IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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Estimation of oral toxicity of boron as a bait toxicant and the trophallactic effects between individual members of termite colonies.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10495
In recent years, because of the favourable environmental characteristics of boron, researchers in the wood preservation industries have refocussed on the use of boron as a major wood preservative against wood-destroying insects. Currently the greatest use of boron compounds is in remedial treatments. Boron has been found to have slow-acting toxicity against subterranean termites. Because of thi...
B M Ahmed

New approaches to practical evaluation method of bio-degradation of wooden construction - Non-destructive detection of defects using radar technique
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20214
There have been a number of researches and developments on the techniques and apparatus for the nondestructive evaluation of the biological deterioration in wood and wooden constructions, such as decay or insect attack in house, public buildings or in historically important architectures. As for the detection of the decay in wood, techniques using sound in audible or in ultrasonic frequency ranges...
Y Fujii, Y Komatsu, Y Yanase, S Okumura, Y Imamura, M Tarumi, H Takiuchi, A Inai

Timber deterioration and its prevention in marine environment
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10559
Wood-borer activity is an established fact in Mumbai harbour that leads to severe deterioration of timber. In order to prevent the deterioration caused by wood borers three resin preservatives containing Zinc borate, Organo-copper polymer (4 wt% Cu) and Organo-Tin polymer Copoly(TBTM-MMA) were used for timber treatment. Test panels were treated using standard method and the...
B S Swami, M Udhayakumar, P Kumar, A B Samui

Factors affecting decay rates in a fungus cellar II
1986 - IRG/WP 2259
Tests were initiated to investigate the influence of various factors on the decay rate in a "Fungus Cellar". Birch and pine stakes treated with chromated copper arsenate and didecyldimethyl ammronium chloride, as well as untreated control stakes, were incubated in two soils in a Fungus Cellar test and installed at two field sites for comparative purposes. The visual rating vs actual stake weight l...
P A McKaig

An investigation of the factors influencing the rate of deterioration of timber samples due to microfungi in laboratory tests
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20116
An investigation was performed into the comparative performances of test 1 (vermiculite burial) and test 2 (soil burial) as described in ENV 807. Two test preservatives were used - copper naphthenate and propiconazole. Copper chromate was included as a reference preservative. The wood species used was beech (Fagus sylvatica). Test 1 was performed using both a mixed inoculation of the five stipulat...
I J Herring, D J Dickinson, S M Gray, J K Carey

Study of the degradation caused by micro-organisms in Pinus sp. waterlogged wood
1989 - IRG/WP 1411
So far, the different Centers are trying the restoration and the conservation of wood structures, coming from subaquatic archeological deposits, with interest from the historic - artistic point of view. The main objective of this paper has been the determination of the decay level of Pinus sp. wood coming from a roman ship (approximately 2000 years old), where we have analyzed their physical prope...
M T De Troya, M C Escorial, J Garcia, A Cabanas

Water repellency of wood treated with alkylammonium compounds and chromated copper arsenate
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30231
The comparative water sorption properties of southern pine treated with CCA and several alkylammonium compounds was evaluated for freshly treated wood and for wood after exposure in a fungus cellar. It was found that CCA imparts considerable water repellency to wood which is reduced somewhat after exposure to wet soil. With the exception of a long chain (C20 -C22) compound, the alkylammonium compo...
D D Nicholas, A Kabir, A D Williams, A F Preston

Some studies on fungal deterioration of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis)
1980 - IRG/WP 2140
For the sreening of anti-stain chemicals trials with selected agricultural fungicides and new chemicals were carried out. Botryodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were used at test organisms. For testing the durability of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) suitable local rotting fungi (Basidiomycetes), based on high degrading power, which may later be employed in standard tests...
A Sujan, A G Tan, M Stevens

Estimates of wood-consumption rates by termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1201
Effects of 2 components; termite-biomass and experiment duration on estimates of wood-consumption rates (mg wood/g termite/day), were examined. Three models; (1) no mortality, (2) linear mortality and (3) nonlinear mortality were used to calculate mean standing-crop biomass of termites. Model (1) predicted a significantly lower wood-consumption rate than those based on models (2) and (3). No signi...
N-Y Su, J P La Fage

Deterioration of wood viewed from iron nail
1991 - IRG/WP 2368
Deterioration of nail was graded by a five - rank numerical - rating. The rating of nail moisture content and decay of wood were inspected in a mortal-wall of 34-year-old house. The wood was mostly in decay, when the rating of the nail was above about 4, and the moisture content was above about 20%. Nailed wood specimens kept in several humidity room of 20°C for 4 years showed that the rating of ...
H Imamura

Effects of air-seasoning on fungal colonization and wood strength of Douglas fir poles
1987 - IRG/WP 1315
Air seasoning economically reduces the moisture content of Douglas fir poles before pressure treatment with preservatives. Advanced decay in poles in service has resulted when decay fungi (Basidiomycetes) colonized poles during air-seasoning and survived the treatment process. These problems have led to recommendations to severely limit this practice. To determine the role of these fungi in peeled...
J J Morrell, M E Corden, R D Graham, B L Kropp, P Przybylowicz, S M Smith, C A Sexton

Isolation and identification of non-decay fungi affecting the performance of alkylammonium compounds
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10020
The isolation of DDAC tolerant fungi was carried out on lumber treated with a range of antisapstain chemicals containing DDAC as one of their active ingredients. The tolerant fungi were selected by using malt media spiked with DDAC (100 and 2500 ppm). Isolations were tentatively identified into a range of fungi commonly found associated with wood deterioration (i.e. Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma...
A K Doyle, J N R Ruddick

Deterioration and preservation of Japanese pampas grass as a roofing material
1991 - IRG/WP 1490
The deterioration and preservation of Japanese pampas grass as a roofing material were investigated. The pith of stem and sheath were more rapidly decomposed. The vessels were the most important pathway of microbial prevalence. Hyphae invaded into the cell wall of fiber and parenchyma, and made the cavities with conical ends. The contacting cell wall of parenchyma in pith with hyphae was decompose...
K Fukuda

Electrochemical deterioration of wood in sea-water
1981 - IRG/WP 464
In the specialistic literature only few items can be found dealing with the specific kind of wood deterioration called electrochemical corrosion of wood. This deterioration occurs predominantly on marine vessels, yachts, and other marine craft where wood is jointed by means of various metal connectors. Up to date information demonstrates that in wood surrounding copper connectors, when in proximit...
J Raczkowski

Imaging fungal deterioration of wood using x-ray microtomography
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10240
Nondestructive tomographic images of solid Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood and SYP during deterioration by wood decay fungi were obtained by using a new class of synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (CMT). The CMT images will provide information about spatial relationship between degrading fungi and wood structures. Wood samples were scanned with synchrotron-generated X-rays at high resoluti...
B Illman, B A Dowd

The natural history of teredinid molluscs and other marine wood borers in Papua New Guinea
1975 - IRG/WP 410
The teredinids, commonly known as teredos or shipworms, are bivalve molluscs adapted to boring into wood. They are most closely related to the Family Pholadidae, or piddocks, which bore into mud, stone and coral. The teredinids have a relatively small, hemi-spherically shaped shell, the elongated body extending beyond the posterior end of the shell valves. The soft body, protected by the wood and ...
S M Rayner

In vivo growth study on two gymnosperms and four angiosperms for REB wood poles
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10246
Revealed that the highest growth rates and pole yield in two plantation sites in Bangladesh are significant with 2.06 cm/y in diameter, 0.97 m/y in height and 90% pole yield within 19y in Pinus caribaea; 1.96 cm/y, 0.91 m/y and 100% pole yield within 15y in Xylia dolabriformis; 1.88 cm/y, 0.91 m/y and 22% pole yield within 13y in Dipterocarpus turbinatus; 1.64 cm/y, 0.82 m/y and 28.75% pole within...
A K Lahiry

Method to determine the depth of penetration of the biologically active components of wood preservatives
1978 - IRG/WP 2108
A time-saving method for determining the depth of penetration of the biologically active components of wood preservatives is described. The test specimens were obtained by cutting thin slices from the wood either parallel or perpendicular to the treated surface. The slices were then exposed to fungal attack. A good correlation was found between the test results obtained by the modified German Stan...
H-P Sutter

Micromorphological and chemical changes of archaeological woods from wrecked ship's timbers
1987 - IRG/WP 4136
Micromorphological and chemical alterations of sea-waterlogged woods obtained from the ship-wrecked materials which had been submerged in Yellow Sea for over 700 years were investigated. The woods were deteriorated in varying degrees by marine organisms depending on species and parts of the woods. Under the light and scanning electron microscope the morphological characteristics of deteriorated wo...
Y S Kim

Protection of cellulose string with biocide/water repellent mixtures
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30148
Protecting cellulosic materials in soil contact poses a formidable challenge. Many soil inhabiting bacteria and fungi that cannot degrade wood can nevertheless rapidly depolymerize cellulose once its protective lignin matrix is removed. As a result, cellulose based materials are rarely used in direct contact with soil. One exception, however, is the use of cellulose string to support climbing vine...
A B Chang, J J Morrell

Performance of Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) treated panels of Bombax ceiba and Paraserianthus falcataria against bio-deterioration at Krishnapatnam harbour, east coast of India
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30310
Results of investigations on the durability of light weight timber species (Specific gravity below 0.4) i.e., Bombax ceiba and Paraserianthus falcataria in treated and untreated condition conducted at Krishnapatnam harbour (Lat 13o28’ to 13o59’ N; Long: 80o10’ to 80o16’E) along the east coast of India are reported in the paper. Exposure trails were conducted with panels (Size: 30 x 3.8 x...
B Tarakanadha, N R Raveendra Prasad, K S Rao

Factors affecting decay rates in a fungus cellar
1985 - IRG/WP 2242
Birch and pine stakes treated with chromated copper arsenate and didecyldimethylammonium chloride were incubated in two soils in a "Fungus Cellar" test. At three month intervals, sets of stakes were inspected and assigned visual ratings or removed from the soil beds for weight loss determination. Preliminary results after nine months exposure have shown differences in the decay rates between birch...
P A McKaig

Decay rates and strength and stiffness loss in foundation beams
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1563
The TNO Centre for Timber Research has executed an extensive research programme into the rate of decay in foundation beams, as a result of lowering of ground water tables. The aim of the research was to develop a method, predicting the decrease in strength and stiffness in beams, due to wood decay during drytime of foundation beams. With the calculated extremes in decay, the damage caused by local...
P Esser, H S Buitenkamp

Comparing microbial colonisation and Decay Rates of Wood from Sound and Aphid-Killed Kenyan-Grown Mexican Cypress (Cupressus lusitanica)
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10599
Samples of wood from 10, 15, and 30-year old trees attacked and killed by the cypress aphid (Cinara cupressi) and sound Kenyan-grown Cupressus lusitanica trees were investigated for variations in moisture content, density and susceptibility to microbial decay. MC varied with tree age, a normal trend, and between samples from aphid-killed and sound trees. In samples from 10, 15 and 20-year old so...
R Venkatasamy

Effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial communities involved in the deterioration of wood using T-RFLP I: Accelerated laboratory decay study
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20332
The effects of Chlorothalonil (CTN) and Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) on microbial species diversity in wood and the surrounding soil are being assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). CTN was selected as a trial organic wood preservative, and BHT is being evaluated for its synergistic effects with CTN. Results from an accelerated decay test will be presented. The...
G T Kirker, M L Prewitt, S V Diehl

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