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Your search resulted in 388 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Green approach in wood mineralization for improvement of fire properties
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30769
Various treatments have been developed in order to improve fire properties of wood. Because the use of some flame retardants can release toxic compounds in the event of a fire, leading to poisoning or even death of people from smoke inhalation, the use of no-toxic and more ecologically acceptable flame retardants is preferable. Mineralization of wood with the incorporation of carbonates has proven...
A Pondelak, R Repič, L Škrlep, N Knez, F Knez, A S Škapin


Improving wood durability by mineralisation and thermal modification
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40948
A significant increase in the fungal durability of wood was achieved by using a modification procedure combining two environmentally friendly methods: thermal modification and mineralisation. It offers an ecological alternative to other biocidal treatments. European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were selected as model wood species and exposed to four different fungi: Gloe...
R Repič, A Pondelak, D Kržišnik, M Humar, A S Škapin


Environmentally Friendly Wood Modification based on Tannin-Furfuryl alcohol - Effect on stabilisation, mechanical properties and decay durability
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40929
Furfurylation is a well-known wood modification technology. This paper studied the effect of tannin addition on the wood furfurylation. Three kinds of dicarboxylic acids, adipic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid, as well as glyoxal as a comparing agent, were used to catalyse the polymerisation of furanic or tannin-furanic solutions during wood modification. Impregnation of furanic or tannin-f...
M Mubarok, E Azadeh, F O Akong, S Dumarçay, A Pizzi, C Charbonnier-Gérardin, P Gérardin


Modified Wood – Methods, testing and applications: Outcomes of the EU-Thematic Network
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40268
In the last decade, interest in the development of wood modification systems has increased in Europe. Alongside several industrial initiatives for heat treatments, there have also been scaling up and pilot plant projects for chemical wood modification. Between 2000 and 2003, the European Commission funded the "Thematic Network on Wood Modification". This paper will feature the modification process...
D Jones, W Homan, J Van Acker


Test methods for modifies wood: The EU-Thematic network approach
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20255
The last decade wood modification systems have become new wood treatment methods in Europe. Alongside several industrial initiatives for heat treatments also scaling up and pilot plant projects for chemical wood modification have recently been carried out. In 2000 an initiative to create a network related to these new developments was supported by the European Commission. Within the work proposed ...
J Van Acker, D Jones


The Development of a novel method to preserve reeds using an environmentally friendly timber preservative and a unique engineering design.
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40335
Reeds are used in the construction of bush lodges in Northern Kwa- Zulu Natal, South Africa. Fungal, insect and ultra-violet damage to these reeds is posing a severe problem. Within a space of two years, the reeds are attacked and have to be subsequently replaced; a time consuming and costly exercise. A novel method has been used to successfully preserve these reeds with an environmentally friendl...
K Govender, K G Moodley


Further discussion of biological durability assessments of acetylated wood from several European institutes
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40340
In the last decade, interest in the development of wood modification systems has increased in Europe. Alongside several industrial initiatives for heat treatments, there have also been scaling up and pilot plant projects for chemical wood modification. Between 2000-03, the European Commission funded the "Thematic Network on Wood Modification". This paper features a re-evaluation of work undertaken...
D Jones, W Homan, F Bongers


Molecular methods as a tool within the field of wood protection – available methods and new possibilities
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20361
The area of wood protection is in a period of change. New tools are needed to understand the mode of action, and to further improve the new wood protection systems. A set of useful tools are found among the molecular methods. This paper presents an overview of some of the tools available, and the methods are exemplified by papers within the frame of wood protection issues. However, there is stil...
G Alfredsen, A M Hietala, C G Fossdal, H Solheim


Copolymers of tannin extracts as wood protection agents
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30709
Wouldn´t be a dream to preserve wood with the substances which the nature already synthesizes for protecting itself? The idea we would like to pursue is simple: Increase the concentration of these substances, the tannins, trying to fix them properly in wood. It appears easy but it is not. Sensibility against leaching, fungal decay and weathering were observed. In this paper new flavonoid co-polym...
G Tondi, L Sommerauer, A Oberle, A Petutschnigg, M-F Thevenon


Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons ...
B R Richards, D A Webb


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test....
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of ...
P Esser, J Cramer


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of com...
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


The decay resistance of chemically modified aspen composites to the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quelet
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40122
Chemical modification of Aspen wood (Populus tremula L.) in the form of solid wood, veneers and sawdust was undertaken by a two step procedure consisting of esterification with maleic anhydride (MA) and subsequent oligoesterification with MA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) or allyl glycidyl ether (AGE). Modified wood was thermoplastic and was thermally formed by hot-pressing to produce veneer or s...
M C Timar, A J Pitman, M D Mihai


Testing of wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 1). Method of testing wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 2)
1971 - IRG/WP 37
P C Trussell, C C Walden


Report on the activities of the European Standardization Committee CEN/TC 38 'Methods of Testing wood preservatives'
1980 - IRG/WP 279 E
G Castan


Comparison of the agar-block and soil-block methods used for evaluation of fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20039
The modyfied agar-block and soil-block methods were used for comparing the fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA type preservatives against Coniophora puteana and Coniophora olivacea The mass loss and moisture contents of wood were analysed....
J Wazny, L J Cookson


Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Performance of Preservatives in the BAM Fungus Cellar Test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20149
The fungus cellar test is a common means to get reliable data on the long term performance of treated wood in soil contact. A constantly high humidity and a suitable of water holding capacity for a range of micro-organisms provide high decay rates in untreated wood and produce intensive microbial pressures on wood treated with biocides. Presently a range of biocides are under test in the BAM fungu...
I Stephan, M Grinda, D Rudolph


Respiration methods used to follow the decay of wood and the toximetric evaluation of wood preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 249
When wood is attacked and decayed by fungi, wood substance and oxygen (02) are consumed, while carbon dioxide (CO2), water and heat are liberated. Early in the 1960's workers from England, Canada and Sweden began studying CO2 evolution, with respect to decay and its control using chemical preservatives, while in Germany and the USA O2 utilization was being similarly examined. Oxygen consu...
R S Smith


Durability of pine modified by 9 different methods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40288
The decay resistance was studied for pine modified by nine methods of wood modification: 1) Acetylation, 2) Treatment with methylated melamine resin (MMF), 3) Acetylation followed by post-treatment with MMF-resin, 4) Thermal modification, 5) Furfurylation, 6) Maleoylation (using water solution of MG or ethanol solution of maleic anhydride), 7) Succinylation, 8) NMA-modification and 9) modification...
M Westin, A O Rapp, T Nilsson


Termite standards questionnaire survey. Second Report
1989 - IRG/WP 1395
Information contained in replies received from IRG members responding to the survey continue to be summarised. Again, highlighted in this second report are the major termite species in the various zoogeographical regions, their damage ranking to timber-in-service, the chemicals used in control methods, and the status of the termite standards in the respondent countries....
J R J French, J P La Fage


European standardization for wood preservation
1988 - IRG/WP 2321
G Castan


Introduction to a field demonstration of various instruments and methods for the detection of defects in poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2228
H Friis-Hansen


Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results....
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada


European standardization for wood preservation
1989 - IRG/WP 2335
G Castan


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