mass loss, and static bending and compression strength measurements. The objective of this study was to compare decay measurement by conventional compression strength versus dynamic MOE, employing small wood stakes in an accelerated laboratory so...
Gan Li, D D Nicholas, T P Schultz


Effect of juglone from Juglans mandshurica bark activity of wood decay fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30502
Juglone was extracted from Juglans mandshurica bark via vacuum-assisted steam stripping. The extract was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extraction process was easy to perform and produced excellent yields (0.22 g juglone/100 g of bark) of a high purity extract (96.42% juglone...
Dongmei Yang, Shuangyue Li, Shujun Li, Wenqiang Su, Yan Jin, Molong Sun


Leaching properties of copper and triazole
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30509
The leaching rate of copper and triazole (such as tebuconazole and propiconazole) in different preservative formulations was determined according to AWPA E11-06. Of all copper triazole and ACQ formulations, copper fixation rate of ammonia based was higher than that of ethanolamine based and the mixture of them. Copper fixation rate at relatively higher retention was slight higher than that at lowe...
Zhiqiang Li, Xiaowen Li, Ying Zhang, Mingliang Jiang


Mold-resistance Effect of Bamboo Wood Treated with CCC-organic Complexes
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30514
Mold resistant effect of CCA, ACQ, CuAz, CCC and the compound of CCC and propiconazole were researched on bamboo wood of Phyllostachys pubescens were reported in this paper. Results showed that all of the test fungicides could protect bamboo wood better from Penicillam citrinum than from Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger. The complex of CCC and propiconazole had the best resisting effect on...
Sun Fangli, Yang Le, Chen Anliang, Bao Binfu, Li Qiao


Synthesis of a rosin amide and its resistance to wood decay fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30517
Rosin was reacted with diethyltriamine (DETA) after being modified by acryl acid with the weight ratio of 4.5:1 and a rosin amide (RA) derivative was produced at the conditions as follows: modified rosin and DETA mole ratio of 1:3.5, dimethylbenzene as water carrying agent, reaction temperature of 160-180°C, and reaction time of 8h. The chemical structure of the product as RA was identified by F...
Shuangyue Li, Shujun Li, Jing Wang


Progress in Fire-Retardant Research on Wood and Wood-Based Composites: a China Perspective
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40476
The fire retardant research on wood and wood-based composites, which was carried out in China in the past two decades, was reviewed with 55 references. While many kinds of fire retardants for wood and wood-based composites have been studied, the mainstream is still the compound or the mixture containing phosphorus, nitrogen and boron elements, which can be used in the form of water solution in th...
Wang Qingwen, Wang Fengqiang, Hu Yunchu, Li Jian


Synthesis of novelty borate compounds for wood preservatives: Laboratory test of leachability and decay resistance
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30520
A novel series of ammonium tetraphenylborate (ATB) and borate chemical compounds (BBC) were synthesized as wood preservatives. The leaching rates and decay resistance of boron formulations containing ATB and BBC were conducted. The laboratory leaching results showed that boron leaching rate of treated wood by ATB formulations was from 2.1% - 6.7%, while that of BBC formulations from 23.3% -59.0%. ...
Zhiqiang Li, Mingliang Jiang, Xingxia Ma


Effects of Cunninghamia Lanceolata Heartwood Extracts on the Growth of Wood Decay Fungi
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30527
China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood is well known for its good durability. This species is native to China and has been extensive planted there. Mainly, extractives are responsible for the wood resistance to decay fungi. In this paper, the extractives of China-fir heartwood were studied for their effects on various wood decay fungi. Sequential extraction of heartwood in hexane, ethyl acet...
Shujun Li, Jing Wang, Jian Li


Activities of moulds on wood as a function of relative humidity during desorption and absorption processes
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10794
Three different types of indoor moulds: Penicillium brevicompactum, primary colonizer; Alternaria tenuissima, secondary colonizer and Trichoderma harzianum, tertiary colonizer, grown on wood were measured for their activities under different relative humidity levels. The activities were measured by isothermal calorimetry. The activities of the moulds changed with the change of the relative humidit...
Yujing Li, L Wadsö


Preparation of Copper Rosinate Emulsion and Its Resistance against Wood Decay Fungi
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30619
A leaching-resistant water-borne copper preservative was prepared by means of the following three steps: (1) Gum rosin was saponified with potassium hydroxide. (2) The soap reacted with copper sulfate to form copper rosinate. (3) The copper rosinate was emulsified with a mixture of Tween 20 and Span 80. Poplar (Populus ussuriensis) wood was impregnated with 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, or 2.0% of the copper ...
Mingxin Zhang, Shujun Li, Qian Wang, Bo Li, Qiong Wu


Statistical analysis of 40 years of preservative in-ground stake testing in Australia
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20552
Wood is widely recognized as a valuable material, yet the natural durability of some wood species limits its use for certain outdoor purposes. For decades, a wide range of methods and chemicals have been developed to increase the resistance of wood against degrading microorganisms and termites. Preservative treatment has a long and widespread tradition in wood protection. Proper testing of the eff...
J Van den Bulcke, L J Cookson, I De Windt, W Li, J Van Acker


Critical parameters on moisture dynamics in relation to time of wetness as factor in service life prediction
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20555
The concept of natural durability or enhanced durability based on the presence of active ingredients having an impact on both fungi and insects is not the only parameter steering the material resistance. Complementary resistance to getting wet (wetting ability) and consequently the ease of drying afterwards will lead to a parameter related to the time a piece of wood will remain under such wet con...
J Van Acker, I De Windt, W Li, J Van den Bulcke


Effects of thermal modification on properties of Douglas-fir heartwood
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40663
The flexural properties and mass losses of thermal modified Douglas-fir pretreated with boron or glycerol were examined. Pretreatments were associated with slight, but not significant, reductions in modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE)of Douglas-fir at different thermal treatment levels. Boron pretreatment had the greatest effect on MOR. MOR of non-pretreated and ...
Li Yan, J J Morrell


The potential of 2D NIR imaging for wood protection research
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20566
Investigating wood and wood-based materials using infrared spectroscopy has since long been explored. Recently, image-based systems have been developed that are used in food and pharmaceutical industries for rapid screening. Such hyperspectral cameras are able to collect spatial and spectral information simultaneously, resulting in a volume with a spectral profile for each pixel of the image. We p...
J Van den Bulcke, N Defoirdt, W Li, J Van Acker


Non-destructive monitoring of structure and moisture dynamics of plywood exposed outdoors to improve service life prediction and fit-for-purpose design
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20570
Plywood is an important construction material yet prone to water uptake, which can decrease strength and increase decay risk. To predict service life and improve fit-for-purpose design, it is crucial to understand the moisture behavior and structural changes of plywood. In this research, several plywood specimens were exposed outdoors for approximately one year. During this period, the moisture di...
W Li, J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, M Dierick, J Van Acker


Durability of a willow/plastic composite mat
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20592
Developing uses for wood wastes could enhance utilization of low value renewable materials while creating opportunities for rural development. Small diameter willow stems have little use in China, but they could be combined with high density polyethylene to create wood plastic composite mats for decorative applications. These mats could be used in exterior, above ground exposures, but would still ...
Li Yan, Haiyan Duan, Beizhan Quan, J Cappellazzi, J J Morrell


Dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic properties of heat treated glycerol-impregnation poplar wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40732
The viscoelastic properties of glycerol-impregnated poplar wood after heat treatments at various temperatures were examined by dynamic-mechanical analysis. The spectra of storage modulus (E’) and loss tangent (tgδ) in the frequency at 10 Hz were measured at the temperature range from -100 to 300℃. Compared to no peak in E’ spectra and two relaxation processes in tanδ spectra of...
Li Yan


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