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Identification card for Coriolopsis polyzona (Pers.) Ryv
1977 - IRG/WP 161
A Ofosu-Asiedu

Isolation and identification of non-decay fungi affecting the performance of alkylammonium compounds
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10020
The isolation of DDAC tolerant fungi was carried out on lumber treated with a range of antisapstain chemicals containing DDAC as one of their active ingredients. The tolerant fungi were selected by using malt media spiked with DDAC (100 and 2500 ppm). Isolations were tentatively identified into a range of fungi commonly found associated with wood deterioration (i.e. Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma sp.). One particular group showed extreme tolerance to DDAC (growing at 2500 ppm) and were tentatively identified as fungi from Verticillium/Acremonium sp. DDAC was extracted from the above media and analysed using HPLC, in order to determine the fate of the DDAC once the fungi had colonised the plate.
A K Doyle, J N R Ruddick

Development and Implementation of a DNA – RFLP Database for Wood Decay and Wood Associated Fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10527
We are developing Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence databases for wood decay basidiomycetes and other fungi associated with wood. These databases currently house information for 39 fungal species consisting of 9 brown-rot basidiomycetes, 12 white rot basidiomycetes, 1 soft rot, 1 stain fungi, and 16 molds or other ascomycetes or imperfect fungi. We plan to add 6 brown rot, 14 white rot and 8 other species that we have in culture by summer 2004. Using the RFLP database, we were able to identify wood decay basidiomycetes that were isolated from a local forest and that could not be distinguished based on morphology. In addition, RFLP data confirmed identifications of several other wood associated fungi. One of our ultimate goals is to establish a web-based database of wood basidiomycetes and wood-associated fungi emphasizing ITS sequence and RFLP pattern data plus morphological characteristics in one searchable system. These databases will be able to provide sensitive and reliable identifications of the wood decay community and important wood decay fungal species.
S V Diehl, T C McElroy, M L Prewitt

A comparison of fatty acid and molecular profiles for identification of wood colonizing basidiomycota
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20278
Two methods that are currently being employed to detect and identify wood decay fungi are Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) analysis and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. A FAME library and RFLP library for 9 species and up to 10 strains within each species have been developed. The profiles generated by these methods have been compared for each species and strain to test for accurate species identification and consistency within species strains. Single FAME libraries were created for Trametes versicolor and T. pubescens, indicating that all isolates of these species clustered as a single species. More than one FAME library was created for P. chrysosporium, P. sordida, Gloeophyllum trabeum, G. sepiarium, G. striatum and T. hirsuta, indicating that not all isolates of these species clustered as a single species. Blind samples could not distinguish between isolates of T. pubescens and T. hirsuta nor G. sepiarium and G. striatum. Restriction enzyme digestion with AluI, TaqI, RsaI, HaeIII, DraI, and Hinf reliably resolved species; however, no single restriction enzyme profile was sufficient to resolve all of the species groups. The species groups could be resolved with the combined information from Alu I and Taq I restriction profiles, while the addition of Hinf and /or Hae III restriction profiles improved resolution within species and between species. The addition of all other restriction profiles added more but not significantly more resolution within and between species. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a sensitive and reliable assay to survey the wood decay community and accurately detect important wood decay fungal species.
T C McElroy, L Prewitt, S V Diehl

Identification and inhibitory effect of volatiles from different ages of a Trichoderma aureoviride culture on selected wood decay fungi.
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10110
The ability of a Trichoderma sp. to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over a four week period of growth was examined and the inhibitory effect of these volatiles against four selected basidiomycetes over the same period was assessed. After trapping, on tubes filled with chromatography packing material, VOCs were analysed on an integrated automated thermal desorbtion mass spectrometer system. A total of 72 separately identified compounds were recovered although production of any single compound was time dependant. The inhibitory effect of the VOCs against the four basidiomycetes varied dependant on the age of the Trichoderma culture. Highest levels of inhibition being produced by cultures which were 1-2 weeks old at which time 85% inhibition of Neolentinus lepideus was recorded. It was noticeable that highest levels of inhibition of the basidiomycetes was associated with a major shift in the profile of VOCs produced at that time. The potential exploitation of VOC production by Trichoderma isolates for the biological control of decay in wooden structures is briefly discussed.
A Bruce, A Kundzewicz, R E Wheatley

Wood decay fungi from New Zealand ‘leaky’ buildings: PCR identification and laboratory decay tests of wood preservative-treated Pinus radiata (Part 1)
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10620
Fungi colonising Pinus radiata D. Don framing timber of ‘leaky’ New Zealand buildings were isolated to produce pure cultures. Mycelia from these cultures on agar media were collected to extract DNA. To identify the fungi to the species level, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primer pairs ITS1-F and ITS4 were performed followed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Identification was by BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) search on sequences in GenBank. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus placenta and Antrodia sinuosa were identified with a 98-99% match. With identification, these three decay fungi and a standard decay fungus (Coniophora puteana) were used to determine the effectiveness of currently used wood framing preservatives under laboratory conditions before and after a standard leaching regime. Pinus radiata blocks were treated with water based Boron and Copper Azole and solvent based IPBC and Propiconazole/Tebuconazole (1:1) preservatives and exposed to these four basidiomycetes for 12 weeks under laboratory conditions. Weight loss of up to 55% for preservative-treated samples, up to 62% weight loss for leached samples and up to 58% weight loss for untreated samples was recorded. Additionally, well defined dose responses and approximate toxic thresholds were obtained for all preservatives tested. Results suggested that the minimum IPBC retention specified by Hazard Class 1.2 of NZS3640:2003 (0.025% m/m) is on the low side, and demonstrated complete loss of efficacy of boron at 0.4% m/m boric acid equivalent (BAE) after the 2 week leaching regime. Results further showed that PCR techniques comprise a very useful tool for fungal identification and are expected to provide a reasonably definitive list of causative decay fungi as the survey of ‘leaky’ buildings continues. This study gives a first overview of fungi occurring in New Zealand houses, demonstrating that the test fungus Antrodia sinuosa was more difficult to control with Propiconazole/Tebuconazole at retention 0.007% m/m than the known tolerant fungus Oligoporus placenta, that Boron at Hazard Class 1.2 retention of 0.4% m/m BAE was not toxic to all fungi and that Gloeophyllum sepiarium appeared likely to be important in New Zealand ‘leaky’ buildings and was susceptible to all wood preservatives.
D Stahlhut, R L Farrell, R Wakeling, M Hedley

Wood decay fungi from New Zealand leaky buildings – PCR identification (Part 2) and aerial spore trapping
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10649
Prior to this study, it was not know which species of decay fungi caused decay in New Zealand leaky buildings. Use of molecular biology methodology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and subsequent DNA sequencing, as well as classical mycological techniques based on morphology, has enabled identification of decay fungi and has provided insight into their relative importance based on isolation frequency. Fungi colonising Pinus radiata D. Don framing timber of leaky New Zealand buildings were isolated to produce pure cultures. Mycelia from these cultures on agar media were collected to extract DNA. To identify the fungi to the species level, PCR with primer pairs NSI1 + NLB4 and ITS1-F + ITS4 were performed followed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Identification was by BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) search on sequences in GenBank. In total, 421 samples from leaky buildings were processed, mainly decayed timber, but also fibre cement boards and building paper. Sixty-eight fungal identifications were achieved of which 4 species are very common as follows: • Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Wulf.: Fr.) Karst. 13x • Oligoporus placenta (Fries 1865) Gilb. In Ryv.1985 11x • Antrodia sinuosa (Fr.) Karst. 8x • Gloeophyllum trabeum (Fr.) Murr 4x An aerial spore study of internal air, wall cavity air and exterior air of leaky buildings was carried out using a Merck MAS-100 instrument which collects spores directly onto various selective media plates. Also, decayed wood samples from the same leaky buildings enabled identification of G. sepiarium and A. sinuosa at the same test site. Viable fungal aerial spores were detected at every sampling location, with a highest mean of 3714 colony-forming units (CFU) per square meter found in water-damaged walls. The use of Carboxymethylcellulose medium further demonstrated the presence of cellulose degrading fungi within and around the location. Overall, the combination of these two approaches proved useful for detection of fungal species variation at a multi-unit building complex and it was possible to identify the brown rot decay fungal genus Antrodia with both methods.
D Stahlhut, R L Farrell, R Wakeling, M Hedley

Molecular Methods: a Reliable Tool for the Identification of Wood Decay Fungi in Construction Timber
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20386
In the present study, we tested the practical value of several DNA-based methods to identify at the species level the most common wood-decaying fungi infecting buildings. We successfully extracted and amplified fungal DNA from pure cultures of twelve species of wood-inhabiting fungi, from oak and pine wood infected in laboratory with known strains, and from unknown field samples of wood collected from French buildings. Species identification was performed through PCR-RFLP analyses, species-specific priming PCR and sequencing of the rDNA ITS region. Our results mostly agreed with the data provided by previous authors, but also revealed some weaknesses of the methods used and provided additional information for future developments.
M Maître, M Kutnik, I Le Bayon, L Harvengt

Aislamiento, identificación y evaluación enzimática de hongos de pudrición de madera de la Región de los Lagos
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10680
So far, systematic investigations have not been developed to determine the fungal diversity associated with wood in Chile. In addition, little is known about the mycoflora capabilities or their enzymatic processes in biotechnology although different research has hinted at the great potential of these microorganisms in various industrial processes. The aim of this work is to isolate, identify and enzymatically evaluate wood decay fungi present in national parks located in Chile’s Región de los Lagos. The research will be divided into three stages: isolation, identification and qualitative enzymatic evaluation of the microorganisms. A classification of the identified fungi according to the enzymatic activity observed (cellulotic, hemicelullotic, peroxidase, or laccase activities) is expected to be generated. This paper contains the research methodology and literature review of this project. En la actualidad no se han desarrollado investigaciones sistemáticas que permitan determinar la diversidad fúngica presente en maderas de Chile. Así mismo, el conocimiento acerca de sus capacidades enzimáticas y aplicabilidad en procesos biotecnológicos ha sido parcialmente desarrollado. No obstante lo anterior, diversos antecedentes muestran un gran potencial de estos microorganismos en diferentes procesos industriales. El objetivo de este trabajo es aislar, identificar y evaluar enzimáticamente los hongos de pudrición obtenidos de maderas presentes en parques nacionales ubicados en la región de los Lagos en Chile. La investigación, para el logro del objetivo planteado, será dividida en tres etapas: aislación, identificación y evaluación enzimática cualitativa de los microorganismos. A partir de este trabajo se espera conocer la micoflora existente en la zona bajo estudio. Así como también clasificar, según la actividad enzimática observada, las especies de hongos identificados.
R Ortiz, J Navarrete, C Oviedo, R Blanchette

Assessment of decay risk of airborne wood-decay fungi
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10787
The decay risk of airborne wood-decay fungi was investigated by using an air sampler. Japanese cedar disks measuring about 8 cm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness with moisture content at about 100 % were placed in a “BIOSAMP” air sampler and exposed to 1000 liters of air. Air sampling was carried out from June to September at the same sampling site in Tsukuba, Japan. The exposed disks were then incubated for 16-week in a damp container kept at 26 ± 2°C. During the incubation period, wood mass loss ranged from -15 mg to 807 mg with a mean mass loss of 244 mg. Factors affecting mass loss were explored. Wood moisture content and ratio of heartwood area proved to be significant factors. In addition, five weather factors were found to influence mean mass loss. Disks that were sampled on a cloudy day showed significantly higher mean mass loss compared to those sampled on a shiny day. Filamentous fungi grown on the disks during 16-week incubation were subcultured to investigate the relationship between the taxa of airborne fungi and the decay risk. The subcultured fungi were isolated and DNA extracted from each isolate was amplified with the primers ITS4/ITS5. The DNA sequences of the amplified products were determined and compared to the sequence data of GenBank to determine the species or genus according to a BLAST search. This search revealed that the isolate consisted of 5 major taxa, namely Bjerkandera sp., Phanerochaete sp. (A), Phanerochaete sp. (B), Polyporales sp. Polyporus arcularius, and 6 minor ones. Statistical analysis revealed that the disks attached by Phanerochaete spp. or Polyporales sp. showed higher mean mass loss. It is concluded that, under these experimental conditions, related species of P. sordida play an important role in increasing the decay risk caused by airborne wood-decay fungi.
I Momohara, Y Ota, K Sotome, T Nishimura

What molecular biology can tell us about the biodegradation of lignocellulose: the utilization of molecular techniques for the detection, identification and enhanced understanding of wood degrading organisms
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20528
Molecular techniques are now routinely used in the identification, detection and analysis of wood degrading organisms. An overview of some of the early work on nucleic acid isolation and characterization will be followed by a discussion of the power of sequencing and other procedures for better understanding: the mechanisms involved in the biological degradation of wood, the metabolic basis of preservative function and ultimately the evolutionary history and ecological function of some of these unique organisms.
J Jellison, B Goodell, G Alfredsen, D Eastwood, G Daniel, S M Cragg, J K Grace

Identification of Antifungal Compounds in Konjac Flying Powder and Assessment against Wood Decay Fungi
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30737
The antifungal activity of konjac (Amorphophallus rivieri) flying powder (a by-product produced during mechanical processing of konjac flour) ethanol extract was evaluated against wood decay fungi in culture. Compounds associated with antifungal activity in the extracts were isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. The antifungal active fractions were identified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QE-MS). The ethanol extract showed good activity against the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, and the brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum. The antifungal active fractions were mainly composed of organic acids and plant essential oils. Salicylic acid, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and vanillin were presented in the active fractions. The preliminary results indicate that konjac extracts have potential as natural wood protectants. Further tests in wood are planned.
Z Bi, F Yang, Y Lei, J J Morrell, L Yan

Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also examined using Fenton's reagent. The enhancement of decay resistance by acetylation was revealed clearly for all cases of exposures but varying with fungal and wood species used. For a brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, the weight loss reached almost nil in all woods at 20 WPG (weight percent gain) of acetylation, after the striking decrease from 10 to 15 WPG. For a white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor, it was counted until 12-15 WPG in the perishable hardwoods used, but not in a softwood Cryptomeria japonica, even at 6 WPG. In cases of another brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and soil burial, effect of acetylation was intermediate between Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor. Anti-degradation mechanism by acetylation was discussed, from these weight loss - weight gain relationships, and the IR-and 13C-NMR spectral analyses of fungus-exposed wood.
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi

Questionnaire - Fungal decay types
1985 - IRG/WP 1265
T Nilsson

JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated.
K Tsunoda

Nondestructive Evaluation of Oriented Strand Board Exposed to Decay Fungi
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20243
Stress wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being used in our laboratory to evaluate the performance properties of engineered wood. These techniques have proven useful in the inspection of timber structures to locate internal voids and decayed or deteriorated areas in large timbers. But no information exists concerning NDE and important properties of wood composites exposed to decay fungi. For our pilot study on several types of wood composites, we examined the relationship between nondestructive stress wave transmission, decay rate and the bending properties of OSB exposed to the brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum (MAD-617). The following measurements were taken: stress wave transmission time (pulse echo test method), static bending test (ASTM D3043-95), and decay (expressed as percent weight). Stress wave measurements correlated with strength loss and with increasing rate of fungal decay. Stress wave NDE has great potential as a method for inspection of wood composite load-bearing (in-service) structures, detection of decay in laboratory tests, assessment of chemical additives to improve wood composite durability, and prediction of long term composite performance.
B Illman, V W Yang, R J Ross, W J Nelson

Moisture content levels and decay of hemlock
1986 - IRG/WP 1287
As a model of decay conditions of wooden members in wooden houses, a decay test was set up in which samples of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) under 4 moisture levels were examined. Each week the samples were weighed and if the weights indicated that their moisture contents were lower than the expected levels, distilled water was added. Every 8 weeks 3 samples from each condition were oven dried at 60°C for 48 hours, up to 48 weeks. After 48 weeks, 3 samples from each condition were oven dried every 16 weeks. The results obtained were as follows: After examining the samples for 96 weeks at 27°C, the mean weight loss of the hemlock samples kept at about 50-100% moisture content level was larger than those of the other levels. If the samples were dried every 8 weeks, the amount of decay in them was not significant. Decay was also not significant in the samples kept at approximately 20-30% moisture content level.
K Suzuki

Monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi. [Fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores]
1970 - IRG/WP I 5B
C Jacquiot

On Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouzar
1986 - IRG/WP 1285
Donkioporia expansa is found more often in houses than realised until now. Virulence tests according to EN 113 show not only an attack of oak, but also of other hardwoods and even soft-woods.
G Buchwald

Additions and corrections to recent names for some common decay fungi
1977 - IRG/WP 167
A Käärik

Effects of acetylation on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiberboard
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40059
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated kenaf fiber, Phenol formaldehyde resin content level, and three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of high density non wood composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species were also determined. All specimens were exposed to decay chambers for 16 weeks. Test results indicated that most of the main factors significantly influence the thickness, length changes, and decay resistance of the high density kenaf fiberboards.
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Rowell

The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses. Part 2
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10001
J Bech-Andersen

Valid names for some common decay fungi, their synonyms and vernacular names
1978 - IRG/WP 172
A Käärik

Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no loss of activity was detected after 2 h in 9 M urea or 6 M guanidine-HCl. Boiling the enzyme for 5 min in 2.5% SDS + 0.5% b-mercaptoethanol reduced its activity by 65%, as measured by the production of reducing sugars. The activity of a-D-galactosidase, another enzyme detected in large quantities in the decayed wood, was reduced by 98% under these conditions. Optimum pH and temperature ranges were pH 2-6 and 50-60°C, respectively. The enzyme appears to be a glycoprotein containing 50-60% carbohydrate (w/w); the carbohydrate moiety may protect the enzyme from adverse environmental conditions. The control of brown rot by in situ inactivation of xylanase may not be feasible because of the enzyme's extreme stability.
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley

A laboratory method for assessing the effectiveness of fungicides in preventing the spread of decay fungi within packages of unseasoned lumber
1983 - IRG/WP 2202
To study the deterioration caused by decay fungi in the laboratory, a method for testing fungicides for their effectiveness in preventing spread of decay was devised. Some experiments using this method are reported here.
A J Cserjesi, E L Johnson, A Byrne

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