Your search resulted in 59 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Moisture adsorption isotherms of wood studies using a dynamic vapour sorption apparatus
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20398
Five types of wood including two Malaysian hardwoods acacia mangium (Acacia mangium) and sesenduk (Endospermum malaccense), two temperate softwoods, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), radiata pine (Pinus radiata) and Accoya (commercially modified wood) were studied to determine their moisture sorption behaviour using a Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS) apparatus. The isotherm plot for each species teste...
J Zaihan, C A S Hill, S Curling
Acquisition of sorption isotherms for modified woods by the use of dynamic vapour sorption instrumentation: Principles and Practice
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40518
The complex wood-water relationship has been the topic of numerous studies. Sorption isotherms – in particular – have been derived for hundreds of wood species, their sap- and heartwood sections as well as for decayed, engineered and modified wood materials. However, the traditional methods for obtaining sorption isotherms are very time consuming. With new dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) instrum...
E T Engelund, M Klamer, T Mark Venås
Adsorption boundary curve influenced by step interval of relative humidity investigated by Dynamic Vapour Sorption equipment
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40547
The adsorption of water vapour from dry conditions by Norway spruce sapwood has been investigated using Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS) instrumentation. This equipment allows a fast and easy data acquisition as well as enables detailed studies of sorption properties using very small sample masses. In this study, particular focus was paid to the effect of step size on the sorption isotherms. Furtherm...
E Tang Engelund, M Klamer, T Mark Venås
The sorption behaviour of wood
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20605
The use of dynamic vapour sorption to determine the sorption properties of wood has become an increasingly popular technique. The method has many advantages when compared with many other gravimetric methods. However, it is necessary to set an equilibrium condition in order to obtain data for an isotherm in a reasonable amount of time. An important recent finding has been that multiple sorption cyc...
Moisture sorption behaviour of poplar and thermally modified poplar using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS)
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40947
The moisture sorption behaviour of wood has a critical impact on service life. In Europe, softwood is mostly used to manufacture engineered wood products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) or glue-laminated timber (GLT or glulam). Yet fast-growing and widespread tree species such as hybrid poplar with or without modification, have potential to meet the increasing demand. This study shows the moi...
X Jiang, J Van den Bulcke, L De Boever, M Minsart, A Mignon, J Van Acker
Combined effects of the treatment of wood with formaldehyde
1978 - IRG/WP 3117
Treatment of fibrous materials with reagents in a vapor phase is neither new nor unique. Numerous examples exist in literature of vapor phase experiments on cellulose fibers and fabrics, and on wood. For many years the textile research and industry have used vapor phase processes for the treatment of textiles. The chemical modification of cellulose is based on different types of reactions e.g. est...
M Stevens, J Schalck
Kinetic Water Vapour Sorption of Sitka Spruce at Variable Temperature Using the Parallel Exponential Kinetics Model
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40512
In this study the water vapour sorption of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bongard) Carr.) was measured using a Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS) apparatus and then analysed using the parallel exponential kinetics (PEK) model. The water vapour sorption rate of wood quickly increased when the relative humidity was changed. With the elapse of time, the sorption rate gradually decreased within any specif...
Yanjun Xie, C Hill
Options for accelerated boron treatment: A practical review of alternatives
1985 - IRG/WP 3329
Boron wood preservatives are almost exclusively applied by momentary immersion and block diffusion storage. Alternative techniques are described which can be used to accelerate boron treatment. Diffusion coefficients have been derived to define the acceleration of diffusion with increasing temperature. Schedules are described for pressure impregnation of green timber, involving steam conditioning,...
P Vinden, T Fenton, K Nasheri
Practical testing of wood preservatives to prevent weathering damage and infection by micro-organisms on spruce and pine
1989 - IRG/WP 3530
Brush application, is generally used to prevent wooden window frames from decay caused by influence of weathering and fungi. Accordingly 10 boards of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) were treated with 10 commercially used wood preservatives. The efficiency of fungicides by using chiptest and blue stain test (EN 152), the effectiveness against weathering as well as the course of col...
R Gründlinger, O Janotta, H Melzer, K Messner
Volatile borates in the treatment of wood and wood based panel products against subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30094
Blocks of pine solid wood, oriented strand board and plywood were treated with trimethyl borate by vapour treatment. It was meant to obtain either a full impregnation of the specimens or a shell treatment of the outer three millimetres. The efficacy of the treatments against subterranean termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus) was evaluated using an European Standard method....
L Nunes, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
Factors affecting the sorption of preservative during diffusion treatment of wood
1988 - IRG/WP 3500
The sorption of preservative into wood during soaking in aqueous solution was found to comprise absorption as well as diffusion of solute. Absorption was increased by partially seasoning the wood prior to soaking and was characterised by (a) a very rapid initial rate of uptake and (b) an extended period of slow uptake, the rate of which varied with prior conditioning. It was concluded that some pa...
Vapour boron treatment of wood based panels: Further studies on mechanical properties
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30028
Samples of medium density fibreboard, chipboard and oriented strandboard were treated to two retentions of boric acid by vapour phase methods. The results of short term mechanical tests on this material were discussed by Hashim et al. (1992). The present paper discusses results with long term studies on bending and impact resistance with panel types. Long term tests of impact resistance showed no ...
R Hashim, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson, J Dinwoodie
How to keep coated wood structures sufficiently dry to avoid damage caused by rot
1991 - IRG/WP 2376
During the last ten years, a new type of problems with wood rot has emerged in Scandinavia. Thousands of houses have been damaged by wood rot attaching to the exterior wood panel. This paper provides an overview of finished and ongoing work in order to identify the cause of these problems. In field tests, the moisture conditions were measured in panels coated with different paint systems. The infl...
Novel wood modification processes for window and cladding products
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40285
Because of the low natural durability and low dimensional stability of European wood species, the usage of wood for window frames has decreased dramatically during the last decade. In a joint project of several German research institutes and the window industry, following wood modification systems were compared. heat treatment (3 different materials from 2 companies) acetylation (pine sapwood an...
A Krause, C Hof, H Militz
Vapour boron treatment of wood based panels: Mechanism for effect upon impact resistance
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40036
Samples of medium density fibreboard, chipboard and oriented strandboard (OSB) were treated to two retentions of boric acid by a vapour phase treatment. The results of a range of mechanical tests were reported by Hashim et al. (1992, 1993) in which a small reduction in impact resistance was observed. Several investigations were carried out to study how and where this loss in impact resistance occu...
R Hashim, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson, J Dinwoodie
Treatment of wood-based panel products with volatile borate
1990 - IRG/WP 3616
The paper presents recent developments in the use of volatile borate esters for the preservative treatment of wood based board materials. Several advances on previous reports are discussed. In laboratory studies, treatment times of approximately ten minutes at 20°C on boards at equilibrium moisture content provided full penetration and retentions of 1% wt/wt boric acid. Biological tests have been...
P Turner, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson
Determination of the water sorption properties and preliminary results from field tests above ground of thermally modified material from industrial scale processes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40279
In this study the differences in moisture behavior and durability above ground of heat treated wood originating from different European industrial heat treatment plants by means of the water sorption properties as well as field tests were examined. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood (Premium wood)/ Finland and Menz Holz/ Germany, where Oil-...
C R Welzbacher; A O Rapp
Soft rot decay in acetylated wood. Chemical and anatomical changes in decayed wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40231
Acetylated Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood were studied in soil beds under laboratory conditions for longer periods. High mass losses and dynamic MOE losses were measured in non-acetylated wood and at lower weight percent gains (WPG). Rapid losses of lignin, holocellulose and ?-cellulose occurred in non-acetylated beech wood and no losses were detected at the highest...
B Mohebby, H Militz
Environmental fate of copper-based wood preservatives in different soil substrates - Part 2: Study of the metal sorption and migration potential under simulated rainfall
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-21 b
In order to examine the potential environmental impact of spillages of the saltborne wood preservative CCA in treatment plants, four large scale experiments are set-up so as to follow the water transport and ion mobility in various field soils. A plastic container is filled with a sand, silt, clay and potting soil, made up at their respective bulk density and wetted to a given moisture content. U...
G M F Van Eetvelde, R Hartmann, J M Mwangi, H S Öztürk, M Stevens
Some Experiences with Stake Tests at BAM Test Fields and in the BAM Fungus Cellar
Part 2: Comparison of Static and Dynamic Moduli of Elasticity (MOE)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20320
In routine in-ground stake tests of wood preservatives at the BAM test field Horstwalde and in the BAM fungus cellar periodical determinations of both static moduli of elasticity (MOE) on the basis of bending tests and dynamic MOE on the basis of the vibration method were performed as a possible method for the assessment of fungal attack. As expected from other publications, the absolute values of...
M Grinda, S Göller
Effect of vapour boron treatment on mechanical properties of wood based board materials
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3727
The mechanical properties of Medium density fibre board, Chipboard and Oriented strand board were investigated after treatment to two retention levels of boric acid applied as a vapour phase system. A range of mechanical properties were investigated. The vapour boron treatment does not have any significant effect on most of the mechanical properties of the boards. The exception is a reduction in i...
R Hashim, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy, J Dinwoodie
The effect of chemical treatment on the moisture distribution of Pinus radiata D.Don subjected to wick action
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40135
Radiata pine sapwood stakes were treated with a range of chemicals, including an ammoniacal copper quaternary ammonium compound (ACQ), a copper-chrome and arsenic (CCA) solution and a CCA-oil treatment, potassium linoleate copper linoleate, a paraffin wax and a proprietary alkyd resin. The effect of these treatments on the extent of water absorption and moisture movement through the stakes was inv...
J Hann, P Vinden
A dynamic approach to assess the modulus of elasticity in wood decay testing
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20139
In this study, the changes in elastic behaviour and mass losses of different hardwood and softwood species exposed to decay in a laboratory soil tests were assessed. Wood decay was monitored using different assessment methods, namely: mass loss and changes in elastic behaviours (MOE) determination. Elastic changes were determined by static and dynamic methods, for the latter, acoustic technique wa...
L Machek, H Militz, R Sierra-Alvarez
Tebuconazole - A new triazole fungicide for wood preservation
1990 - IRG/WP 3629
The main cause of economic damage to timber and millwork worldwide are Basidiomycetes (brown and white rot). After testing a wide range of triazole derivatives for their effectiveness against decay fungi, Tebuconazole, a triazole compound, was selected. The physico-chemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological data of this substance are described. Tebuconazole is unleachable, light-stable, heat-sta...
R Gründlinger, O Exner
A novel chemical barrier system, KORDON® TMB, for the protection of buildings against subterranean termites using a synthetic matrix as carrier for the chemical
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10264
Kordon TMB is a new chemical barrier system for installation beneath concrete slab-on-ground constructions using a matrix other than soil as carrier for the termiticide. The product consists of a synthetic foraminous web (blanket) carrying the synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin. The blanket is laminated on the upper side to a standard 0.2mm thick moisture vapour membrane of low density polyethylene...
M Lenz, P Morrow, S Runko