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Effect of Furfurylation on Shear Strength of Bond Line and Screw Withdrawal Resistance of Beech and Fir Wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40757
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of furfurylation on shear strength of bond line and screw withdrawal resistance of beech (Fagus orientalis) and fir (Abies alba) species. In this regard, specimens with two different values of furfurylation i.e. low (fir 14% and beech 20%) and high (fir 38% and beech 65%) levels were prepared and evaluated in comparison with untreated specimens. The furfurylation was performed after impregnating the specimens by furfuryl alcohol under vacuum condition followed by heating duration to complete polymerization and crosslinking. Specimens were prepared according to standard ASTM D 905 in order to assess shear strength of bond line formed with three different types of adhesives, single-component polyurethane, polyvinyl acetate as well as urea-formaldehyde. Also screw withdrawal resistance of wood polymer specimens was measured perpendicular to grain and parallel to grain. The results indicated that the shear strength of the bond line decreased and screw withdrawal resistance increased by furfurylation level. Examination of adhesion mechanism demonstrated that formation of an appropriate interface between water-soluble adhesives and wood-polymer involves effective penetration of adhesive into cell wall. Hence, the interface of adhesives and material would be the determining factor in developing strength of adhesive joints. Since the wood-furfuryl alcohol is a cell-wall wood-polymer, the possibility of creating an appropriate interface by increasing of furfurylation level was impaired. On the other hand, the adhesion mechanism of polyurethane glue compared to water-soluble adhesives such as polyvinyl acetate and urea-formaldehyde is significantly different, therefore exhibited more strength. The withdrawal screw resistance of furfurylated wood was increased by furfurylation level due to changing nature of wood and increasing shear strength of wood-polymer. This gain was also more evident in fir than beech. The results showed that screw withdrawal resistance perpendicular to grain was higher than parallel to grain.
A Talaei, H Abdolzadeh, M Saleh Zare


Effects of various preservative treatments on the mechanical and physical properties of plywood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40007
The technical properties of plywood are related to both the intrinsic characteristics of its composing wood species and the quality and performance of the glue bond which acts as an interface between veneer sheets. Consequently mechanical and physical testing and glue bond strength analysis offer an appropriate means for studying the effect of preservative treatments on the overall quality of plywood. A range of boards was treated with waterborne and oilborne preservatives. Changes in modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and tensile strength were noted as well as variations in physical properties. Analysis of the glue bond strength was done by shear strength testing and determination of the amount of wood failure after different ageing procedures.
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Resistance to soft rot of hardwood plywood treated with CCA salt
1983 - IRG/WP 3258
Plywood made from indigenous hardwoods was treated at an average loading of 34 kg Celcure A per m³ and was installed in a field test. After 20 years the samples were only slightly attacked by soft rot and the glue bonds were still intact.
R S Johnstone


Ancillary properties of vapor boron-treated composites
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40210
This paper discusses the water absorption, thickness swelling, and internal bond strength of North American composites treated using a vapor boron treatment process. For oriented strandboard, high boron loadings led to lower internal bond strength and lower thickness swelling. Water absorption results were variable but no deleterious effect of treatment was noted. For medium density fiberboard, the highest loadings led to reduced internal bond strength. Thickness swelling decreased with increasing boron level, but not significantly. As with OSB, water absorption results varied.
W A Jones, H M Barnes, R J Murphy


Life cycle analysis of utility poles. A Swiss case study
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-05
Use of preservative-treated wood products faces increasing public and political pressure because of environmental concerns regarding the chemicals used to protect the wood. However, critics usually focus only on one single aspect of the whole life cycle of treated wood products, disregarding other environmental effects of timber utilization. To evaluate the ecological consequences of wooden utility poles (CCF/CCB impregnated roundwood and glulams) and their alternatives of reinforced concrete and steel, a life cycle assessment was conducted. Based on data from existing Swiss electricity transmission lines, a comprehensive inventory was established of all extractions from, and emissions to the environment caused by each process step. This inventory data was linked to possible environmental impacts using various aggregation methods. An evaluation was made for single poles as well as for whole transmission lines. The results show that impregnated roundwood utility poles in fact have certain environmental benefits when considered over their whole life cycle.
T Künniger, K Richter


The performance of glue laminated railway ties after 40 years of service in the main line track
1989 - IRG/WP 2325
Two series of horizontally glue laminated ties made of a softwood body and topped with a hardwood lamination were creosoted and installed in 1947 in a tangent and a curved main line track. The tests are now 40 years old and the excellent condition of the ties of these two series suggest that a service life of 50-60 years can be expected.
J P Hösli, E E Doyle, C P Bird, T Lee


Towards a colour assay of wood degradation
1982 - IRG/WP 2180
A colour assay for the enzyme catalase is described. Since the activity of this enzyme has previously been shown to be correlated with degree of wood degradation as determined by other methods, this assay may provide a rapid quantitative indicator of superficial and internal wood decay.
M A Line


Protection of OSB against termites by incorporation of different actives via glue line treatment
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30453
Different organic actives and zinc borate were incorporated into OSB during the manufacturing process to enhance the resistance against termites. Tests according to EN 117 revealed excellent performance of thiacloprid. Other organic actives such as permethrin might be effective when used in higher amounts. Zinc borate failed the test by far.
S Donath, P Spetmann, T Jaetsch, T Zahlmann


Ten year field test with a copper-borate ground line treatment for poles
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30017
A wood preservative paste consisting of borax and copper naphthenate has been tested to determine its efficiency in protecting wood from decay fungi and insects. The paste was applied to polyethylene-backed wraps that were fastened to the below-ground portions of unseasoned southern pine pole stubs. After 4 years of exposure in Mississippi, the untreated control stubs were completely deteriorated. The below-grade portions of the treated stubs remained sound after nearly 6 years of exposure due to movement of copper and diffusion of the borate throughout the cross section. Borate and copper also moved vertically in the stubs and was present in sufficient amounts to protect sections of the stubs as high as 3 feet above grade. After 9 years of exposure, the below-grade portions of the treated stubs had limited areas of decay and no termite damage; the majority of the cross section remained sound. Wood analysis indicated that concentrations of borate in the sound areas were about 1/10 the estimated toxic threshold. A visual examination and push test indicated that the treated stubs continued to be protected at groundline after 10 years of exposure. It is hypothesized that the continued protection of the below-grade portions of the stubs against both decay fungi and subterranean termites is the result of copper-borate complexes that have formed in the wood.
T L Amburgey, M H Freeman


Bending creep test of plywoods under long term exposure to fungal attack
1981 - IRG/WP 2163
Bending creep test and decay test were coupled in order to evaluate the durability of structural plywoods and preservative efficacy. Experimental blocks, 5.0 x 1.2 cm² section x 35.0 cm length, were impregnated with distilled water and inoculated with mycelial fragments of test fungus. Polyethylene bags stretched with metal frame were used as decay chambers. The chambers containing inoculated blocks and water were plugged with porous silicone plugs. Weight was hanged from the center of block. The deflection at the center of span was measured with a gauge sensor connected with a recorder. The deflection due to fungal attack appeared after 800-1200 hrs incubation. Non-treated plywoods failed by 2400 hrs. Treated plywoods containing 1 kg/m³ of TBP (Tribromophenol) did not fail even after 3800 hrs but deflected continuously. When containing 5 kg/m³ of TBP, only a slight deflection was observed. Based on the assumption that decay advanced uniformly in the parallel direction to the span but wavy like as cosine curve in the perpendicular one, creep deflections were calculated and compared with the experimental ones. It may be concluded from these results that the method is promissing for evaluating the durability of structural board materials and preservative efficacy.
M Takahashi


A Preliminary Report on the Properties of Engineered Wood Composite Panels Treated with Copper Naphthenate
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40294
This paper reports on our preliminary investigation of the properties of randomly oriented strandboard which had waterborne or powdered copper naphthenate (CuN) incorporated into the board during manufacture. When compared to zinc borate-treated controls (ZnB), the mechanical properties of strandboard (MOR, MOE, work-to-maximum load, internal bond strength) were not adversely affected by treatment with either form of copper naphthenate. In general, values for mechanical properties followed the trend untreated controls > waterborne CuN = powdered CuN > ZnB. Water absorption and dimensional properties followed a similar trend. This preliminary study suggests that CuN is a viable alternative treatment for engineered wood composites.
J W Kirkpatrick, H M Barnes


Decay Resistance and Bonding Properties of Structural Flakeboard
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40233
Experimental structural flakeboard panels consisting of differing furnishes and resins were produced and tested for internal bond, linear expansion, thickness swell, and decay resistance. One group of panels was produced with recycled CCA-treated wood as the furnish and commercial phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin as the binder. Other groups of panels were produced with either mixed hardwoods or southern pine as the furnish and then sprayed with a co-reacted soy-flour PF resin or a commercial face or core resin. The recycled CCA-treated panels contained 5 different furnish ratios (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0) of recycled CCA-treated southern pine and virgin, untreated southern pine. Tests on the panels bonded with co-reacted soy flour PF indicated that 30% substitution of phenol with soy flour in the resin system did not appreciably promote decay or reduce IB strength. As expected, panels produced with a higher ratio of recycled CCA-treated wood furnish, were generally subject to less weight loss during decay tests for brown rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum, ATCC 11539) and white rot (Trametes versicolor, ATCC 42462) but yielded lower IB values. Research in currently in progress to assess the resistance of all the aforementioned panel types to the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki).
T F Shupe, Chung-Yun Hse


Relationship between bond strength and surface characteristics of CCA-treated Douglas-fir
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30008
Chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) treated Douglas-fir was laminated using a commercial phenol-resorcinol resin. CCA treatment enhanced the water repelleney of wood espeeially in the presence of extractives. However, the shear strength of CCA treated wood was 12% lower in dry condition and 38% lower in wet condition after six cycles of vacuum-pressure test than that of untreated wood. Slight removal of treated wood surface by planer or sander contributed for better adhesion, although it was not enough. The characteristics of treated wood surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). CCA treatment increased C1 (C-H) and decreased C2 (C-OH), indicating migrated exctractives have enhanced the water repelleney of treated surface. The removal of hydrophobic surface of CCA-treated wood decreased C1 component of C1s spectra on the new surface.
K Yamamoto, J N R Ruddick


Remedial treatments of glulam = diffusion of active ingredients through glue lines from solid wood diffusable preservatives
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30117
Diffusable preservatives are very suitable for use in remedial treatments of laminated beams in which too high moisture content involves the development of wood destroying fungi. The diffusion of active ingredients (boric acid, disodium octoborate, bifluoride) is well observed in solid wood but in a composite wood, the glue lines may appear not only as a barrier for the diffusion but also, may be mechanically affected by the diffused active ingredients. Shear tests were carried out on glulam specimens manufactured with different types of glues: resorcine (RF), ureaformaldehyde (UF), polyurethane (PUR) and polyvinylacetate (PVAc). Diffusion tests were also carried out in accelerated wetted glulam specimens with three diffusable solid preservatives differently exposed in the test samples. Results observed with boron compounds showed that their diffusion does not affect the mechanical resistance of the beams. In another hand, interesting results were obtained concerning the passage of boron and bifluoride through some types of glues. These results will contribute to the optimization of the remedial treatment of glulams.
D Dirol, S Mouras


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. Results of chemical and microbiological analyses 6 months after treatment
1986 - IRG/WP 3388
CCA-treated poles in service with incipient internal soft rot were remedially treated by inserting borate rods, brushing with a boron/glycol solution and injecting boric acid paste, copper/creosote paste or a commercial product (DFCK paste). The spread of active chemicals in the treated zone as well as the change in microflora have been studied with time. After six months chemicals had spread to most parts of the pole in the ground-line zone and the microflora had been changed - in some cases drastically. The test is still in progress. Chemical and microbiological analyses after 12, 28 and 60 months will be published at a later date.
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


Effect of alkaline phenolic resin adhesive on the stability of preservatives incorporated into the glue-line of plywood
1991 - IRG/WP 3650
Stability of preservatives was determined by gaschromatographic analysis when they were applied to glue-line treatment of plywoods. Among organophosphorous insecticides, emulsified forms of chlorpyrifos, dichlofention and diazinon were more stable than others. Fenitrothion, pyridafenthion and phoxim were not practically acceptable as emulsifieable forms due to the relatively low recovery rates after an accelerated ageing (heat exposure at 60°C after hot-press). IF-1000, an organoiodine fungicide, seemed to be less stable under the influence of heat, although the fungicide was better than the other tested organoiodine chemical (Sunplas).
S Fushiki, Y Katuzawa


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. A final report after 60 months' testing
1989 - IRG/WP 3534
Remedial treatment of CCA treated utility poles of Pinus sylvestris with incipient decay was carried out in 1983 and the results of chemical and microbiological analyses 6 months after treatment were reported in Document No: IRG/WP/3388 while microbiological studies 12 and 28 months after treatment as well as chemical analyses of poles treated with boron rods or boric acid paste 28 months after treatment were reported in Document No: IRG/WP/3481. 60 months after the treatment a final study was carried out on the remaining two poles left from each treatment. The study included isolations of fungi as well as chemical analyses of poles treated with boron rods, boric acid paste and borate/glycol.
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


Effect of vapour boron treatment on mechanical properties of wood based board materials
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3727
The mechanical properties of Medium density fibre board, Chipboard and Oriented strand board were investigated after treatment to two retention levels of boric acid applied as a vapour phase system. A range of mechanical properties were investigated. The vapour boron treatment does not have any significant effect on most of the mechanical properties of the boards. The exception is a reduction in impact strength especially at the higher retention level.
R Hashim, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy, J Dinwoodie


Test methods for wood preservatives against Lyctus: (1) Testing of treated veneer. (2) Testing of glue-line treated plywood. (Laboratory methods)
1977 - IRG/WP 293
Powder-post beetles destroy large quantities of veneer and plywood. Two test procedures are described which can be used to support application-oriented research into veneer and plywood preservatives. These procedures simulate practical conditions on a laboratory scale. Their characteristic feature is that wood species of special susceptibility are used for the tests; the susceptibility of the specimens is ensured via pre-treatment with Lyctus nutrients.
S Cymorek


A study of poplar LVL durability improvement:
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40148
The aim of this study was to optimise the durability of LVL panels by adding boron during the gluing process. Poplar veneers (2,6 mm thickness ) were selected by ISORY a French company . Two types of glue were tested : Phenol resorcine and Melamine Urea Formaldehyde. Each of them was mixed with various concentrations of borax (for the first one) and Boric acid(for the second one). Mechanical properties of final panels and bond strength properties were studied. LVL boron retention was tested after leaching. Influence of glue bonds on leaching was evaluated. The level of boron diffusion in wood was measured by spectrocolorimetry (CIELAB system). Our results have demonstrated that such treatment may improve efficiently LVL durability. Around 0.8% of boron was still fixed in our best panels after leaching tests. This kind of treatment appears to be a good alternative to improve durability of LVL Panels built with low resistant wood species.
B Charrier, V Bridaux, N Fauroux, F Charrier


An appraisal of the vertical distribution of attack of untreated and treated wood by warm water sphaeromatids at some tropical sites - A discussion paper
1986 - IRG/WP 4124
Examples of the vertical distribution of burrows of warm water sphaeromatids relative to tide levels and mud line from sites in India, Papua New Guinea and tropical Australia are discussed in detail. These data show clearly that these animals concentrate their attack of resistant natural wood or resistant treated wood in the tidal zone, particularly around Mean Sea Level. Supportive evidence from Kenya is also presented. Circumstantial evidence indicating the repellancy of creosote to sphaeromatids is discussed together with suggested reasons why Sphaeroma terebrans Bate syn. Sphaeroma destructor Richardson was not detected in small specimen tests conducted in Australia, Papua New Guinea and at Daytona Beach, Florida whereas these borers are well known in piling timbers on tropical to warm temperate eastern Australian coasts, and were detected recently on preservative-treated piling timbers at the latter locations. It is stressed that test specimens of preservative-treated or naturally resistant wood must be exposed within the tidal zone at sites where Sphaeroma terebrans and/possibly Sphaeroma triste Heller are active, i.e. if truly meaningful measures of the resistance of such woods to these borers are to be obtained.
J E Barnacle, L J Cookson, C N McEvoy


Preservation of wood-based panels against fungi and insects and and testing its efficiency
1976 - IRG/WP 270
Wood-based panel products which are made of susceptible wood species may be destroyed by fungi under wet conditions and by termites. The glues do not provide sufficient protection unless very high concentrations are applied. Particle boards and fibre boards are not susceptible to beetle infestation, although some species may attack plywood. Various types of preservatives provide sufficient protection of panel products. These are boron, fluoride, copper, and chromium compounds in the category of water-soluble salts and various organic compounds, including contact insecticides, in the category of nonwater-soluble substances. Their application is influenced by their compatibility with the glue and by the different methods of treatment. For the production of fibreboards oil-borne preservatives are preferred. With regard to particle boards and plywood it is recommended to apply the required preservative loadings prior to the pressing operation, to mix them with the glue or to impregnate the particles or plies and with regard to fibreboards to spray the pressed and cooled down panels with the preservative. The fungus cellar test is the most suitable method for testing the efficiency of a chemical treatment of panel products against fungal attack. With regard to beetle species European standard methods of test are available. There are also laboratory and field methods for evaluating the resistance against termites. Treatment standards are controlled by chemical methods of analysis.
G Becker, M Gersonde


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. A progress report after 28 months' testing
1988 - IRG/WP 3481
Remedial treatments of CCA-treated poles in service with incipient soft rot were carried out with boron rods, boron/glycol solution, boric acid paste, copper/creosote paste and a commercial product (DFCK paste) respectively. The micro-flora before remedial treatment and 6 months after as well as the spread of chemicals in the poles were reported in Document No: IRG/WP/3388. In this progress report the changes in the micro-flora after 12 and 28 months are detailed together with the results of chemical studies on the spread of borates after 28 months. Studies have also been carried out on the sensitivity to borates of some fungi as well as the soft rot capacity in pine wood of some fungi isolated 28 months after treatment. The results concerning the micro-flora after 28 months are encouraging for boron rods, boron acid paste and especially for DFCK-paste. The spread of borates after 28 months was very good. In sapwood the average concentration, as boric acid, exceeded 2 kg/m³ in treated zones in poles treated with boron rods and 1.0 kg/m³ in treated zones in poles treated with boric acid paste.
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


The lasting dehydration of wood treated by bifluorides worked up in Diffusec noticed by a continual drying of the wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30196
After an immersion of sound wood in a solution of Diffusec, in which a combination of acid potassium and ammonium bifluorides = FHF- in dissociated form is present, their potassium and ammonium fluoride ions together with the bifluoride ion = (FHF-) diffuse into the wood. They make use of the woodmoisture available as O-H-O bonds directly attached to the cellulose in the wood fibres to attract the dissociated ions, which after fusion are replaced by F-H-F bonds. If any substance that contains ions or centers of electric charge (from polar bonds) is brought into contact with water, sufficient electrical disturbance result in rupture of the hydrogen bonds. This means that the hydrogen bonds in water are readily broken. The released water dipoles are then attracted to these charge centers. Acid fluorides, as F- and FHF-, act permanently as F-H-F bonds upon OH groups of the cellulose. They are able to gather from the "watercoating" which surrounds the OH groups, so to speak thin layers which leave the wood in the form of vapour. Besides that they are able to occupy the vacant places. Near it watermolecules of the outer layers will easier release as those ones more directed inside. The uptake of the hydrogen in the air is dependent of the RH uptill air-dry wood is reached with the EMC belonging to it. No thermic intervention is necessary according to prof. dr. J. B. van Duijneveldt.
H F M Nijman


The potential application of rapid gas-chromatographic assay of microbial respiration to the monitoring of wood decay in field trial situations
1983 - IRG/WP 2196
Gas chromatographic detection of microbial activity (C02 production) within stakes in a field trial situation would appear to provide a sensitive, non-destructive and relatively rapid method for the quantitative assessment of preservative treatments. Most consistent results were obtained when stakes were removed from the soil, washed, saturated with water and incubated in sealed PVC tubes at 25°C for 24 h prior to assay of gas samples from the tubes. Each assay took 1.6 min to perform and stakes were returned to the field within 48 h. Microbial activity was readily detected in untreated Eucalyptus regnans stakes after 18 days field exposure. Stakes pressure impregnated with CCA, busan-30 or creosote displayed consistently low levels of activity to the present time (3 months after insertion).
M A Line


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