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Standardisation of sapstain tests - A challenge
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2403
In the last decade many new anti-sapstain products have been tested world-wide under laboratory and field conditions. Several extensive test programmes have been executed with different non-standardized test methods and procedures, with the result that the biological findings cannot be compared with each other. In this paper, gathered recommendations will be given in order to standardize test meth...
G Rustenburg, C J Klaver


Preventing the introduction of Xylosandrus crassiusculus by dipping green lumber in insecticides prior to shipment
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40370
Xylosandrus crassiusculus, an ambrosia beetle native to Asia and Africa, was introduced into the southeastern United States in 1974. Since that time, this species has substantially expanded its range, causing damage to native ecosystems and healthy nursery stock. This species was found in The Dalles, Oregon in 2004, indicating that it is not limited to sub-tropical environments. This introducti...
C F Schauwecker, R F Mizell III, J J Morrell


Trend in entomology of wood in use and in storage in Nigeria
1978 - IRG/WP 180
The current and potential impact of biotic agents of wood deterioration in Nigeria is reviewed, with emphasis on the insects and marine borers, their recognition and mode of damage. Some essential areas have no doubt been neglected and these are highlighted, while future lines of approach are outlined....
M O Akanbi


Über den Nagekäfer Oligomerus ptilinoides (Wollaston), Col., Anobiidae: Verbreitung und Einschleppung, Bestimmung, Lebens- beziehungen und Befallsmerkmale mit Vergleichen zu Nicobium
1980 - IRG/WP 1102
Oligomerus ptilinoides occurs in the Mediterranian and Black-sea area, in North-Africa and Asia minor as an important pest causing severe damage to dry wood. By travelling, by the immigration of people from south to north, and by accidental introductions the species tends to establish itself north of the Alps. Severe damage has recently been observed in two museums. An account is given of aspects ...
S Cymorek


Screening-method for the examination of the resistance against contact-insecticides of Lyctus brunneus Steph. beetles
1981 - IRG/WP 2148
A serie of filter-paper rondelles is treated with different concentrations of an organic insecticide dissolved in aceton. Beetles of Lyctus brunneus are put onto the dry surfaces. During the impact of the poison the knock-down is observed and after a following poisonfree holding, the knock-down and mortality are registred....
E Graf, B Lanz


Wood-attacking organisms in Brazil
1982 - IRG/WP 1168
Lists of the main wood-attacking beetles, termites, fungi and marine borers in Brazil are presented with the respective wood species from which they were collected....
M S Cavalcante


Feasibility of AE (Acoustic Emission) monitoring for the detection of the activities of wood-destroying insects
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2416
The feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) as a nondestructive testing method for the detection of the wood destroying insects was investigated. AEs were detected from the wood specimens under feeding attack of sugi bark borers or powder-post beetles. However, the feasible monitoring area of an AE sensor is influenced by the attenuation of AE amplitude, so that this could be a problem in the practi...
Y Fujii, Y Imamura, E Shibata, M Noguchi


Susceptibility testing protocol for powderpost beetles in Australia
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20242
Several species of lyctine (powderpost) beetle are able to attack a range of hardwood timbers in Australia. Powderpost beetles infest only the starch-containing sapwood of certain hardwoods and do not infest softwoods. Attack by powderpost beetles on susceptible timber in Australia is almost inevitable and may continue until the food resource is completely utilised. Prevention of powderpost beetl...
B C Peters, J W Creffield, R H Eldridge


Bibliography on the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (De Geer) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae)
1980 - IRG/WP 1104
M-M Serment, H Becker


Non Toxic Remedial Treatment of Bamboo Structures/Furniture
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40516
Molds and beetles often attack bamboo furniture and structures when used in untreated or inadequate preservative treatment. Remediation or eradication of infestation often involves expensive chemicals (fumigants) and specialized methods, which are not available in villages. Novel inexpensive methods using easily available chemicals were developed for controlling such infestations. Whereas applicat...
S Kumar


Timber infesting species of Col. Lyctidae and Bostrichidae imported into Germany since ca. 1985
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10385
This contribution to the knowledge of passively and unintendedly dispersed species of Col. Bostrichoidea has been derived from the author's private investigation in cooperation with German quarantaine institutions from 1996 to 1999. It is a brief summing-up of the importations of timber infesting "Powder-post Beetles" (Col. Lyctidae) and "Borer Beetles" (Bostrichoidae) into a European ind...
K U Geis


Susceptibility of Sarawak timber to attack by powder post beetles
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10413
Degradation of timber by powder post beetles results in some economic loss to the timber merchants and end-users alike. The infestation is normally confined to the sapwood of some hardwoods due to the presence of starch that serves as food for the powder post beetles. This study was conducted to assess the susceptibility of commercial timber species of Sarawak, Malaysia to attack by powder post be...
K Jenang, Wang Choon Ling


Proposing innovative technologies in the control of dry-wood insects
1985 - IRG/WP 1262
This paper discusses the social-economic problems involved in the biological evaluation of dry-wood insects with particular reference to Nigeria. It also discusses prospects of applying non-conventional methods of control against such insects, integrating these with the conventional preservatives as a control strategy. This discussion follows attempts made to identify the major dry-wood insects in...
M O Akanbi


Comparison between two laboratory test methods for determining the effectiveness on wood preservatives against blue stain in fresh wood
1987 - IRG/WP 2289
Most of the work done on determination of the effectiveness of new formulae for treating fresh wood against blue stain have been focussed on their use in the manufacture of saw timber. This work explains two laboratory methods, one which simulates the working and climatological conditions of factories making packages for fruit and vegetables in the Spanish Levante, showing that contamination of wo...
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya


Preliminary testing of an improvised wood preservative mixture applied against dry wood beetles
1986 - IRG/WP 1308
An improvised wood preservative mixture was preliminarily tested in situ against some dry wood beetles which had infested structural timbers in a semi-finished building. The results obtained should encourage further research towards mobilizing/improvising locally available resources in the face of scarce standard wood preservatives, against the background of a dilemma in wood utilization in the de...
M O Akanbi, E M Bayode, A A Alabi, J Gbadebo


The relationship between blue-stain and bark beetles
1971 - IRG/WP 19
The attack of bark beetles on standing or in newly-felled stems provides special growth conditions to wood-inhabiting fungi. In the wood attacked by bark beetles, a specific and rich fungus flora is found, and from these fungi the economically important group of blueing fungi has been more thoroughly investigated. These fungi live on nutritive substances present in the cells, especially in the med...
A Käärik


Gaseous treatment of timber with allyl isothiocyanate. Fungicidal and insecticidal effects
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30108
Gaseous treatment with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was tested for its effects on the growth of microorganisms on the wood substrate and the mortality of subterranean termites and powder-post beetles. Toxic limits of AIT were determined as concentrations in the air when an AIT-treated filter paper was placed in a sealed container with fungus-inoculated wood specimens. Those were <3.8 ppm for Aure...
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura


Field study: Wood degradation pattern in buildings and utility poles in tropical climates of Nigeria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1521
The paper is the result of five years field study of wood degradation patterns in three ecological forest zones (Guinea Savannah, Tropical rain forest and mangrove forest zones, respectively). It involved 800 residential buildings and 700 electric overhead transmission poles. The methodology used was a modified Eslyn (6) test. A high rate of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes attack especially on the ...
E O Onuorah


Minthea rugicollis (Walk.) (Coleoptera: Lyctidae): A pest of rubberwood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1570
Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) has grown in prominence as a source of timber in recent years. One of the drawbacks in the utilization of this species is its susceptibility to attack by powder-post beetles belonging to the family Lyctidae. In Malaysia, Minthea rugicollis (Walk) is the, most commonly found species attacking seasoned rubberwood. In this paper, information available thus far on Minth...
F Abood, R W Berry, R J Murphy


Evaluation of fungi isolated from the galleries of the striped ambrosia beetle Xyloterus lineatus (Ol.) (Col., Scolytidae)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10092
Fungi from the galleries of the striped ambrosia beetle Xyloterus lineatus (Trypodendron lineatum) (Ol.) found in spruce logs were studied. The following fungi were isolated and identified: Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, the yeast Pichia anomale Hansen (Kurzman), the blue-stain fungus Ceratocystis piceae (graphium) (Münch) Bakshi and a fungus closely similar to Ceratocystis araucariae (anamorph). T...
G Babuder,F Pohleven


Beetle-Fungus Associations in Woody Substrates in the Context of International Trade
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10610
Interest in the role of insects in transmitting various fungi and in the potential for outbreaks of insects vectoring plant disease organisms has resulted in a large volume of literature on insect-fungi relationships. Mites are mentioned as an important third partner in these associations. This paper summarizes information and provides an update on major aspects of these intricate associations in ...
A Uzunovic


Preventing Xylosandrus crassiusculus Beetle Attack in Large Green Timbers Using Pyrethroid Dip Treatments
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10642
Although awareness about the risk of invasive species has increased over the past decade, a large number of highly destructive exotic pests are still being introduced around the world. One of the more important pest introductions in the Southeastern United States has been the Asian ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. This species is particularly important because of its ability to kill...
C Schauwecker, A F Preston, J J Morrell


DNA-based tools for rapidly detecting, quantifying and monitoring ophiostomatoid fungi on beetles, in trees and wood products
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20450
Approximately half of the trees harvested for commercial purposes are lost because of native or introduced insects or insect-vectored microorganisms. Ophiostomatoid fungi, which are well adapted to dissemination by insects, include ~140 species of saprobes and pathogens. They are present worldwide, have high economical impact and many are subject to quarantine regulation. Thus, it is necessary to ...
L Khadempour, Young Woon Lim, S Massoumi Alamouti, C Breuil


Response of Terminalia mantaly H. Perrier wood to beetles tunneling in Southern Nigeria
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10918
Terminalia mantaly (TM), is extremely susceptible to beetles attack, as evidenced by the many scars and/or tunnels on nearly all the trees in the Southern Nigeria. However, information on the responses of wood to insects tunnelling is poorly known for tropical species. To examine the response of TM stem wood to beetles tunnelling in the University of Port Harcourt, we scheduled field observational...
G A Adedeji, U Zakka, A A Aiyeloja, A I Ochuba


Visualization of Feeding Process of Larvae of the Wood-boring Beetles Using X-ray Computer Tomography
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10953
X-ray computer tomography (CT) was applied to observe the movement of the larvae of the wood-boring beetles Lyctus brunneus, Lyctus africanus, and Heterobostrychus aequalis inside the infested wood specimens. The larvae bred with artificial diet were inserted into the hole of wood specimens of rubber wood Hevea spp. or Japanese oak Quercus crispula. The wood specimens with larvae were scanned usin...
Y Yanase, H Watanabe, I Fujimoto, T Yoshimura, Y Fujii


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