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Your search resulted in 62 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Environmentally benign wood preservatives based on organic biocide antioxidant combinations: A brief review of laboratory and field exposure results and discussion of a proposed mechanism
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30335
The combination of various organic biocides with commercial antioxidants generally increased the biocides’ efficacy 2-3 fold against wood-destroying fungi in short-term laboratory decay tests, and some positive results have been obtained after 2-4 years of outdoor exposure. The two antioxidants principally examined, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene, are low cost and, since both are f...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, W Henry, C Pittman, D Wipf, B Goodell


Performance of biocide-free preservative-protective systems modified with organosilicon compounds
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30628
The objective of the research was to determine the influence of organosilicon compounds in preservative-protective systems on the selected properties of pine wood aimed for outdoor use. The investigations were made for biocide-free systems based on alkyd resin and natural oils modified with alkylalkoxy-, amino- and glycidoxysilanes. The special attention was paid on the influence of hydrophobic pr...
B Mazela, P Hochmańska, T Krystofiak


Field performance of wax treated wood
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30649
The durability and outdoor performance of wax treated Scots pine sapwood was investigated in above ground field tests. Therefore wood impregnated with three different waxes was exposed in horizontal lap-joint test which is running since eight years. Durability, wetting resistance and the susceptibility to checking has been investigated. In summary, all wax treated wood performed better compared to...
C Brischke, E Melcher


Decay resistance of wood treated with bio-friendly preservative systems
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30698
Due to more restrictive toxicological requirements and increased ecological awareness of consumers, wood preservatives containing biocides are no longer desired on the market. Therefore, research on new environmentally friendly formulations is of great importance. One of the possible solutions is to develop new preservatives based on natural substances, which are harmless to humans, animals and th...
B Mazela, G Cofta, W Perdoch, L Ross Gobakken, P Kwaśniewska-Sip


Bio-friendly wood protection systems - resistance to mould and blue-stain fungi
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30713
With stricter restrictions on the use of biocides and increasing environmental awareness there is a pronounced need for effective bio-friendly protection systems in the wood preservative and wood coating industry. One of the possible pathways is to exploit and utilize natural substances with active biological effects. Silanes, caffeine, natural oils and potassium carbonate were chosen as compounds...
L Ross Gobakken, W Perdoch, B Mazela, P Kwaśniewska-Sip, G Cofta


Preventivephysical barriers against subterranean termites species for building protection: How to implement innovative materials to reach efficacy requirements
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40845
As the European regulation dealing with the use of biocides (BPR) for preventive protection of buildings against subterranean termites is leading to more and more pressure on physico-chemical barriers currently used (PT18), some existing developments are focusing attention on physical biocides-free barriers. The main target is then to avoid the use of active ingredients, to stay out of the BPR sco...
N Delourme-Fonseca, P Poveda, F Simon


Promoting Commercially Available Epoxy Resins for Non-biocidal Wood Preservation
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40877
Commercially available epoxy and polyamine resins were evaluated with the aim of developing new non-biocidal wood preservation treatments. A simple method allowing the impregnation of wood by vacuum double impregnation followed by a curing process was developed for two reference species, beech Fagus sylvatica and Scots pine Pinus sylvestris. The tested products were evaluated for their ability to ...
P Poveda, M Mubarok, S Dumarcay, M Montibus, I Le Bayon, M Kutnik, P Gerardin, F Simon


Leaching of the new boron based biocide from coated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30267
We investigated leachability of the new boron based biocide - a complex of an amine and boric acid - from vacuum impregnated spruce wood samples. It was determined by the standard ENV 1250-2 procedure that the new biocide is susceptible to leaching so from the water borne as well as from the ethanol borne boron containing preservative treated wood. Leaching may be retarded by application of surfac...
M Petric, M Pavlic, F Cadez


The identification and preservative tolerance of species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from freshly felled timber
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1553
The surface disfigurement of antisapstain treated timber by preservative-tolerant fungi remains a major problem in stored timber. Identification of a range of isolates of Trichoderma based on microscopic morphological characteristics was found to be imprecise due to the variable nature of this organism. In addition, studies to compare visual (morphological) characteristics of these isolates with t...
R J Wallace, R A Eaton, M A Carter, G R Williams


Detoxification of preservatives: Tri-n-butyltin oxide as a biocide
1982 - IRG/WP 1156
T E Dudley-Brendell, D J Dickinson


Susceptibility of angiosperm sapwood to white-rot fungal colonization and subsequent degradation: a hypothesis
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10211
It has long been recognized that angiosperm sapwood in nature is relatively easily and preferentially degraded by white-rot fungi. This susceptibility to white-rot fungi is generally believed to be mainly caused by the structure and concentration of angiosperm lignin. However, an explicit explanation as to why lignin structure makes a particular wood vulnerable to white-rot colonisation and subseq...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas


The effect of low molecular weight chelators on iron chelation and free radical generation as studied by ESR measurement
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10367
The focus of this work was to improve our current knowledge of the non-enzymatic mechanisms involved in brown-rot decay. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), is an attractive technique for the identification and study of chemical species containing unpaired electrons (such as radicals and certain transition metal species). ESR spin-trapping techniques...
Yuhui Qian, B Goodell


Biocide Treatments for Wood Composites - A Review
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40323
This paper reviews the biocidal treatment of wood composites. Included are in-process and post-process treatments. Various biocides are covered as are methods of application. Novel treatments and technologies are also presented....
J W Kirkpatrick, H M Barnes


The use of ESR spectroscopy to assess the photostabilising effects of wood preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20186
The degradation of wood surfaces exposed to UV light which leads to poor performance of clear coatings is understood to be due to delignification via a mechanism involving free radicals. Certain wood preservatives most notably CCA are able to photostabilise wood and therefore they may reduce the concentration of free radicals formed when treated wood is exposed to ultraviolet light. As a first ste...
S Schmid, R D Webster, P D Evans


A behavioral assay for measuring feeding deterrency of a slow-acting biocide, A-9248, against the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1988 - IRG/WP 1366
Concentration-dependent feeding deterrency of a slow-acting compound, A-9248 (diiodomethyl para-tolyl sulfone) was studied in a choice test against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. A-9248 was a feeding deterrent at concentrations ³8,000 ppm. Initially, Coptotermes formosanus fed on wood treated with 1,000-6,000 ppm A-9248 but learned to avoid the treatment as a r...
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


International standards and the biocide debate - Potential contribution
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20196
Downstream the European 98/8/EEC directive on biocides, a working party of O.E.C.D. has been developing a tremendous work to put together the background information necessary to assess wood preservative efficacy, environmental and human exposure. Standardization may contribute to those efforts, using traditional experience and methodology. Among them, the hazard classification system may be extend...
G Ozanne


Effect of soil parameters on biocide depletion: laboratory and field studies of water- and emulsion-borne preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30234
Two field test sites with different soils were selected. Soil analysis showed that the soil at the two sites had considerable texture, base saturation, acidity, and cation exchange capacity differences. Five sets of field stakes were treated as follows: three with water-borne CCA to about 0.4 pcf (6.4 kgm-3) retention, one with 0.75% DDAC, and one with 0.75% DDAC:0.25% chlorothalonil. The last two...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, D E Pettry, M G Kim


Long-term efficacy of wood dip-treated with multicomponent biocides
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30379
Biocides designed for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials need to provide long-term protection under conditions of high humidity. Specimens of kiln-dried southern pine and unseasoned southern pine, aspen, and Douglas-fir were dip-treated with borate-dimethylcocoamine (DMCA) supplemented with voriconazole, thiabendazole, or thujaplicin and evaluated at 4-week intervals for inhi...
C A Clausen, V W Yang


Wood preservation using furanones derived from marine algae
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10506
Halogenated furanones that are analogues of natural compounds extracted from the red seaweed Delisea pulchra were examined in the laboratory for activity against termites and decay fungi. The furanones were found to have broad spectrum activity, some with solution strengths of 0.01% controlling Coptotermes acinaciformis in a filter paper trial, while 2% solutions impregnated into Pinus radiata blo...
L J Cookson, R de Nys, P Steinberg, N Chew


Generation of hydroxyl radical by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1360
In an electron spin resonance (ESR) survey of various liquid cultures and wood slivers innoculated with the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, the spin trap dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) was used to detect the presence of the hydroxyl radical. The ESR spectra for the paramagnetic DMPO- hydroxyl radical adduct was observed in (1) nitrogen-limited, liquid cultures having 1.0% glucose or 0.1% c...
B Illman, D C Meinholtz, T L Highley


Accelerated laboratory testing of preservatives on 13 North American wood species
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30201
The ability of selected water and solvent based biocides to protect wood against fungal attack was evaluated on 13 North American wood species using 7 decay fungi in a modified soil block test. Most preservatives were capable of providing protection at their recommended above ground and soil contact use levels. Many decay fungi caused substantial weight losses on blocks treated with chlorothalonil...
J J Morrell, C M Freitag


Supercritical fluid impregnation of Douglas-fir heartwood with cyproconazole using temperature induced deposition
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40259
A limited understanding of the fundamental aspects of supercritical fluid (SCF) impregnation in wood remains an obstacle to the development of this technology. Developing a better understanding of the effects of various process parameters on treatment results would facilitate more rational development of SCF impregnation. In this project, the effect of treating period and specimen length on su...
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell


Aboveground Microbial Decay Test of Biocide Treated and Untreated Wood Exposed to Danish and Humid Tropical Climates
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20306
A co-operative study was initiated to compare the aboveground field decay test of untreated and preservative-treated timbers under Nordic (Danish) and a representative humid tropical (Malaysian) environment according to CEN standard method. Matched specimens of untreated and both preservative-impregnated and surface-treated wood were simultaneously exposed at The Danish Technological Institute (DT...
A H H Wong, N Morsing, K H Henriksen, S Ujang


Multicomponent biocide systems protect wood from decay fungi, mold fungi, and termites for interior applications
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30333
Concerns about indoor air quality due to mold growth have increased dramatically in the United States. In the absence of proper moisture management, fungicides need to be developed for indoor use to control mold establishment. An ideal fungicide for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials needs to specifically prevent spore germination and provide long-term protection under condit...
C A Clausen,V W Yang


Field tests with Antiblue and Biocide TT for the prevention of sapstain and mould fungi on Pinus elliottii timber
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3682
Freshly cut and sawn Pinus elliottii timber was dipped in four concentrations of Antiblue (active ingredient sodium pentachlorophenate) and Biucide TT (local substitute), at four immersion times and stacked in the open at Chisengu sawmill. Five weeks later, the timber was assessed for the incidence and intensity of stain and mould. The results showed that Antiblue was the better chemical providing...
A J Masuka


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