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Preliminary Studies on ZiBOC- A Potential Eco-friendly Wood Preservative
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30372
Over the past decade, the wood processing industry has been increasingly involved in strategies to minimize the environmental impacts of treated wood. One sign of this is the dramatic increase in the use of preservatives based on inorganic metal oxides, which fix in wood. Among such preservatives the most common is chromated-copper-arsenate. In Ascu chromium and arsenic both are carcinogenic thus in the present study a new and fixed composition of three chemicals (Copper sulphate, Zinc chloride and Sodium borate) has been used to develop an environment friendly preservative. The formulation is amorphous and water insoluble and dissolved with the help of co-solvents. Fixation study of ZiBOC in Chir and Poplar exhibited only 23.6, 13.1 and 12.1 % leachability of Copper, Zinc and Boron in Chir and 53.5, 6.5 and 5 % leachability of respective metals in Poplar. Efficient fixation of Zinc, Boron in both the species and Copper in Chir was achieved. Efficacy against Polyporous versicolar (PV) and Poria monticola (PM) a white and brown rot fungus respectively showed that 0.50% concentration of salt (3.13 kg/m3) protected Poplar completely against both the fungus as compared to control whereas PV caused 18% and PM caused 52.1% weight loss in control samples. In Chir, 0.2%(1.39 kg/m3) and 0.1% (0.68 kg/m3) concentration of salt protected blocks completely against PM and PV respectively as compared to control (54 and 11.4% weight loss caused by PM and PV). Accelerated field test after three months of installation reveals full protection of both the species against termite & fungus. Scanning electron micrograph revealed the difference of parent individual salts with the derived product. Thus, study is directed to develop synergistic biocidal compositions that combine a copper salt and inorganic biocide, removing arsenic and chromium, giving fourth generation of preservatives.
S Tripathi, J K Bagga, V K Jain

Protection of hard and softwood through Neem leaves extracts and oil - A direction towards development of eco-friendly wood preservatives
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30394
Conventional wood preservatives like CCA and CCB are facing lot of criticism all over the world. It is essential to address the problem in view of environment protection. Eco-friendly wood preservatives may be considered as one option. The present study is an expolartion of neem leaves and seed oil against wood decaying fungi and termites. Azadirachta indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem is one of the most widely recognized and extensively studied plant specie of Indian sub-continent. Every part of the tree has been thoroughly evaluated for its marked activity against insects, microbes, pests etc. and has gain world-wide recognition as potential therapeutic agent. Neem is considered to be a store-house of various biologically active compounds such as azadirachtin, salanin, nimbin, quercetin etc. all of them are reported to possesses marked antifeedant, anti-microbial and anti-bacterial activity. The activity of alcoholic extract against wood decaying fungi i.e. Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor in hardwood i.e. Populus deltoides and softwood i.e. Pinus roxburghii at different concentrations revealed 4 to 7 fold protection of wood over to control. 80-82% protection was observed in samples of hard and softwood treated with leaves extracts when subjected against wood destroying termite i.e. Microcerotermes bessoni in laboratory. Neem oil at various concentrations protected hard and softwood efficiently against fungi i.e. upto 4 to7 fold over to control. Hard and softwood samples treatred with neem oil exhibited only 9-10% of weight loss by termites in laboratory whereas 95% damage was recorded in control samples. Present study shows that further work on neem oil and leaves extracts is required to develop potential eco-friendly wood preservative.
S Dhyani, S Tripathi

The Development of a novel method to preserve reeds using an environmentally friendly timber preservative and a unique engineering design.
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40335
Reeds are used in the construction of bush lodges in Northern Kwa- Zulu Natal, South Africa. Fungal, insect and ultra-violet damage to these reeds is posing a severe problem. Within a space of two years, the reeds are attacked and have to be subsequently replaced; a time consuming and costly exercise. A novel method has been used to successfully preserve these reeds with an environmentally friendly preservative containing disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in a water-based polymer system. The polymer allows for uninhibited diffusion of boron into the reeds, whilst the polymer cures to form a continuous protective film. By making use of two strategically drilled holes, which are 2 mm in diameter, the preservative is introduced into the reed shafts and nodes. The boron successfully diffuses into the walls of the reeds and is prevented from leaching out of the reeds. The water-based polymer provides sufficient protection against excessive ultra-violet damage. The test site, which is situated in the Hluhluwe Game Reserve in Northern Kwa-Zulu Natal – South Africa, has been monitored for nearly two years and there are no sign of insect or fungal damage to the reeds. Over the two-year period, the reeds were periodically inspected for deterioration in colour and deterioration in structural integrity.
K Govender, K G Moodley

Furfurylated wood - An alternative to Preservative-treated wood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40349
Chemically modified wood is currently being marketed as a non-toxic alternative to traditional preservative treated wood (wood impregnated with biocides). Over the last decade the authors have developed modernised processes for wood modified by furfurylation. These new systems do not add metals or halogens to the product, which is important for an environmentally acceptable product. This presentation deals with the environmental aspects and durability of furfurylated wood. Results from several decay tests; emission analysis studies and eco-toxicity tests are presented. . The results show that furfurylated wood is highly decay resistant. There was no significant eco-toxicity of water leached from furfurylated wood and burning furfurylated wood does not release any more volatile organic compounds or poly-aromatic hydrocarbons than normal levels for wood combustion. Durability enhancement by furfurylating wood has not proven to be harmful to the environment. Test results have shown it to have performance similar to traditionally preserved wood. Furfurylated wood has some improved mechanical and physical properties such as increased modulus of elasticity (MOE) and increased anti shrink efficiency (ASE).
S Lande, M H Schneider, M Westin, J Phillips

Reduction of Environmental Toxicity Through Eco-friendly Wood Biopreservative
2007 - IRG/WP 07-50243
Many chemicals are used today to enhance the durability of wood and wood-derived products that are very important in our life. Such chemicals are copper, chromium, arsenate, zinc, etc. Though these preservatives are useful to protect wood from biodeterioration, but environmental toxicity is also related with them. The present study is to investigate the fungitoxic activities of Dalbergia sissoo leaves instead of chemicals. Acetone with five different concentrations was used as solvent to isolate the leaf extract of Dalbergia sissoo. The extractives were then used to see the inhibition activity over the soil fungi and other microbes. Experiment has showed that 3.0% concentration of acetone as solvent with leaf extract showed best result in inhibiting the attack of soil fungi and bacteria. For treating with aforesaid concentration of acetone, wood sample showed lowest loss of weight (22%). From this investigation, it can be assumed that biological preservative is a tool of protecting wood and thus environmental toxicity and biodiversity can be maintained.
A Humayan Kabir, M Firoz Alam

Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves Against Wood Decay Fungi
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30450
Many plant-derived substances have fungitoxic, pecticidal and insecticidal ability. Neem leaves are very popular in this respect since the ancient time. The present study is to investigate the fungitoxic activities of neem leaves extractives against wood decay fungi. Three different solvents, i.e. acetone, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, were used to isolate the extract of neem leaves. The extractives were then used to see the inhibition acitivity over the test fungi in laboratory and natural condition. Both results proved that 3% concentration of acetone extract is best for inhibiting the growth of test fungus. Acetone and methanolic extract was also effective against that decay fungus. From this investigation, it is established that neem extract is potential source of biological preservative of wood and it can be used in any wood related commercial purposes.
A Humayan Kabir, M A Rahman, M Firoz Alam

Eco-Friendly Composites from Bagasse and Soy-based Resin
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40462
In this study, bagasse and soy-based resin were used for producing composite materials. The objective of this study was evaluation of some physical and mechanical properties of boards made of various ratios (100:0, 60:40, 40:60 and 0:100) of bagasse to wood fiber mixtures (wt: wt) with addition of Soy/PF resin at three levels (4, 8 and 10%) and 1.5% wax. All properties were tested according to ASTM D-1037 and all data were analyzed statistically. The results showed that by increasing bagasse fibers all properties of boards were deteriorated but by addition of 10% soy/PF resin all of them were improved significantly. Boards made of 40:60 ratio of bagasse to wood fiber mixtures and 10% Soy/PF resin content have acceptable bending strength and those are made of 100% bagasse and 10% Soy/PF resin content meet the requirements set for internal bond strength of the ANSI 208.2-1994 for interior uses.
G Rassam, B Jamnani

Towards designing eco-friendly buildings with in-built termite protection
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50273
The increase in greenhouse gases, leading to global warming, is considered by a consistent scientific worldview not due to natural variation, but due to the growing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and other atmospheric pollutants. Global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion and cement production rose from 22.6 billion tons in 1990 to an estimated 31.2 billion tons in 2007 – a staggering 37 percent increase. This is 85 million tons of carbon dioxide spilled into the atmosphere each day – or 13 kg on average per person. The realisation that saving the global climate and protecting ecosystems, now and in future, in a warming world, affects everyone. So, how are the IRG members and IRG as an institution, which include the building, chemical, academic, and pest control industries dealing with the challenge of global warming in sustaining their businesses? Can we advise these industries to make choices to minimise the impact of global warming and minimise their carbon footprints? Can IRG convey to the world at large the profound long-term consequences of the ‘experiment’ we are now conducting with Earth’s atmosphere, with emphasis on a sustainable wood protection industries. Furthermore, on the biological level, we have scant data on the effects of climate change to the distribution, ecology, biology and control of wood-destroying insects and wood-decay bacteria and fungi. Preliminary field tests were carried out against Coptotermes species at Caloundra in Queensland (Qld) and Nhulunbuy in Northern Territory (NT). The test samples were exposed to active above ground mound colonies of Coptotermes lacteus in Caloundra and Coptotermes acinaciformis in Nhulunbuy and there was no visible evidence of feeding or tunnelling into the Hemcrete® samples. In this paper, with global warming in mind, we offer suggestions to the timber, building, chemical, and pest control industries to consider the advent and utilisation of bio-composite, carbon negative products, such as, Hemcrete®. We consider this product meets the challenge of an eco-friendly building product that is termite resistant.
J R J French, B M Ahmed Shiday, B Maggiolo, D Maggiolo

Fire performance of the wood treated with retardant
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40591
To prepare the eco-friendly fire retardant wood, Japanese red pine (Pinus Densiflora), hemlock (Tsuga Heterophylla), and radiate pine (Pinus Radiata) were treated with inorganic chemicals, such as sodium silicate, ammonium phosphate, and ammonium boric acid. Different combination and concentration of those chemicals were injected by pressure treatment methods. The electron-beam treatment was used to increase the chemical penetration into the wood. The fire performance of the fire retardant was investigated. The penetration of chemicals into the wood was enhanced after irradiation of 200 kGy of electron beam. Ignition time of the treated wood was the most effectively retarded by sodium silicate, ammonium phosphate, and ammonium boric acid. The most effective chemical combination was found at 50% sodium silicate and 3% ammonium boric acid; which showed 3-grade flammability defined in the KS F ISO 5660-1 standards.
Jong In Kim, Mi-ran kang, Sang bum Park, Dong won Son

Bio-based thermoset resins for bonding and eco-friendly preservation in the wood industry
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40650
Yellow dextrins and tannins were used in wood adhesives formulation to substitute resins based on formaldehyde. Several formulations were carried out in alkaline aqueous media by varying the weight fraction of two compounds from 10% to 30%. The cross-linking was performed using epichlorohydrin as a reticulant agent. Rheological behaviours and initial adhesion of three liquid formulations, before reticulation, were carried out by probe tack test and Rheology to validate its process ability. The cross-linking of epichlorohydrin with yellow dextrins and tannins was highlighted in this study. The cross-linking was analyzed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and by biodegradation of reticulated resins. Mechanical properties of resins were analyzed by shear strength test on plywood. Depending on formulations, results confirmed the high potential of yellow dextrins and tannins reticulated by epichlorhydrin, to glue wood. Moreover, the biodegradation tests of cross-linked samples showed that the network constituted by dextrins and tannins are resistant to fungal attack.
C Motillon, A Allal, A Visse, F Charrier, B Charrier, A Baldé

Bio-friendly preservative systems for enhanced wood durability - the first periodic report on DURAWOOD
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30677
The objective of the paper is the DURAWOOD scientific project carried out within Polish-Norwegian Research Programme, which lasts from September 2013 till August 2016. The aim of the project concentrates on the developing of a new, eco-friendly and biocide-free wood protective systems as an alternative to traditional, commonly used preservatives or coatings, containing biocides. Several wood preservatives containing traditional biocides are no longer desired on the market, due to the stricter toxicological requirements and an increasing ecological awareness of consumers. Therefore, formulating new wood protective systems, based on natural compounds, harmless to humans and the environment, is of the principle interest. On the other hand, it will also facilitate a longer period of carbon capture in wood, which will limit the greenhouse effect. Life cycle assessment (LCA), which is planned to perform for the selected model formulations, is a good example for an attempt to explain the interest. Besides, the implementation of novel solutions in wood protection will make it possible to use low quality wood material to manufacture high quality products (e.g. siding or cladding materials). In this manner such eco-friendly wood protection will be also a key factor reinforcing climate protection. The aim of this paper is to present some selected results gained so far. The model wood protecting systems were based on natural (alkaloids, propolis, plant oils) and synthetic (organosilicones, imidazoles) components as well as on neutral inorganic chemical - potassium carbonate. They were used individually or as a formulation for wood treatment. Wood samples made of Scots pine were treated by soaking or vacuum method and were subjected to mycological and fire tests. The so far results show that aminosilanes and mixtures thereof with natural oils are potential wood preservatives against microfungi and wood destroying fungi. Formulations containing aminosilanes, natural oils and potassium carbonate are potential wood fire retardants. It was also found that the most effective alkaloids were cytisine derivatives and caffeine. The highest antifungal activity among tested imidazoles was achieved by AK17 (1,10-di(3-hydroxymethylpyridinium)decanedibromide). The results of chemical analysis present evidence of interactions between compounds of the model formulations and wood chemical components.
B Mazela, M Broda, W Perdoch, L Ross Gobakken, I Ratajczak, G Cofta, W Grześkowiak, A Komasa, A Przybył

Decay resistance of wood treated with bio-friendly preservative systems
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30698
Due to more restrictive toxicological requirements and increased ecological awareness of consumers, wood preservatives containing biocides are no longer desired on the market. Therefore, research on new environmentally friendly formulations is of great importance. One of the possible solutions is to develop new preservatives based on natural substances, which are harmless to humans, animals and the environment, while biologically active. The aim of the study was to develop new biocide-free preservative systems which increase wood resistance to wood-decaying fungi. The following silanes: [3-(2-Aminoethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane (AATMOS), (Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTEOS), and (Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMOS); caffeine, natural oils and potassium carbonate were chosen as components of new protective formulations, which were planned to be an alternative for traditionally used biocides. Samples of three different wood species (pine, spruce, and poplar) were treated with the new preservative systems and exposed to brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana and white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor according to EN113 or EN839 standard. The obtained results show that wood treated with the water-based formulation consisting of silanes and caffeine (2% caffeine + 5% AATMOS, 2% caffeine + 5% APTEOS) demonstrated the highest resistance to the test fungi. Wood mass loss after exposure to fungi was 1%. All wood species treated with this formulation achieved index 1 (“very resistant”) within durability class acc. to EN-350 standard.
B Mazela, G Cofta, W Perdoch, L Ross Gobakken, P Kwaśniewska-Sip

Efficacy of Erythropleum suaveolens (potrodom) and Distemonanthus benthamianus (bonsamdua) water extractives on the durability of five Ghanaian less used timber species of varying perviousness and retentiveness
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30705
Conventional wood preservatives are not only toxic to target bio-deterioration organisms but also to humans, other organisms and the environment. In an effort to find preservatives that are less toxic or non-toxic to man, other organisms and the environment, efficacy of branch bark and heartwood water extracts (0.65 g/ml) of Erythropleum suaveolens (potrodom) and Distemonanthus benthamianus (bonsamdua) were tested on five less used species (LUS) namely, Sterculia oblonga (ohaa), Antiaris toxicaria (kyenkyen), Canarium bediwonua), Celtis zenkeri (esa-kokoo) and Cola gigantea (watapuo) of varying perviousness and retentiveness from varying contents of hydrophobic and water-repellent extractives and/or extraneous substances in wood and/or vessels. Bonsandua extracts were more resistant to leaching, but potrodom extractives improved the durability of Canarium schweinfurthii more than bonsamdua extractives. Potrodom bark extracts could be readily employed to preserve non-recalcitrant low durability timber species such as C. schweinfurthii, and possibly recalcitrant low durability ones such as S. oblonga after some form of pre-treatment and/or under pressure conditions. Improved durability of immersed and brushed LUS was ranked as follows: C. gigantea > C. zenkeri > S. oblonga > A. toxicaria > C. schweinfurthii proving that the natural durability of timber is somewhat dependent on their level of recalcitrance from intrinsic hydrophobic and/or water-repellent extractives and/or extraneous substances. Though extracts showed reduced efficacy with time, the use of potrodom extractives for the preservation (control of pests) of non-recalcitrant low durability wood is promising.
A Asamoah, K Frimpong-Mensah, C Antwi-Boasiako

Aiming for eco-friendly log production and wooden construction!
2021 - IRG/WP 21-50365
In order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to zero by 2050 in the fields of forest and forest products, it is necessary to promote appropriate management and renewal of planted forests, and development of wooden building materials and the wooden construction of mid-to-high-rise buildings with lower GHG emissions. Unless we also try to reduce the environmental loads other than GHG for such development, we cannot simply replace it with other materials and construction methods. Therefore, we assessed GHG emissions up to the production of domestic logs which are the raw materials for all wood-based materials. The environmental loads of an office building made of the fireproof glulam impregnated with fire-retardant and an apartment using gypsum board-covered CLT were also assessed with those of steel-framed and reinforced concrete buildings. As a result, in log production, it is necessary to reforest after clear-cutting, and in order to give mid-to-high-rise wooden buildings the fire resistance required in Japan, gypsum board should not be used or alternatives with low environmental impact should be used.
N Hattori

Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a number of new generation preservatives. Relative to other New Zealand temperate test sites and also an Australian tropical site, the New Zealand acidic soil test site was very aggressive. Correlative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to elucidate the micromorphology of this attack. Tunnels of diameter 0.2-5 µm were present throughout all layers of the cell wall, and their orientation was not related to cellulose microfibril orientation. They also showed no preference for particular cell wall layers, indicating a lignin degrading capability. CLSM images showed that living, connecting fungal hyphae were present in the cell lumina and tunnels. This type of attack was predominant in wood that was highly saturated with water whereas wood that was less moist was predominantly attacked by classical white rot. Ongoing isolation and incubation studies in conjunction with further microscopy should enable identification of the fungal species involved.
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh

Status of the research and development of a new preservative system (EFPL) for pressure treatment of spruce in Canada
1975 - IRG/WP 348
Our work has been to develop a system which would have the stability of the ACA system and the formulation flexibility of the CCA system enabling properties such as fixation of arsenic, water repellency, appearance and cost to be controlled. Our permeability studies of spruce using a method previously developed indicated that an ammoniacal solution of copper arsenate is an excellent candidate for the treatment of spruce. Studies of the permeability of spruce sapwood microsections to CCA preservative and to an ammoniacal solution of copper arsenate proved that the ammoniacal system penetrates 1.7 to 1.8 times faster than the CCA system, in the radial direction. The permeability in the tangential direction was on the average 3.8 times better. These results were confirmed by pressure treatments of spruce lumber and spruce roundwood with both preservatives.
J Rak, M R Clarke

Manual of a mini treating plant for waterborne preservative treatment of timber and bamboo
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40130
This contributional article includes machinaries and equipments necessary for a small wood treating plant for the pressure treatment of tim bers with waterborne preservatives along with the cost and design. The preservative treatment limitations, treatment schedules and specifications for different products have been described. The cost of a mini treating plant will be 6,00,000 Tk. (13,000 US$), suitable for preserving timber and bamboo products for indoor and outdoor uses and will out last teak wood. The additional durability of timber and bamboo will create economically and environmentally safe conditions.
A K Lahiry

Registration and approval of wood preservatives in Australia and New Zealand
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-06
Wood preservatives are treated as agricultural chemicals in Australia and, at the time of writing, as pesticides in New Zealand. Antisapstain products are currently considered to be agricultural chemicals in New Zealand while wood preservatives in the future will be considered as hazardous substances under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act when this Act is fully implemented. They are regulated and approved for use by Government Departments under Ministers with responsibilities for agriculture and forestry and the environment: in Australia this is the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry; in New Zealand it is the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and, in the future, the Ministry for the Environment. Specific authorities within these Government instrumentalities control the registration and approvals procedures - the National Registration Authority (NRA) in Australia and, currently, the Pesticides Board in New Zealand. The latter situation is in a transition phase, with the Environment Risk Management Authority (ERMA) New Zealand expected to take over from the Pesticides Board by mid-2001. The NRA and the Pesticides Board require data packages that must include details of the preservative's application, chemistry, manufacture, toxicology, environmental credentials, and efficacy. The NRA administers the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code, which provides the Authority with the power to evaluate, register for use, and regulate the point of sale of a preservative. The evaluation procedure may involve Environment Australia in focusing on exposure and environmental toxicity data, the Department of Health and Aged Care in assessing toxicity to humans and the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission considering user safety aspects. Efficacy data can be obtained through testing to the Australasian Wood Preservation Committee (AWPC) Protocols. AWPC members may also act as experts in the assessment process and may also be involved in the development of national Standards. Thus, there is a ready conduit from registration and approval of a potential preservative to its incorporation for end use into day-to-day working standards.
H Greaves

Testing of wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 1). Method of testing wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 2)
1971 - IRG/WP 37
P C Trussell, C C Walden

Improved techniques designed for evaluation of fungicides in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans
1985 - IRG/WP 2238
Improved techniques provide a laboratory method for the evaluation of chemicals in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Results with their application to three chemicals were reported. These techniques are useful to eliminate chemicals lacking the necessary toxicity and weatherbility for dry rot control when the chemicals have been applied to the soil.
M Takahashi, K Nishimoto

Field performance of wood preservative systems in secondary timber species
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30152
The objective of this ongoing study is to evaluate the performance of new, potential, and standard wood preservative systems in secondary North American timber species. Eleven preservative systems were evaluated in this study - ACQ Type B, Copper Citrate 2: l, CDDC, chlorothalonil/chlorpyrifos, copper-8-quinolinolate, tebuconazole/chlorpyrifos, RH287, propiconazole/chlorpyrifos, copper naphthenate, CCA. and creosote. Field evaluations are being performed with ground contact field stakes and termite-specific testing in Hawaii, along with laboratory soil bed tests. The major wood species used with all the systems and evaluation methodologies are loblolly pine, northern red oak, tulip poplar, and cottonwood. More limited evaluations (field stakes only) are being conducted with eastern hemlock, red maple, and sweetgum. Information is presented from laboratory soil bed, field termite, and field stake evaluations. There is good correspondence between soil bed and field stake results. The more highly developed preservative systems and those in an AWPA P9 Type A oil carrier tend to perform better, and there can be a strong affect on performance from the wood species.
P E Laks, K W Gutting, R C De Groot

Fire resistance of preservative treated fence posts
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30033
Pine fence posts were pressure treated separately with CCA-C, CCA-wax, CCA-oil and creosote. Treated posts and untreated controls were planted in the ground in a randomised block design, weathered for six months and then subjected to a controlled burning test using two fuel loads. Creosote treatment increased the time that posts were alight whereas CCA treatment had no such effect. However, CCA treated posts smouldered until destruction of the majority of the posts occurred. Posts treated with CCA-oil took longer for destruction to occur than posts treated with CCA-C or CCA-wax. Creosote treated posts and untreated controls did not show prolonged smouldering and consequently were not destroyed by the burning test, although their strength was reduced. A high fuel load increased the time that posts were alight and smouldering, and for CCA treated posts decreased their time to destruction.
P D Evans, P J Beutel, C F Donnelly, R B Cunningham

Collaborative soft rot tests: PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1973 - IRG/WP 223
These tests were undertaken as a preliminary to the next series of collaborative soft rot tests. An interim report has already been presented at Berlin in 1972 as Document No: IRG/WP/211
J K Carey, J G Savory

Insect resistance of preservative treated tropical plywood against Lyctus
1990 - IRG/WP 1453
Seven plywood types composed of tropical wood species, vulnerable to Lyctus, were treated with various commercial water-borne and oil-borne preservatives. A wide range of preservative retentions was obtained by treating boards with dip treatment, steeping, double-vacuum and vacuum-pressure impregnations. Selected samples were subsequently tested for their insect resistance against Lyctus africanus during 6 to 8 months according to European Standard EN 20. All control samples were attacked, except one Obeche plywood exhibiting only 50% attack. Water-borne preservative solutions containing arsenic, boron or fluoride could not prevent attack at common retention levels for interior use e.g. lower than 5 kg/m³. Quaternary ammonium compounds showed no insecticidal efficiency, up to 3 kg/m³. TCMTB at 1.5-1.7 kg/m³ proved to be able to reduce slightly the susceptibility for insect attack. Organic insecticides gave the best results, with nearly no attack for plywood treated with lindane or cypermethrin. In spite of a preservative uptake of 25 to 30 kg/m³, endosulfan only could reduce attack by 50%. Protection by permethrin at 0.1% a.i. required a retention of 28 kg/m³. Besides the fact that variability in wood species and composition of the plywood are leading to different retention levels, variation in penetration and distribution of a.i., and as a consequence to a different insect resistance of the impregnated boards, some poor results were directly related to inadequate insecticidal activity and/or concentration of a.i. in some commercial formulations for Lyctus control.
J Van Acker, M Stevens, M Pallaske

Performance of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report of condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 3155
J Beesley, R McCarthy

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