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Utilidad práctica de mini estacas en ensayos de campo
2009 - IRG/WP 08-20395
For testing chemicals for the wood against degradation agents of biotic, known as preservatives, both testing in the laboratory and in the fields are used. Field trials (Cemetery stakes) are often accepted as more "real" whose frequency of observation is set to more or less a year in temperate climates and six months or less in tropical situations, taking into accounts the aggressiveness of the soil. For such proposals, the wooden stakes for these trials are 50 cm long by 5 cm wide and 2.5 cm thick, universally standardized test, although the criteria for classification of damage on the test varies from place to place and laboratory to laboratory. The results of these field tests with stakes are reliable, serve as an indication of both the mechanisms of degradation of the destroyers agents of wood in that site, to evaluate the effectiveness of the durability induced with chemical preservatives. Considering time as critical observation period, testing mini test tubes, 20 cm long, 2 cm wide and 0.8 cm thick, slightly larger than those used in terrestrial laboratory microcosm, shortening the time of observation. For this purpose three chemicals CCA, ACQ and CCB in three concentrations, and five Venezuelan hardwoods specie were tested: Ceiba pentandra, Parkia pendula, Catostema commune, Alexa imperatricis, Didymopanax morototoni from natural forests of the Venezuelan Guayana and a wood of coniferous (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis) from the plantations Uverito Monagas State. Para el ensayo de productos químicos protectores de la madera contra los agentes destructores de la madera de origen biótico, denominados preservantes, se recurren tanto a ensayos en laboratorio como en el campo. Se suelen aceptar como más “reales” los ensayos de campo (cementerio de estacas), cuya periodicidad de observación se establece en más o menos un año en climas templados y seis meses o menos en situaciones tropicales, tomando en cuenta la agresividad de los suelos de esta últimas; las probetas o estacas de madera para estos ensayos son de 50 cm de largo, por 5 cm de ancho y 2,5 cm de espesor, prueba estandarizada universalmente, aunque los criterios de clasificación de daños en las probetas varía de lugar a lugar o laboratorio a laboratorio. Los resultados de estos cementerios de estacas son confiables, sirven como indicación tanto de los mecanismos de degradación de los agentes destructores de la madera en dicho sitio, como para evaluar la efectividad de la durabilidad inducida con preservantes. Siendo el tiempo de observación crítico, se ensayan mini probetas de 20 cm de largo, por 2 cm de ancho y 0,8 cm de espesor, algo más grandes de los que se usan en microcosmos terrestres de laboratorio, para acortar el tiempo de observación. Para el efecto se probaron tres productos químicos CCA, CCB y ACQ en tres concentraciones, sobre cinco especies latifoliadas venezolanas: Ceiba pentandra, Parkia pendula, Catostema commune, Alexa imperatricis, Didymopanax morototoni, provenientes de los bosques naturales de la Guayana venezolana y una madera de conífera (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis) proveniente de las plantaciones de Uverito Estado Monagas.
O Encinas, J V Puentes, N K Sarmiento, N Mora


Utilidad práctica de mini estacas en ensayos de campo
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20395
For testing chemicals for the wood against degradation agents of biotic, known as preservatives, both testing in the laboratory and in the fields are used. Field trials (Cemetery stakes) are often accepted as more "real" whose frequency of observation is set to more or less a year in temperate climates and six months or less in tropical situations, taking into accounts the aggressiveness of the soil. For such proposals, the wooden stakes for these trials are 50 cm long by 5 cm wide and 2.5 cm thick, universally standardized test, although the criteria for classification of damage on the test varies from place to place and laboratory to laboratory. The results of these field tests with stakes are reliable, serve as an indication of both the mechanisms of degradation of the destroyers agents of wood in that site, to evaluate the effectiveness of the durability induced with chemical preservatives. Considering time as critical observation period, testing mini test tubes, 20 cm long, 2 cm wide and 0.8 cm thick, slightly larger than those used in terrestrial laboratory microcosm, shortening the time of observation. For this purpose three chemicals CCA, ACQ and CCB in three concentrations, and five Venezuelan hardwoods specie were tested: Ceiba pentandra, Parkia pendula, Catostema commune, Alexa imperatricis, Didymopanax morototoni from natural forests of the Venezuelan Guayana and a wood of coniferous (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis) from the plantations Uverito Monagas State.
O Encinas, J V Puentes, N K Sarmiento, N Mora


Effectiveness of MOQ® OX 50 (CCB-Oxide) wood preservative – Part 2: Field tests
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30483
MOQ® OX 50 is a chromated copper borate preservative known around the world as CCB. In Brazil, this product is the only CCB-oxide type preservative with fungicide and insecticide properties registered at the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Resources (IBAMA) that complies with the requirements of the Brazilian and European markets for preserved wood. For over five decades, salt-based CCB preservatives have been used in Brazil with good results. However, with the objective of further improving its performance and minimize precipitates normally observed in salt-based formulations, from 1998 onwards Montana Química S.A. started manufacturing this product exclusively with oxide-based raw materials. The assessment of the effectiveness of this preservative when wood treated with it is exposed to the tropical environmental conditions prevailing in Brazil is of fundamental importance to ensure a cost-effective alternative to CCA-C preservatives. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present the results of the performance assessment of CCB-oxide and CCA C-oxide preservatives carried out in field tests and compare their effectiveness. These results complement those of the soil-block and leaching tests presented at the 5th Wood Protection National Congress (Cidemco), held in San Sebastian, Spain, June 2008. MOQ OX ® 50 es un borato de cobre cromatado, preservante para madera conocido en todo el mundo como CCB. En Brasil, es el único preservante fungicida e insecticida del tipo CCB ÓXIDO con registro en el Instituto Brasileño de Medio Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables (IBAMA), acatando a todas las exigencias de los mercados brasileño y europeo de preservantes para maderas. Por más de cinco décadas el producto CCB (borato de cobre cromatado) base salina tiene sido utilizado en Brasil con buenos resultados. Todavía, buscando mejorar su desempeño y reducir al mínimo la formación de residuos normalmente notadas en las formulaciones salinas, Montana Química comenzó a fabricarlo, a partir de 1998, utilizando exclusivamente productos óxidos como materias-primas. El estudio del comportamiento de ese preservante en exposición a condiciones ambientales brasileñas (tropical y subtropical) es de gran importancia, para ofrecer al mercado una alternativa válida de bajo costo al producto CCA-C. Así siendo, este trabajo tiene el propósito de presentar resultados de la evaluación de desempeño comparativo en campo de los productos CCB óxido y CCA-C óxido. Estos resultados complementan los ensayos soil-block y lixiviación presentados en el 5 º Congreso Nacional de Protección de la Madera (Cidemco), realizado en Junio 2008 en San Sebastián - España.
A Gandolfi Jr, C Salvela, D R Macedo, J M Vidal


Evaluation of two populations of Reticulitermes santonensis De Feytaud (Isoptera) by triple mark-recapture procedure
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10237
The optimisation and use of biocides is linked to the improvement in our understanding of the target organism. With this in mind we have studied 2 populations of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis De Feytaud. The first inhabiting an urban territory, the trees lining Ave. Boutroux in Paris. The colony has been estimated at 1,200,000 +/- 130,000 insects by triple mark-recapture procedure, foraging a surface of 1080 m2. The area containing visible damages in the trees is of 2,100 m2. The greatest distance covered by an individual is 65 m in 18 days. The second is a field population at Fondette near Tours. The zone studied is of 2,500 m2, the colony being estimated at 230,000 +/- 14,000 insects, foraging a surface of 145 m2. The greatest distance covered by an individual is 40 m in 13 days. This study shows that a termite worker can cover a considerable distance in a short time and that the colonies themselves seem to move within a zone that they cannot totally exploit permanently.
I Paulmier, B Vauchot, A-M Pruvost, C Lohou, M Tussac, M Jéquel, J-L Leca, J-L Clément


Field performance of wood preservative systems in secondary timber species
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30152
The objective of this ongoing study is to evaluate the performance of new, potential, and standard wood preservative systems in secondary North American timber species. Eleven preservative systems were evaluated in this study - ACQ Type B, Copper Citrate 2: l, CDDC, chlorothalonil/chlorpyrifos, copper-8-quinolinolate, tebuconazole/chlorpyrifos, RH287, propiconazole/chlorpyrifos, copper naphthenate, CCA. and creosote. Field evaluations are being performed with ground contact field stakes and termite-specific testing in Hawaii, along with laboratory soil bed tests. The major wood species used with all the systems and evaluation methodologies are loblolly pine, northern red oak, tulip poplar, and cottonwood. More limited evaluations (field stakes only) are being conducted with eastern hemlock, red maple, and sweetgum. Information is presented from laboratory soil bed, field termite, and field stake evaluations. There is good correspondence between soil bed and field stake results. The more highly developed preservative systems and those in an AWPA P9 Type A oil carrier tend to perform better, and there can be a strong affect on performance from the wood species.
P E Laks, K W Gutting, R C De Groot


Modélisation sur maquette du rejet accidentel d'un gaz toxique et inflammable dans l'atmosphere - Emission de type "bouffée d'oxyde d'éthyléne [Water model simulation of toxic and flammable gases in the environment on industrial sites - Puff of ethylen oxide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3576
M Milhe


Effects in vivo of various tensides (surface-active agents) on Reticulitermes santonensis De Feyteaud
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10417
The results of studies of surface active agents (tensides, surfactants) on the feeding behavior and mortality of Reticulitermes santonensis De Feyteaud are described. The effects of these agents on the nature and relative populations of eight gut-inhabiting symbionts are also examined. Among the various tensides tested, bee's poison was the most effective in causing rapid termite death. All surfactants were detrimental to the flagellated symbionts. The differences in magnitude and rapidity of the symbionticidal effects are described and discussed.
W Unger


Laboratory tests on natural resistance to Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) attack of native hardwoods for crossarms production
1985 - IRG/WP 1266
Eletropaulo (Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S/A) and IPT (Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo S/A) are carrying on a study to evaluate wood species for crossarms in replacement of Aspidosperma polyneuron - Apocynaceae (Peroba-rosa) traditionally used for this purpose. Nineteen Amazon wood species were elected, with physical and mechanical properties equal or better than those presented by Peroba-rosa. Biological tests with these woods and physical tests of crossarms were carried out. Here is presented the results of the resistance test to Cryptotermes brevis attack.
M D Canedo, A T De Lelis


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 8: Panama test results
1980 - IRG/WP 458
Summary of damage to ITRG test stakes by pholadidae and teredinidae at the Panama test site - 8 Mar. '78 to 11 Oct. '79
J R De Palma


Temperature influence on the growing velocity and cellulolytic activities of Poria placenta strains from several locations
1986 - IRG/WP 2263
The differences observed on the FPRL 280 Poria Placenta strain at several Research European Laboratories for determining up the fungicide effectiveness of wood preservative has carry us to do a comparative study about the cellulolytic activity and growth velocity of each of this strains at different temperatures (22, 24 and 28°C). The results show significative differences when the temperature is changed.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya


Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results.
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada


Evaluation of new creosote formulations after extended exposures in fungal cellar tests and field plot tests
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30228
Although creosote, or coal tar creosote, has been the choice of preservative treatment for the railroad industry since the 1920s, exuding or "bleeding" on the surface of creosote-treated products has been one incentive for further enhancements in creosote production and utility (Crawford et al., 2000). To minimize this exuding problem, laboratories such as Koppers Industries Inc., USA, and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Division of Chemical and Wood Technology, Melbourne, Australia, have developed changes in processing of coal tar that produce distillates with fewer contaminants. This "clean distillate" is then used to formulate "clean creosote" as a preservative. These new, unique creosote formulations are being investigated as part of a program to enhance the use of regionally important wood species in the United States. Four retention levels of each of two new creosote formulations creosote, one pigment-emulsified creosote (PEC) and one creosote formulation that meets the AWPA Standard C2-95 for P1/P13 creosote (AWPA, 1995a), were applied to two softwood species and two hardwood species. Two laboratory procedures, the soil-block and fungal cellar tests (accelerated field simulator), were used to evaluate the four creosote formulations. These procedures characterized the effectiveness of the wood preservatives. The soil-block tests were used to determine the minimum threshold level of the preservative necessary to inhibit decay by pure cultures of decay fungi. In general, the soil block tests showed there was little difference in the ability of the four creosote formulations to prevent decay at the three highest retention levels as summarized in a previous report by Crawford and DeGroot (1996). The soil-block tests will not be discussed in this report. Fungal cellar tests expose treated wood to mixtures of soil-borne fungi that promote accelerated attack. Crawford and DeGroot (1996) discussed the evaluation of the creosote formulations after 17 months of exposure in the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), fungal cellar. At that point in time data from the fungal cellar tests showed that softwoods are protected better than hardwoods for all four formulations of creosote tested. This report will discuss exposure of the fungal cellar stakes upto 36 months. In addition, field stake tests are being used to verify service life of the new creosote formulations in vivo. Results from accelerated tests are indicative of field performance, but the correlation between laboratory and field results is still being investigated. Field stake tests are regarded as critical, long-term evaluations that provide results most directly related to the performance of treated products in service. In this study, we report on the performance of the creosote formulations after five years of exposure in field tests.
D M Crawford, P K Lebow, R C De Groot


Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts by the double-diffusion method
1982 - IRG/WP 3196
Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated by the double-diffusion method with two chemical combinations showed average lives of 11.2 years (copper sulphate and potassium dichromate at 10.5 kg/m³ retention)and of 14.3 years (copper sulphate and sodium mono-H arsenate at 7.1 kg/m³ retention), as determined in five test sites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The exponential model was the best fit when expressing average life by the Decay Index (DI) as a function of time.
E S Lepage, A R De Freitas


Contribution to study of the degradation caused in Pinus spp. poles used in field test
1989 - IRG/WP 1417
The study of the degradation produced by soil natural microflora on wood in contact with it in the field, has been going on for several years now. Our contribution to this aim in the present work has dealt with the possible relationship of the microorganisms in the soil. The microscopic visualization of wood colonization by the microorganisms, and the chemical analysis of the degraded wood compared with the undergraded.
M T De Troya, A Garcia, M J Pozuelo, A M Navarrete, A Cabanas


Nouvelles techniques de lutte anti-termites à faible impact environnemental
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-32
P Martinet


La rôle de l'expert dans l'évaluation toxicologique
1990 - IRG/WP 3589
C Boudene


Eco-tax - A new threat for wood preservation? The Belgian experience
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-32
At the end of January 1993, a bill was put for Belgian Parliament related to the introduction called "Eco-taxes" on a series of products, such as packaging for drinks (especially on PVC-bottles), non-returnable articles (shavers, small cameras), batteries, pesticides for non-agricultural use and paper.
G Van Steertegem, F De Jaeger


Rapport sur l'activité du CNE/TC 38 'Méthodes d'essais des produits de préservation du bois'
1980 - IRG/WP 279
G Castan


Imprégnation de bois ronds par déplacement de sève à Madagascar
1975 - IRG/WP 352
M Fougerousse, P Guéneau


Scientific development for prolonging the service life of timbers by impregnating with creosote or organic solvent type preservatives in which additive has been incorporated
1977 - IRG/WP 382
Chemically impregnated wood has played a prominent part in the Telephone and Electricity Distribution Industry during the past century and there is no doubt that it will play an equally prominent part in the future. The reasons why wood poles and wooden, structures predominate, are that when adequately chemically impregnated with a recognised timber preservative to ensure the expected service life for the purpose envisaged, the timber is then fully protected against the ravages of wood destructive organisms. Furthermore, wood is endowed with many natural characteristics that make it a favourite pole and structural material. Its high strength, light weight, ability to absorb impact or shock from loads suddenly applied and ability to resist overloading for brief periods plus its well-known insulating qualities - all are important basic reasons for its predominance in pole line structure. The use of chemically impregnated timber often makes it possible to carry out a given construction programme at less cost, or to erect more structures for a given sum of money, than when more expensive construction materials are employed.
P R B D De Bruin


Système informatisé d'aide à la décision pour la gestion de la migration du pentachlorophénol dans l'environnement
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-10
This paper describes a Decision Support System (DSS), concerning pentachlorophenol (PCP) migration in the environment. The principal objectives of the DSS are to assist managers in siting of PCP-treated poles in the Hydro-Québec system and the storage areas and in the treatment of customer complaints. Four mathematical models are incuded in the system: a model simulating migration inside and on the surface of the pole, a model simulating migration in soil, a model simulating runoff and a model simulating migration in groundwater. Factors influencing the migration of PCP in the environment are discussed.
G Lefebvre, J-C Tessier


Blue-stain fungi (Ceratocystis spp.) found in Spain on pine woods
1989 - IRG/WP 1410
So far, there is only a very limited reported description of the different Ceratocystis spp. present on fresh wood in Spain. So, the main goal of this work has been the identification of species of this genus causing blue-stain on Pinus pinaster A. Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. woods. We have also investigated the relationship between the species found and their propagation vectors (insects and wind). Finally, we have determined the growing velocity of two of the most representative species found and the presence or absence of degradative enzymatic activities.
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete


Procédé de valorisation par gazéification des bois imprégnés réformés
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-20
L'arsenic occupant une place prépondérante dans les biocides employés à l'échelon mondial pour la préservation du bois, il convient d'en assurer le recyclage dans des conditions de protection optimale de la santé humaine et de l'environnement. En France le gisement principal est représenté par les parcs de poteaux en bois supports de lignes électriques basse tension et téléphoniques avec : . 4,5 Millions de poteaux pour EDF dont 1/5 imprégnés CCA et une moyenne de 0,1 millions réformés chaque année, . 15 millions pour FRANCE TELECOM dont 4/5 imprégnés CCA et une moyenne de 0,3 millions réformés chaque année. Les poteaux non traités par des substances minérales sont en grande majorité imprégnés de créosote, produit organique de coupes de distillation des goudrons de houille ou de résidus pétroliers. La créosote est également l'agent d'imprégnation des traverses en bois de chemin de fer dont SNCF réforme en moyenne 0,9 millions chaque année. Une solution industrielle permettant de résoudre, à un coût raisonnable, le problème posé par ces bois imprégnés réformés est vivement souhaitée par l'ensemble des acteurs de la filière bois.
A Lagoutte, A Garnier


Surveillance médicale des personnels exposés aux produits de préservation du bois
1990 - IRG/WP 3588
J-C Aubrun


Questionnaire pour la préparation de fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores
1972 - IRG/WP 103 F
C Jacquiot


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