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Safer alternative reagents for colour differentiation of heartwood and sapwood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20028
Benzidine and dimethyl yellow reagents have been used for distinguishing heartwood from sapwood in the Pinaceae and Araucariacae families, and in Eucalypt species. Both have been classified as carcinogenic by European and United States authoritites, yet the need for effective heartwood/sapwood differentiation remains, not only in the laboratory but also out in the timber processing chain. Safer al...
A Zosars, M J Kennedy


Towards a colour assay of wood degradation
1982 - IRG/WP 2180
A colour assay for the enzyme catalase is described. Since the activity of this enzyme has previously been shown to be correlated with degree of wood degradation as determined by other methods, this assay may provide a rapid quantitative indicator of superficial and internal wood decay....
M A Line


Correlation between changes in colour and chemical composition during photo-degradation of wood surfaces
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40301
Changes in colour of wood (yellowing) during photo degradation or weathering reflect chemical changes in wood. Therefore, the relationship between changes in chemical composition and CIELAB colour parameters is very important to characterize photodegradation of lignocellulosic surfaces. In this study, the changes in chemical composition and yellowing due to photo-degradation was studied by expos...
K K Pandey


Some practical implications from recent research on the fixation of CCA preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 358
The mechanism of fixation of CCA preservatives is briefly described. If the temperature is increased during the primary fixation period, the formation of intermediate fixation compounds is less extensive. The length of the primary fixation period is of practical interest. It is determined by preservative composition and concentration, temperature and wood species. Diagrams are given for Pinus sylv...
S-E Dahlgren


Preference of swarming termites for various colored lights
1984 - IRG/WP 1238
The ability of the alates of the drywood termite Bifiditermes beesoni (Gardner) to discriminate ten different colored lights was studied. When an alternative choice of any of two colors was offered, the light-blue was preferred to all other tested colors by 97.7% of the alates. A lower degree of attractivity was found for some other colors and certain other colors were indistinguishable. Furthermo...
M Afzal


Heat treatment of less-valuable Nigerian-grown Ceiba pentandra wood for improved properties
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40332
The hardwood Ceiba pentandra locally known as “ araba “ in Nigeria is rarely used for structural and construction works due to its high dimensional instability, low strength and durability values. Samples (10 x 10 x 150mm) were removed from four green boards (25 x 200 x 3000mm) of this species originating from a natural forest stand in Nigeria and subjected to 2-hour heat treatment at 160°C a...
L Awoyemi


The Effect of Flavonoids on Colour and Spectral Changes of the Wood Surface Caused by Heat Treatment or Ultra-violet Irradiation
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40341
Both heat treatment and UV irradiation can cause discolouration and change in the spectral properties of wood surface. Some of the characteristic flavonols have significant role on colour and spectral changes, despite of their relative small quantities in wood. Colour changes and spectral properties of natural and extracted black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and poplar (Populus nigra L.) were...
R Csonka-Rákosa, L Molnár-Hamvas, E Börcsök, J Molnár, K Németh


Photo-degradation of modified and non-modified wood, coated with water borne acrylic coatings during artificial light exposure
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30416
A series of experiments were carried out to investigate photo-degradation of thermally modified (at 210oC and – 0.9 bars for two hours) and non-modified spruce wood (Picea abies L (Karst)), coated with transparent and semitransparent (with 3% pigment content) acrylic coatings during artificial UV light irradiation for 200 hours. Photo-degradation was evaluated in terms of colour changes througho...
M Deka, M Tomažic, M Petric


Effectos de la intemperización artificial sobre la madera de mezquite (Prosopis laevigata)
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40430
The effects of artificial weathering on Prosopis laevigata wood were studied on eight replicates (150 x 72 x 15mm (l x t x r)) free of knots, cracks and resin. The samples were exposed tangentially to UV light and to water spray during three cycles (1 cycle corresponded 1 week of artificial weathering). The conditioning time between each cycle was thirty days. The effects were measured according t...
A Carrillo-Parra, F Hapla, C Mai


Mechanical and chemical properties of blue stained wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10686
Discoloration of wood is frequently caused by blue-staining fungi. In the previous researches there was general opinion that blue-stain fungi do not influence mechanical properties. On the other hand, there were some opposite results reported as well. In order to elucidate this issue, specimens made of Pinus sylvestris sapwood were exposed to two the most frequent and important blue stain fungi Au...
M Humar, V Vek, B Bučar


Colour change monitoring of photodegradation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) – a short term focus
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40442
Colour change monitoring of photodegradation is a quick and easy method for monitoring rates of photodegradation in timber. A study was undertaken to compare this technique to other monitoring methods, including microtensile strength changes and weight loss. Colour changes due to accelerated sunlight exposure were monitored using a Datacolor check spectrophotometer and compared with a set of contr...
V Sharratt, C A S Hill, D P R Kint


Comparison of colour change in wood clear-coating systems including inorganic and organic UV absorbers for exterior use
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40499
The aim of this work is to compare the performance of inorganic and organic UV absorbers used in a wood coating application against weathering. Our study has investigated the colour changes of selected UV absorbers; hombitec 402 RM from the Sachtleben Company as an inorganic UV absorber, tinuvin 477 DW from the Ciba Company as an organic UV absorber. The study was carried out on two wood species; ...
Ö Özgenç, B Forsthuber, A Teischinger, C Hansmann


Performance of selected types of coated and uncoated modified wood in artificial and natural weathering
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40510
The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of commercial wood modification methods on weathering behaviour and coating performance. It was aimed to compare modification methods and to set up maps of weathering behaviour for these methods with and without a semi-transparent wood stain. Artificial and natural weathering trials were carried out with a selection of different ty...
G Grüll, L Podgorski, M Truskaller, I Spitaler, V Georges, S Bollmus, A Steitz


A comparative study and evaluation of methodologies used for determining wood preservative penetration
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20475
A series of methods for determining penetration of wood preservatives into the wood structure have been developed for either quality control (QC) or research and development purposes. QC methods range from monitoring the solution uptake, applying colour indicators or sampling specific wood samples followed by wood acid digestion/atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or solvent extraction/chromatogr...
R Craciun, R Moeller, J Wittenzellner, T Jakob, J Habicht


Effects of microclimate, wood temperature and surface colour on fungal disfigurement on wooden claddings
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20490
Wooden claddings are common in façades in Norway, and Norway spruce (Picea abies) is the most frequently used species. The cladding is a major part of the facade, and it has visual requirements that may define the aesthetic service life. The visual changes that occur during weathering can be colour changes, abrasion or wear, blistering, flaking, and even cracks in the wood or coating, but more of...
L Ross Gobakken, G I Vestøl


Initial investigations into the spalting potential of Peruvian hardwoods
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10813
This study was performed to determine if several moderately-utilized Peruvian hardwoods had potential for spalting applications. We applied a modified decay jar methodology with six native Peruvian woods and three moulds, with a period of incubation of six weeks. Results showed that Nigrospora sphaerica and Marupa (Simarouba amara) resulted on the highest significant internal pigmentation (black),...
S M Vega Gutiérrez, S C Robinson


Study of UV resistance and natural weathering of coatings on chemically modified wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40629
In this study, UV resistance and weathering performance of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata) modified with benzoyl chloride and acetic anhydride was studied. Performance of polyurethane based wood coatings on modified wood was also evaluated. Unmodified and chemically modified specimens were exposed to accelerated and natural weathering. Modified and unmodified woo...
K K Pandey, K Srinivas


Identification of the key factors influencing development of the blue stain fungi
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10872
Service life of wood is more and more frequently affected by aesthetic requirements than functional ones. In order to elucidate various aspects of service life, model house with façade elements made of 22 materials was built on the field test site at Department of Wood Science and Technology in Ljubljana. Colour and fungal disfigurement is among other parameters monitored on this house. In parall...
D Kržišnik, B Lesar, N Thaler, M Humar


Aesthetic changes of coated thermally modified wood after artificial weathering
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40819
The thermal modification process affects the chemical configuration of the wood matrix improving some physical properties and durability. In addition, the distinctive dark tones of thermally modified timber increase the economic value of several light-coloured species. However, heat-treatment alters the substrates and it could influence in the application of coating products, necessaries to mainta...
R Herrera, J Sandak, E Robles, J Labidi


Colour changes in unpainted wooden façades – Fifty Shades of Grey
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10903
In Norway the use of weathered unpainted, wooden façades has increased in popularity the last 20 years, both in single family houses as well as in multi-story and non-residential buildings. The benefit of using unpainted wood as façade material can be several: low maintenance costs, low environmental impact and low carbon footprint as well as contemporary and trendy aesthetic appearance. The va...
K Zimmer, L R Gobakken, O Flindall, M Nygaard


Visual appearance of unpainted wooden claddings during the first year of outdoor exposure: Evaluation of surface mould growth, lightness (L*) and wasp attack
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40841
This study addresses changes in visual appearance of unpainted wood materials exposed outdoors. Specimens of Norway spruce (Picea abies) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), aspen (Populus tremula), acetylated Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) and DMDHEU-modified Scots pine sapwood were exposed facing south in Ås, Norway for 60 weeks. During this period, surface mould growth development and wasp attack were...
S Karlsen Lie, L Ross Gobakken, G I Vestøl, O Høibø


Charring of Norway spruce wood surface – an alternative surface modification technique?
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40870
Charring is an old wood surface treatment technique, mainly performed on wooden façade elements with the aesthetical aims, but also with the purpose of protection. This flame treatment method can be grouped into heat treatment processes. Below the top charred layer of damaged wood there is a layer which is during flame treatment exposed to high temperatures in anoxic or semi-anoxic conditions. Th...
M Petric, M Pavlic, J Zigon


Effect of nano-particle characteristics and concentration on UV protection of timber: A field exposure test
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40941
Wood has a well-known susceptibility to ultra-violet light degradation, leading to premature replacement. A variety of products have been developed to protect against this damage, but most provide less than 12 months of protection and must be regularly reapplied. Developing improved coatings would help reduce wood losses and reduce maintenance costs. Nano-particles have a variety of attractive pro...
T Yi, J J Morrell