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Performance of field cut preservatives above-ground and in ground contact exposures
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30742
Field cut preservatives are needed to protect cut ends and drill holes that expose the untreated interior of preserved wood. A series of field cut preservatives were assessed in ground contact and above-ground exposures. After 10 years in ground contact exposure, all of the untreated controls had failed or exhibited very advanced decay. In contrast, the copper naphthenate (2% Cu in mineral spirits...
R Stirling, D Wong


End grain sealants for wood preservation studies
1985 - IRG/WP 3341
The results of tests with possible end grain sealants for wood preservation studies are reported. The epoxy resins used gave satisfactory performance on wet or dry Sitka spruce and have been used with success for diffusion treatment studies....
R J Murphy, N A Summers


The influence of formulation on the behaviour of LOSP's during industrial impregnation of spruce
1986 - IRG/WP 3387
Evidence is presented that the comparative behaviour of two LOSP formulations during impregnation treatment of spruce cannot be predicted purely on the basis of their physical characteristics (viscosity, surface tension and contact angle) nor on the extent of their 'passive' penetration into pine sapwood....
L D A Saunders, D M Zuvencko


Butt-end incising to improve penetration and retention of creosote in Eucalyptus saligna power transmission poles in Kenya. Preliminary results
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40249
Incising as a possible technique to improve penetration and retention of creosote in the butt end of Eucalyptus saligna power transmission poles in Kenya was investigated. Debarked, butt-end samples from whole poles were seasoned (15% MC), incised using four patterns of incisions, sealed at the top or small diameter end, and pressure treated with a mixture of creosote-furnace oil (60/40 mix) at a...
R Venkatasamy


A new model for wetting and drying of wood end-grain – with implications for durability and service-life
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20477
New experimental data for wetting and drying of wood end-grain, Sandberg (2009), imply that traditional models for moisture transport are not at all applicable. A new model is developed to consider the phenomenological behaviour of water transport in and out of end-grain, using the pore water pressure and sorption scanning properties. Modelling results are compared to experimental results and the ...
L-O Nilsson, K Sandberg


Butt-end incising to improve penetration and retention of CCA in Eucalyptus saligna telegraph poles in Kenya: Preliminary results
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40243
Incising to improve penetration and retention of Copper Chrome Arsenate (CCA) in the butt end of Eucalyptus saligna telegraph poles was investigated. Debarked, seasoned (15% MC) butt-end samples from full size telegraph poles were incised using four patterns of incisions, sealed at the top or small diameter end, and pressure treated, together with un-incised samples, with CCA-C (3.0% oxide typ...
R Venkatasamy


Is there a need for re-sealing cut ends of envelope-treated softwood framing timber to protect against attack from Coptotermes spp. (Isoptera)?
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10524
The claim that Australian Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) do not appear to initiate attack on timber from the end grain, thereby negating the need for treating exposed cut ends of softwood framing material (35 x 90mm) which has a Tanalith™ T envelope, was investigated. Specimens of commercial Pinus radiata framing timber (untreated) and Pinus elliottii (untreated, envelope-treated) were pa...
M Lenz, J W Creffield, S Runko


Bacterial brown stain on sawn timber cut from water-stored logs
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1532
Brown stains which appear on the surface of sawn radiata pine cut from water-stored logs were identified as tannin-like compounds. They are derived from bacterial breakdown of flavanoid-glucosides. When timber is sawn from infected logs, the free flavanoids migrate to the wood surface as the timber dries. There, they condense and oxidise to form permanent brown discolourations. Stains occurred on ...
M E Hedley, R Meder


Alternative timbers to Iroko (Milicia excelsa) for various end-uses: Ghana’s offer
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10518
There are hundreds of timber species indigenous to Ghana and several exotic species have been extensively planted. The timber industry in Ghana is very important to the country’s economy. Despite its small size relative to the world trade in timber products, it has the potential to be a driving force in the development of the Ghanaian economy. The industry is currently going through a period...
S A Amartey, Zeen Huang, A Attah


Strategies for enhancing usage of treated wood in Indian context
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40305
India constitutes 2% of the world’s forest area but it has to support over 15% of the human and nearly 14% of the cattle population and therefore forests in India are under immense biotic pressure. The main concern today is the rate at which avoidable factors or man made threats accelerate the process of forest degradation and to evolve measures to check the same. Man made threats include expl...
P K Aggarwal, S C Gairola


Preservative treatment specifications in Fiji
1982 - IRG/WP 3190
The preservative treatment specification used in Fiji is outlined. Reference is made to a basic end use classification and to locally approved treatment processes, preservatives and retention levels. Amenability ratings are defined and penetration requirements for broad commodities indicated. Currently commercial operations rely entirely on pressure treatment with copper-chrome-arsenic multisalts ...
A S Alston


End grain sealing by polymer impregnation
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3708
The solution and dispersion characteristics of several hydrophobic derivatives of cellulose have been studied and the abilities of these polymers to afford effective end grain sealing of Corsican pine have been examined. Both solution and dispersion treatments with ethyl cellulose imparted good water repellency and end grain sealing to wood samples, however, the disperse systems possessed lower vi...
J M Lawther, W B Banks, D G Anderson, J A Cornfield


Amenability of radial permeability of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) as affected by aspects of cell ends in uniseriate ray parenchyma tissue
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40252
The principal objective of this article was to recognise and understand the amenability of ray parenchyma cell ends (end platform) in uniseriate ray tissue to influence the radial permeability of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) by examination of most (Queen Charlotte Islands in Rhondda, South Wales) and the least (South Oregon in Dalby, North-East England) seed origins that grown in ...
I Usta, M D C Hale


Efficacy of some fungicides against mold on freshly cut beech sawn wood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30403
The quality class of molded wood is lowered and this can result in financial losses due a decrease in its trade value. Currently beech wood is often used without steaming it first and it moulds in the course of drying. The aim of this study was to identify kinetics of beech wood molding and effectiveness of action of chosen modern pro-ecological wood preservatives applied in the protection of fres...
A Fojutowski, A Kropacz


Re-sealing cut ends of envelope-treated softwood framing timber to protect against damage by the Australian subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis: A revisitation
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20335
The claim that Australian Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) do not appear to initiate damage on timber from the end grain, thereby negating the need for treating exposed cut ends of softwood framing material (35 ? 90 mm) which has a repellent Tanalith? T envelope, was further investigated. Specimens of commercial Pinus radiata D.Don framing timber (untreated) and Pinus elliottii Englem. (untrea...
B C Peters, M Lenz, J W Creffield


End Coating Masson Pine Grown in South China to Prevent the Development of Blue Stain
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30428
One end (randomly selected) of logs of mason pine (Pinus massoniana) were coated with a wax-type end coating called ANCHORSEAL® immediately after tree cutting. The logs were then stored in summer weather in Guangxi, China. During the storage, at week 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12, five logs of mason pine were sawn into lumber or veneer for the visual observation and measurement of blue stain at the coa...
Zhao Youke, Qin Li, Huang Rongfeng, Lu Jianxiong


Radial flow of Bornmullerian fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) as affected by wood tapering and the condition of end wall structure of uniseriate ray parenchyma cells
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40441
Amenability to radial permeability of Bornmullerian fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) was studied on the base of the effects of wood tapering and the structure of end walls of uniseriate ray parenchyma cells. The results showed that the most remarkable culprits of the greatest fluid uptake (as the percentage of void volume filled by the fluid in the radial flow direction, RVVF%) are the lesser woo...
I Usta, S Aslan


Performance of dip and pressure treated wood in termite ground proximity exposures in Hilo, HI, and Colombia
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30491
A number of preservative systems were evaluated for their ability to control termite attack when applied as both dip and pressure treatments. With dip treatments, better performance was observed with southern pine than spruce-pine-fir using the same solution strength treatment, probably as a result of the about 50% greater uptake with southern pine and associated deeper preservative penetration. B...
P Walcheski, A Zahora


Wet and dry adhesion of coatings on modified and unmodified wood: comparison of the pull-off test and the cross-cut test
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40524
The objective of this paper is to study the influence of several types of modification (acetylation, furfurylation, thermal modification) on coatings adhesion and to compare two methods of assessing the adhesion: the cross-cut test and the pull-off test both tested in dry and wet conditions. The study also investigates the effect of other parameters of the wood substrates on adhesion like the ring...
L Podgorski, G Grüll, M Truskaller, J D Lanvin, V Georges, S Bollmus


Slice - Cut and Analyze Laser Microdissection (LMD): A method to produce sample material from modified wood for chemical quality analysis
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20478
Wood modification with its various systems is an established way to enhance a wood products’ service life in outdoor applications. Per definition, selected material properties are enhanced by means of modification without producing toxic substances or residues during service life and combustion afterwards. The systems of impregnation modification include a physical and often chemical alteration ...
K Zimmer, E Larnøy, A Treu, M Fongen


Wet and dry adhesion of coatings on modified and unmodified wood: influence of 18 months of natural weathering on the pull-off test and cross-cut test results
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40569
The objective of this paper is to study the influence of several types of modification (acetylation, furfurylation, heat treatment) on coatings adhesion after 18 months of natural weathering according to EN 927-3 in Vienna (Austria). The paper compares two methods for assessing the adhesion: the cross-cut test (EN ISO 2409) which is the conventional method used and recommended in EN 927-3 and th...
L Podgorski, G Grüll, M Truskaller, J D Lanvin, S Bollmus


Durability of reaction to fire performance of FRT wood products in different end use applications – Methods and results
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40705
Fire retardant treatments (FRT) may considerably improve the reaction to fire properties of wood-based products and the highest fire classifications for combustible products can be reached, but the maintained reaction to fire performance e. g. in exterior applications needs to be addressed in order to form a basis for new and reliable wood products with improved fire performance. A European Techn...
B Östman, L Tsantaridis


Life cycle assessment of creosote treated wood and tall oil treated wood with focus on end-of-life
2016 - IRG/WP 16-50320
The use of creosote for protecting wood products in heavy-duty application outdoors has been common for many years, but stricter regulations have limited creosote’s use. Life cycle assessments (LCA) have shown that in some applications alternatives to creosote treated products do not have less environmental impacts. Searching for alternatives to creosote, tall-oil-based preservatives have been ...
L G F Tellnes, U Hundhausen


Long service life or cascading? The environmental impact of maintenance of wood-based materials for building envelope and their recycling options
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50336
A major restraint in choosing bio-based materials (i.e. wood-based) for external use, is the lack of confidence that architects, designers and customers have toward these materials. In particular, the limit state of bio-based materials, which defines the frequency of maintenance operations, might be reached earlier for wood than for other materials (i.e. concrete). On the other hand, resource and ...
M Petrillo, J Sandak, P Grossi, A Kutnar, A


Conversion by insects – alternative method for wood waste up-cycling
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50337
Building industry is a major consumer of materials and waste generator in Europe. The bio-based building materials are considered as interesting alternative in modern building sector due to their low environmental impact. However, in order to increase confidence for bio-based materials application, they should present satisfying performance during service life allowing at the same time their casca...
A Sandak, J Sandak, M Kutnik, I Paulmier, C Brunet, M Petrillo, P Grossi


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