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Blue stain in timber in service. Results of co-operative tests to compare different artificial weathering systems 1981-82
1983 - IRG/WP 2193
The paper describes results of the third phase of co-operative laboratory experiments comparing the effects of different artificial weathering systems on chemicals to control blue-stain in service. Atlas, Xenotest and Marr equipments are shown to give essentially the same results for 5 of the 6 chemicals tested.
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson

Tentative method of testing wood preservatives against blue staining
1977 - IRG/WP 259
The blue stain of sawn wood is still a real problem in Poland. Although a preservative based on sodium orthophenylphenoxide has been introduced into sawmill practice, and the technology of wood protection developed with it, new information has been obtained concerning blue stain in wood material destined for export. In order to select new chemicals or to improve the effectiveness of the ones in current use it is necessary initially to carry out laboratory tests of the prepared chemicals to determine their efficiency.
E Tarocinski, O Lewandowski, M H Zielinski

Biological control of blue stain on wood with Pseudomonas cepacia 6253. Laboratory and field test
1989 - IRG/WP 1380
Pseudomonas cepacia strain 6253 was tested as a biological control agent on wood samples under laboratory conditions, as well as in the field. In the laboratory this bacterium controlled blue stain on Pinus radiata, but field test were not totally satisfactory. However, after 2 months of field test, the test samples were 1/3 to 1/2 less stained then the control samples.
R Benko

The effect of primary blue-staining fungi on the strength properties of Scots pine sapwood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10515
The fungi action may have influence on wood properties especially Basidiomycotina fungi causing wood decay. The investigation of influence of fungi causing mainly wood discoloration and disfigurement on wood properties is still in development process. There were determined the differences between the bending strength, the compression along the grains and impact strength of control and blue stained sets of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) twin sapwood samples. The one part of each twin sapwood samples sets was exposed for 1, 3 or 12 months to the action of pure culture of blue staining fungi Ceratocystis penicillata, Cladosporium herbarum, Discula pinicola or their mixture while the second part of sets was control samples. Research showed that the changes in wood strength properties were dependent on the fungi action period and to get worse with the fungi action prolongation. The statistically significance of decreasing of sapwood properties was greater by impact strength and compression along the grains strength than by bending strength investigation. The level of decreasing the wood properties caused by blue-stain fungi during 12th months of their action was larger for impact strength (over –13%), smaller for compression along the grains strength (about –5-8%) and only very little (to –3%) and with less statistically significance for bending strength. The impact strength and compression along the grains strength appeared to be more sensitive indicators of the blue stain fungi action than bending strength.
A Fojutowski

Blue stain in timber in service. Results of further IRG collaborative tests to compare different artificial weathering systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2146
The previous work described in Document No IRG/WP/286 examined 3 preservatives (1% phenyl mercury succinate - PMS, 5% pentachlorophenol - PCP and 1.5% Preventol A4 - PA4) subjected to 5 different artificial weathering systems (BAM Xenotest, Cuprinol Marr, EMPA Xenotest, Gori Atlas and PRL Marr) and after natural weathering at 5 sites (BAM, Cuprinol, EMPA, Gori and PRL). Results showed good correlation between natural weathering and 500 hours in the Marr and Atlas equipments. Natural weathering gave somewhat variable results for PCP and PMS; BAM and EMPA were the most severe and the Cuprinol site least severe. Members of the ad-hoc Group decided during discussions at the IRG meetines in Peebles in 1978, that further work was desirable so that an extended range of fungicides and of weathering equipment could be examined. The 11 participants who agreed to co-operate in various phases of the new work were: BAM (Berlin), Cuprinol (UK), EMPA (Switzerland), Gori (Denmark), Hicksons (UK), Imperial College (UK), Penarth (UK), PRL (UK), Protim (UK), Sadolins (Denmark) and Technological Institute (Denmark).
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson

Artificial weathering as an aid to assessing the effectiveness of chemicals for preventing blue stain in service - a co-operative study
1984 - IRG/WP 2215
The paper reports co-operative studies carried out within Working Group II of the International Research Group on Wood Preservation to assess the effects of different artificial weathering systems on the performance of fungicides to control blue-stain in service. It has been shown that Atlas, Xenotest and Marr equipments operated according to particular standard schedules can give essentially the same results for 5 of 6 fungicides tested.
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson

Protection of pine sawtimber and sawn timber against blue stain in Poland
1983 - IRG/WP 3193
The purpose of this paper is the synthesis of more important results of basic and applied research that have been grouped in the following problems: 1.: Fungi causing blue stain in the pine wood, occurring in Poland. 2.: Moisture content changes of pine sawtimber and sawn timber as the factor of blue stain producing fungi development. 3.: Effect of sapwood moisture content on the degree of wood staining in dependence on wood preservation methods and sawn timber quality. 4.: Effect of pine sawtimber harvesting period and storage time on sawn materials quality. 5.: Protection of pine sawtimber and sawn timber with chemical compounds. 6.: Problems of economics of sawtimber and sawn timber preservation.
E Tarocinski, M H Zielinski

Blue Staining of Coated Modified and Unmodified Wood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10589
We investigated resistance of unmodified, DMDHEU modified and oil heat treated uncoated and coated Scots pine wood against blue stain fungi. Both EN 152-1 and the reverse exposure tests showed excellent resistance of DMDHEU and especially of oil heat treated wood against blue staining. It is not needed to add any additional protective coating layers to prevent modified wood from staining. However, alkyd solventborne finishes can play an important protective role against blue stain infestations of unmodified wood. Acrylic waterborne stains, due to their high permeability, exhibit lower efficacy.
M Petric, M Pavlic, M Humar, M Tomažic

End Coating Masson Pine Grown in South China to Prevent the Development of Blue Stain
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30428
One end (randomly selected) of logs of mason pine (Pinus massoniana) were coated with a wax-type end coating called ANCHORSEAL® immediately after tree cutting. The logs were then stored in summer weather in Guangxi, China. During the storage, at week 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12, five logs of mason pine were sawn into lumber or veneer for the visual observation and measurement of blue stain at the coated and uncoated ends; The results showed that the average length of blue stain in mason pine logs was 226 mm for uncoated ends and 119 mm for coated end after 12 weeks of storage. The safe storage time for mason pine logs is up to one week without blue stain development. For uncoated logs, the safe storage period is less than 6 weeks if the losses caused by blue stain are to be kept at less than 17% for 2-meter long logs. For the coated logs, the safe storage period is under 6 weeks if the losses are to be kept at less than 8.5% for 2-meter long logs. ANOVA analysis showed that there existed significant differences in blue stain for mason pine. That means the effects of end coating are significant for preventing the development of blue stain. The volume losses caused by blue stain are nearly 11% for 2-meter long logs after 12 weeks storage. The sawmill can save 7.7% of the value of the mason pine. As the cost of coating is much less than the value of benefits, end coating of logs during storage is recommended.
Zhao Youke, Qin Li, Huang Rongfeng, Lu Jianxiong

Laboratory test of blue stain control by chemicals
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30430
8 chemicals and some mixtures against Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Fusarium verticillioides(Sacc.)Nirenberg, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, Trichoderma viride Pers., and Penicillium purpurogenum Stoll were conducted in laboratory by inhibition zone in the paper. The results were shown that: CBZ and benomyl as well as copper oxine alone are much high efficacy for inhibiting most of the 5 fungi than other chemicals under the test concentrations; PPZ was found to have almost no fungicidal effect at the specified concentration. The fungicidal effect of some mixtures of CTL, DDAC, Cu-8, Benomyl and were better than alone. CTL increase the inhibiting effect of 0.5% DDAC to the 5 fungi except for Trichoderma viride Pers., and it did not increase the inhibiting effect of copper oxine; 0.01-0.08% copper oxine and 0.01-0.5% DDAC increase the inhibiting effect of benomyl to most of the 5 fungi.
Zhijuan Wang, Zehui Jiang, Mingliang Jiang, Chungen Piao

Identification of the key factors influencing development of the blue stain fungi
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10872
Service life of wood is more and more frequently affected by aesthetic requirements than functional ones. In order to elucidate various aspects of service life, model house with façade elements made of 22 materials was built on the field test site at Department of Wood Science and Technology in Ljubljana. Colour and fungal disfigurement is among other parameters monitored on this house. In parallel specimens made of the same materials as façade were analysed in laboratory as well. Samples were exposed to blue staining organisms in various standard and non-standard tests. Part of the samples was artificially weathered after blue staining and afterwards exposed to blue staining organisms again. The results of the colour measurements and blue staining test clearly indicate that this type of the laboratory exposure fits the best with the results of the outdoor tests.
D Kržišnik, B Lesar, N Thaler, M Humar

Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 3: The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans compared to other fungi commonly isolated from wood surface coatings
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10035
The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans was previously examined, using agar plate tests, with regard to nutrient sources that are potentially available in fresh and weathered wood (Sharpe and Dickinson, 1992). This study compared these findings with the nutritional capability of four other fungi (Alternaria sp., Cladosporium cladosporoides, Stemphylium sp. and Trichoderma sp.) commonly isolated from wood surfaee coatings. The liquid culture techniques were used to assess the relative abilities of the fungi to utilise a range of simple sugars, wood sugar alcohols, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin degradation compounds. The observations were used to explain why Aureobasidium pullulans is able to occupy so successfully, often in monoculture, the wood-paint interface niche.
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson

Report on the activities of the European Standardization Committee CEN/TC 38 'Methods of Testing wood preservatives'
1980 - IRG/WP 279 E
G Castan

Some characteristics of Pinus radiata wood from trees subjected to resin extraction
1987 - IRG/WP 3403
35 year old Pinus radiata trees growing in La Puntilla (lat. 37° south, long. 72,4° west), Chile, were subjected to resin extraction 5 years ago. After harvesting them simultaneously with control trees of the same place and age, probes were taken from the bottom of each pole, at 3.4 m, 7.8 m and 11.4 m height. Analysis of ethanol/benzene extract, CCA salt penetration tests and sapstain and brown-rot development rate were performed. The extract content differed in both groups. In the ascendent sense it decreases in unextracted trees and increases in extracted. CCA salt penetration was deeper in treated trees than in untreated. Wood subjectect to resin extraction was less susceptible to sapstain development. No significant difference was detected in both groups in relation to the development of brown-rot.
M C Rose, J Navarrete, G Sandoval, A Bedoya, L Ortega, R Zurita

Tebuconazole, a new wood-preserving fungicide
1990 - IRG/WP 3634
TEBUCONAZOLE, an anti-fungal triazole compound, has been tested to assess the effectivness as wood preserving fungicide. Tests were made with the active ingredient and also in formulations against basidiomycetes, blue-staining fungi and mould. Results of the DESOWAG laboratories and also from official institutes will be presented. In addition to this there were made different toxicological and ecotoxicological trials according to OECD and EPA guidelines
B Wüstenhöfer, H-W Wegen, W Metzner

A laboratory method for assessing the effectiveness of fungicides in preventing the spread of decay fungi within packages of unseasoned lumber
1983 - IRG/WP 2202
To study the deterioration caused by decay fungi in the laboratory, a method for testing fungicides for their effectiveness in preventing spread of decay was devised. Some experiments using this method are reported here.
A J Cserjesi, E L Johnson, A Byrne

Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 2: The ability of Aureobasidium pullulans to penetrate wood surface coatings
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1557
The ability of Aureobasidium pullulans to penetrate seven different wood surface coatings was examined. Eight isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were used. Following penetration, light microscopy was used to examine the effect of the fungus upon the coating, and growth at the wood-film interface. The fungus showed different growth capabilities with different types of surface coatings. Some isolates were able to penetrate alkyd based coatings, but were unable to grow in the film. In contrast, after penetration through latex based coatings several isolates were able to produce growth in the films themselves.
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson

Mould resistance of lignocellulosic material treated with some protective chemicals
1984 - IRG/WP 3294
Effectiveness of preserving lignocellulosic material against moulding by treatement with water solutions of commercial wood preservatives and mixtures of various inorganic salts was investigated and compared with the effectivenes of sodium pentachlorophenoxide and boric acid.
K Lutomski

Evaluation of the effectiveness of three microbiocides in the control of sapstains
1982 - IRG/WP 3212
Results of field test on the effectiveness of BUSAN 30, CAPTAN, FOLPET against mould and sapstain in Pinus elliottii are presented. The viability of use of FOLPET in Brazil as an alternative to sodium pentachlorophenate is also discussed.
S Milano, J A A Vianna Neto

Rapport sur l'activité du CNE/TC 38 'Méthodes d'essais des produits de préservation du bois'
1980 - IRG/WP 279
G Castan

Blue-stain fungi (Ceratocystis spp.) found in Spain on pine woods
1989 - IRG/WP 1410
So far, there is only a very limited reported description of the different Ceratocystis spp. present on fresh wood in Spain. So, the main goal of this work has been the identification of species of this genus causing blue-stain on Pinus pinaster A. Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. woods. We have also investigated the relationship between the species found and their propagation vectors (insects and wind). Finally, we have determined the growing velocity of two of the most representative species found and the presence or absence of degradative enzymatic activities.
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete

Effects of timber surface properties and dipping conditions on uptake of antisapstain actives from two aqueous suspensions, and ultimate effects on efficacy against mould and staining organisms
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30073
Green-off-saw rough sawn Pinus elliottii (slash pine) boards were dipped in aqueous suspensions of two antisapstain formulations, and the resultant surface retentions of active ingredients MTC (methylene bisthiocyanate), CTL (chlorothalonil) or TCMTB (2(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole) were monitored by chemical analysis. Surface retentions increased with suspension concentration and surface roughness, and decreased with initial timber moisture content. Dipping time beyond 20 seconds, timber basic density and earlywood content had little effect. Relatively low surface retentions, produced by dipping smoother boards with higher initial moisture contents, provided lower protection against mould and stain during seasoning than higher retentions. Equations describing the effect of surface retention on efficacy were developed for both formulations, and retentions providing complete protection under the conditions of the test were determined.
M J Kennedy, T L Woods

The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and chromium. When related to the retention of both salts after impregnation, no differences could be found between samples previously treated with anti-blue-stain preservatives and untreated samples. However, the retention of CC diminished significantly by application of quaternary ammonium compounds.
M Van der Zee, W J Homan

Molecular studies on isolates of Serpula lacrymans
1989 - IRG/WP 1421
The major protein species present in detergent extracts of 14 different Serpula lacrymans isolates have been compared, by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), with a standard strain, viz. Serpula lacrymans FPRL 12C. Following silver staining of SDS gels the major protein species identified in 12 isolates were similar to those found in the standard strain. However differences were found when the final two isolates were compared with FPRL 12C, both isolates had extra molecular species not present in 12C and both were lacking some present in the standard strain. Comparison of the protein species identified in Serpula lacrymans isolates with those identified in extracts of other fungal organisms, viz. brown and white rot causing basidiomycetes and non-basidiomycetes indicated that the Serpula isolates were more similar to each other than to other organisms. Some molecular differences could be identified when individual isolates were cultured on different media, i.e. liquid culture or agar, only minor differences were seen when individual isolates were subcultured. These results indicate that whilst care must be taken to ensure as near identical conditions as possible for culture of organisms if their molecular species are to be compared by SDS-PAGE and silver staining, consistent results can be obtained using this technique. The technique may therefore offer a method of distinguishing between isolates, strains and species of wood decay basidiomycetes, and identifying new isolates.
A Vigrow, D Button, J W Palfreyman, B King, B M Hegarty

Rapport sur l'activité du CEN/TC 38
1983 - IRG/WP 2204
M Pottevin

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